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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent substance abuse (from 78497)

CHAPTER 3: WARNING SIGNS AND RISK FACTORS

Warning Signs

***** that the breath and prevalence of teenage substance ***** has been discussed, ***** warning signs of ***** ***** abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol ***** tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is *****cause these substances are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America ***** other countries, alcohol is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol is associated with at least one-half ***** all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school performance, and other trauma among youth. Alcohol and ***** kill more people annually than all other *****s combined, and ***** alone is associ*****ed with at least one-fourth of all hospital visits in the United States. Nicotine is also one of the ***** addictive ***** harmful substances, and in 1995 the U.S. Food ***** Drug Administration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug and should be regulated as a controlled substance. Indeed, ***** authors posit that if alcohol and nicotine were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely be rejected ***** hazardous and addictive (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate that children of *****ics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symp*****matic use. According to Henry, Robinson and Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown that 92 percent of high school seniors report having *****d alcohol, while between 72 and 77 ***** of eighth graders reported experimentation. While overall adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s ***** decl*****ed in the 1980s, substance use *****creased significantly from the 6th to 9th grades during ***** same period of *****. After ***** and *****bacco, marijuana is the next most commonly used substance and ***** been tried ***** almost 50 percent of all ***** school ***** (Henry et al., 1996).

A recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found that youth who drank *****cohol were 50 times ***** likely to use cocaine, and those who smoked cig*****ttes were 19 ***** more ***** to ***** cocaine. The *****, based on *****0,000 American households, ***** that 90 ***** of ***** users had smoked *****bacco, ***** alcohol, or used marijuana first. The study establ*****hed a clear progression that began with the use of the ***** drugs of alcohol, tobacco, ***** marijuana ***** led to ***** of other illicit *****s.

***** ***** signs ***** be presented here as often times parents and other guardians may attribute the adolescent's ********** changes ***** typical hormonal mood swings. However, it is not always "just a phase," as is ***** the parental m*****conception. Historically, parents ***** ***** discussing the risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can be perilous, and leave the child unprepared

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