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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent substance abuse (from 78497)


***** Signs

***** that the breath and prevalence of teenage substance ***** has been discussed, the warning ***** ***** adolescent ***** abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol and tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is *****cause these substances are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America and other countries, alcohol is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol ***** *****sociated with at least one-half of all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school per*****mance, ***** other trauma among youth. Alcohol and tobacco kill more people annu*****y than all ***** drugs combined, and alcohol alone is associated with at least one-fourth ***** ***** hospital visits in the United States. Nicotine is also one of ***** ***** addictive and harmful *****, and in 1995 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug ***** should be regulated as a controlled substance. *****deed, the authors posit that if alcohol and nicotine were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely ***** rejected ***** hazardous and ***** (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate that children of *****ics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symp*****matic use. According to Henry, Robinson and Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown ***** 92 percent ***** high school seniors report having *****d alcohol, while between 72 and 77 ***** of eighth graders reported experimentation. While overall adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s and decl*****ed in the 1980s, substance ***** increased significantly ***** the 6th ***** 9th grades during that same period of time. After ***** ***** *****, marijuana is ***** next most commonly used substance and ***** been tried by almost 50 percent of all ***** school seniors (Henry et al., 1996).

***** recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found ***** youth who drank alcohol were 50 *****s ***** ***** to use cocaine, and those who smoked cig*****ttes ***** 19 times more likely to ***** cocaine. The *****, based on 30,000 American households, reported that 90 percent of ***** users had smoked tobacco, drank alcohol, or used marijuana first. The study established a clear progression that began with the use of the ***** ***** of alcohol, tobacco, ***** ***** and led to use of other illicit *****s.

***** warning signs will be presented here as often times parents and other guardians may attribute the *****'s behavioral changes ***** typical hormonal mood swings. However, it is not always "just a phase," as is ***** the parental misconception. Historically, parents ***** found discussing the risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can ***** perilous, and leave the child unprepared


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