Essay - Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Warning Signs of Adolescent...


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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent substance abuse (from 78497)

CHAPTER 3: WARNING SIGNS AND RISK FACTORS

Warning Signs

Now that the breath and prevalence of teenage substance abuse has been discussed, ***** warning ***** of adolescent ***** abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol ***** tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is because these substances are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America ***** other countries, alcohol is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol ***** *****sociated with at least one-half of all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school per*****mance, and other trauma among youth. Alcohol and tobacco kill more people annu*****y than all ***** drugs combined, and ***** alone is associ*****ed with at least one-fourth of ***** hospital visits in the United States. Nicotine is also one of ***** most addictive and harmful substances, and in 1995 the U.S. Food ***** Drug Admin*****tration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug and should be regulated as a controlled substance. **********, ***** authors posit that if alcohol ***** nicotine were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely ***** rejected ***** hazardous and ***** (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate that children of *****ics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symp*****matic use. According to Henry, Robinson ***** Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown that 92 percent ***** high school seniors report having used alcohol, while between 72 and 77 ***** of eighth graders reported experimentation. While overall adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s ***** decl*****ed in the 1980s, substance ***** *****creased significantly ***** the 6th ***** 9th grades during ***** same period of *****. After ***** and *****, marijuana is the next most commonly used substance and ***** been tried ***** almost 50 percent of all high school seniors (Henry et al., 1996).

A recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found that youth who drank alcohol were 50 times more ***** to use cocaine, and those who smoked cigarettes ***** 19 times more likely to ***** cocaine. The study, based on *****0,000 American households, reported that 90 percent of cocaine users had smoked tobacco, ***** alcohol, or used marijuana first. The ***** established a clear progressi***** that began with the use ***** the gateway drugs of alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana ***** led to use of other illicit substances.

***** ***** signs ***** be presented here as ********** times parents and other guardians may attribute the adolescent's behavioral changes ***** typical hormonal mood swings. *****, it is not always "just a phase," as is often ***** parental misconception. Historic*****y, parents ***** ***** discussing the risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can be perilous, and leave the child unprepared

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