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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent substance abuse (from 78497)

CHAPTER 3: WARNING SIGNS AND RISK FACTORS

***** Signs

Now that the breath and prevalence of teenage substance abuse has been discussed, the warning ***** ***** ***** ***** abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol and tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is because these substances are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America and other countries, ***** is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol ***** associated with at least one-half of all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school per*****mance, and other trauma among youth. Alcohol and tobacco kill more people annu*****y than all ***** drugs combined, and ***** alone is ***** with ***** least one-fourth ***** ***** hospital visits in the United States. Nicotine is also one of ***** most addictive and harmful substances, and in 1995 the U.S. Food ***** Drug Admin*****tration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug *****nd should be regulated as a controlled substance. Indeed, the authors posit that if alcohol and ***** were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely be rejected ***** hazardous and ***** (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate ***** children of *****ics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symptomatic *****. According to Henry, Robinson ***** Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown that 92 percent ***** high school seniors report having used *****, while between 72 and 77 ***** of eighth graders reported experimentation. While overall adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s and declined in the 1980s, substance ***** increased significantly ***** the 6th to 9th grades during that same period of *****. After alcohol ***** *****, marijuana is the next most commonly used substance and ***** been tried by almost 50 percent of all ***** school seniors (Henry et al., 1996).

***** recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found ***** youth who drank ***** were 50 times more ***** to use cocaine, and those who smoked cig*****ttes ***** 19 times more likely to use cocaine. The *****, based on 30,000 American households, ***** that 90 ***** of cocaine users had smoked tobacco, ***** alcohol, or used marijuana first. The study establ*****hed a clear progressi***** that began with the use of the gateway drugs of alcohol, tobacco, ***** ***** ***** led to ***** of other illicit substances.

The warning signs will be presented here as often times parents and other guardians may attribute the adolescent's *****havioral changes to typical hormonal mood swings. However, it is not always "just a phase," as is ***** the parental misconception. Historic*****y, parents have ***** discussing ***** risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can be perilous, and leave the child unprepared

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