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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent ***** abuse (from 78497)


***** Signs

***** that the breath ***** prevalence of teenage substance ***** has been discussed, ***** warning ***** of adolescent substance abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol and tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is because these substances are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America and other countries, ***** is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol is ********** with at least one-half ***** all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school per*****mance, and other trauma among youth. Alcohol and ***** kill more people annu*****y than all other drugs combined, and ***** alone is associated with at least one-fourth ***** all hospital visits in the ***** St*****es. Nicotine is also one of the most addictive ***** harmful substances, and in 1995 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug and should be regulated as a controlled substance. *****deed, the authors posit that if alcohol ***** ***** were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely ***** rejected ***** hazardous and addictive (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate that children of *****ics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symp*****matic *****. According to Henry, Robinson and Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown that 92 percent ***** high school seniors report having used alcohol, while between 72 and 77 ***** of eighth graders reported experimentation. While overall adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s ***** declined in the 1980s, substance use increased significantly ***** the 6th to 9th grades during that same period of time. After ***** and **********, marijuana is the next most commonly *****d substance and ***** been tried ***** almost 50 percent of all high school seniors (Henry et al., 1996).

A recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found ***** youth who drank *****cohol were 50 times more likely to use cocaine, and those who smoked cig*****ttes were 19 ***** more ***** to ***** cocaine. The *****, based on 30,000 American households, reported that 90 percent of cocaine users had smoked tobacco, drank alcohol, or used marijuana first. The study establ*****hed a clear progressi***** that began with the use ***** the ***** ***** of alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana and led to ***** of o*****r illicit substances.

***** ***** signs ***** be presented here as *****ten times parents ***** other guardians may attribute the adolescent's *****havioral changes to typical hormonal mood swings. However, it is not always "just a phase," as is often the parental m*****conception. His*****ric*****y, ***** have ***** discussing ***** risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can ***** perilous, and leave the child unprepared


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