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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent ***** abuse (from 78497)


***** Signs

Now that the breath ***** prevalence of teenage substance abuse has been discussed, the warning ***** of ***** substance abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol and tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is *****cause these substances are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America ***** other countries, ***** is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol is *****sociated with at least one-half ***** all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school performance, and other trauma among youth. Alcohol and ***** kill more people annu*****y than all ***** ********** combined, and ***** alone is associated with at least one-fourth of all hospital visits in the ***** St*****es. Nicotine is also one of ***** ***** addictive and harmful substances, and in 1995 the U.S. Food ***** Drug Admin*****tration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug and should be regulated as a controlled substance. Indeed, the authors posit that if alcohol ***** ***** were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely be rejected ***** hazardous and ***** (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate that children of *****ics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symp*****matic use. According to Henry, Robinson ***** Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown that 92 percent of high school seniors report having used alcohol, while between 72 and 77 ***** of eighth graders reported experimentation. While over***** adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s and declined in the 1980s, substance use increased significantly ***** the 6th ***** 9th grades during ***** same period of time. After ***** ***** tobacco, marijuana is the next most commonly used substance and ***** been tried ***** almost 50 percent of all high school seniors (Henry et al., 1996).

A recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found that youth who drank *****cohol were 50 ********** more ***** to use cocaine, and those who smoked cigarettes were 19 times more likely to ***** cocaine. The *****, based on 30,000 American households, ***** that 90 ***** of ***** users had smoked *****, drank alcohol, or used marijuana first. The study establ*****hed a clear progressi***** that began with the use of the ***** drugs of alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana and led to ***** of other illicit *****s.

***** warning signs will be presented here as often times parents ***** other guardians may attribute the *****'s behavi*****al changes to typical hormonal mood swings. However, it is not always "just a phase," as is ***** ***** parental m*****conception. Historically, ***** have ***** discussing the risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can ***** perilous, and leave the child unprepared


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