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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent substance abuse (from 78497)


***** Signs

Now that the breath ***** prevalence of teenage substance ***** has been discussed, ***** warning signs of ***** substance abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol and tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is ********** these ********** are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America and other countries, alcohol is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol is associated with at least one-half of all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school per*****mance, ***** other trauma among youth. Alcohol and ***** kill more people annually than all other drugs combined, and alcohol alone is ***** with at least one-fourth ***** all hospital visits in the United States. Nicotine is also one of the ***** addictive and harmful substances, and in 1995 ***** U.S. Food ***** Drug Administration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug and should be regulated as a controlled substance. *****deed, the authors posit that if alcohol ***** nicotine were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely ***** rejected ***** hazardous and ***** (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate that children of *****ics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symptomatic use. According to Henry, Robinson and Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown ***** 92 percent ***** high school seniors report having used alcohol, while between 72 and 77 ***** of eighth graders reported experimentation. While over***** adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s and decl*****ed in the 1980s, substance ***** *****creased significantly from the 6th ***** 9th grades during that same period of time. After ***** ***** tobacco, marijuana is ***** next most commonly used substance and ***** been tried ***** almost 50 percent of all ***** school ***** (Henry et al., 1996).

***** recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found ***** youth who drank alcohol were 50 *****s ***** ***** to use cocaine, and those who smoked cig*****ttes ***** 19 times more likely to ***** cocaine. The study, based on 30,000 American households, ***** that 90 ***** of ***** users had smoked *****, ***** alcohol, or used marijuana first. The study establ*****hed a clear progression that began with the use of the gateway drugs of alcohol, tobacco, or ***** and led to ***** of other illicit substances.

***** ***** signs ***** be presented here as *****ten times parents ***** other guardians may attribute the adolescent's behavi*****al changes to typical hormonal mood swings. However, it is not always "just a phase," as is often ***** parental m*****conception. Historically, ***** have ***** discussing the risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can be perilous, and leave ***** child unprepared


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