Essay - Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Warning Signs of Adolescent...


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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent substance abuse (from 78497)

CHAPTER 3: WARNING SIGNS AND RISK FACTORS

Warning Signs

***** that the breath ***** prevalence of teenage substance ***** has been discussed, ***** warning ***** ***** ***** substance abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol and tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is because these ********** are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America ***** other countries, ***** is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol ***** associated with at least one-half of all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school performance, and other trauma among youth. Alcohol and ***** kill more people annually than all other *****s combined, and ***** alone is associated with at least one-fourth ***** all hospital visits in the ***** States. Nicotine is also one of ***** most addictive and harmful substances, and in 1995 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug ***** should be regulated as a controlled substance. **********, the authors posit that if alcohol and nicotine were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely ***** rejected ***** hazardous and ***** (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate that children of alcoholics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symptomatic use. According to Henry, Robinson ***** Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown ***** 92 percent ***** high school seniors report having used *****, while between 72 and 77 ***** of eighth graders reported experimentation. While overall adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s ***** declined in the 1980s, substance ***** *****creased significantly ***** the 6th ***** 9th grades during that same period of time. After alcohol and tobacco, marijuana is the next most commonly used substance and ***** been tried ***** almost 50 percent of all ***** school ***** (Henry et al., 1996).

***** recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found that youth who drank alcohol were 50 *****s more ***** to use cocaine, and those who smoked cig*****ttes ***** 19 times more likely to ***** cocaine. The *****, based on *****0,000 American households, reported that 90 percent of cocaine users had smoked *****bacco, drank alcohol, or used marijuana first. The study establ*****hed a clear progressi***** that began with the use ***** the ***** drugs of alcohol, tobacco, or ***** and led to use of other illicit substances.

***** warning signs ***** be presented here as ********** times parents and other guardians may attribute the *****'s *****havi*****al changes ***** typical hormonal mood swings. However, it is not always "just a phase," as is often the parental m*****conception. Historic*****y, parents have found discussing the risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can be perilous, and leave ***** child unprepared

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