Essay - Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Warning Signs of Adolescent...


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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent substance abuse (from 78497)

CHAPTER 3: WARNING SIGNS AND RISK FACTORS

***** Signs

Now that the breath ***** prevalence of teenage substance abuse has been discussed, the warning signs ***** adolescent substance abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol and tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is ********** these *****s are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America ***** other countries, ***** is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol ***** *****sociated with at least one-half of all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school per*****mance, and other trauma among youth. Alcohol and ***** kill more people annually than all ***** drugs combined, and ***** alone is associated with at least one-fourth of all hospital visits in the United St*****es. Nicotine is also one of ***** most addictive ***** harmful substances, and in 1995 the U.S. Food ***** Drug Admin*****tration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug ********** should be regulated as a controlled substance. Indeed, the authors posit that if alcohol and nicotine were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely ***** rejected ***** hazardous and ***** (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate ***** children of *****ics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symptomatic *****. According to Henry, Robinson and Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown that 92 percent of high school seniors report having used alcohol, while between 72 and 77 percent of eighth graders reported experimentation. While over***** adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s ***** decl*****ed in the 1980s, substance use *****creased significantly from the 6th to 9th grades during ***** same period of time. After ***** and *****bacco, marijuana is the next most commonly used substance and has been tried by almost 50 percent of all high school seniors (Henry et al., 1996).

***** recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found that youth who drank *****cohol were 50 times more likely to use cocaine, and those who smoked cig*****ttes ***** 19 ***** more ***** to use cocaine. The study, based on 30,000 American households, ***** that 90 ***** of ***** users had smoked *****bacco, ***** alcohol, or used marijuana first. The study established a clear progressi***** that began with the use ***** the gateway drugs of alcohol, tobacco, or ***** ***** led to use of o*****r illicit substances.

***** ***** signs will be presented here as ********** times parents and other guardians may attribute the adolescent's behavi*****al changes ***** typical hormonal mood swings. *****, it is not always "just a phase," as is often ***** parental m*****conception. Historically, parents ***** found discussing the risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can ***** perilous, and leave the child unprepared

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