Essay - Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Warning Signs of Adolescent...


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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent ***** abuse (from 78497)

CHAPTER 3: WARNING SIGNS AND RISK FACTORS

Warning Signs

Now that the breath and prevalence of teenage substance abuse has been discussed, ***** warning signs of ***** ***** abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol ***** tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is because these substances are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America and other countries, ***** is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol ***** *****sociated with at least one-half of all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school performance, and other trauma among youth. Alcohol and ***** kill more people annu*****y than all ***** drugs combined, and ***** alone is associ*****ed with at least one-fourth of ***** hospital visits in the ***** States. Nicotine is also one of the ***** addictive and harmful substances, and in 1995 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug ***** should be regul*****ted as a controlled substance. Indeed, ***** authors posit that if alcohol and ***** were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely ***** rejected ***** hazardous and addictive (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate that children of alcoholics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symptomatic use. According to Henry, Robinson and Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown ***** 92 percent ***** high school seniors report having *****d *****, while between 72 and 77 ***** of eighth graders reported experimentation. While overall adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s and declined in the 1980s, substance ***** increased significantly from the 6th to 9th grades during that same period of *****. After alcohol ***** *****bacco, marijuana is ***** next most commonly used substance and has been tried ***** almost 50 percent of all high school seniors (Henry et al., 1996).

***** recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found ***** youth who drank ***** were 50 times ***** ***** to use cocaine, and those who smoked cig*****ttes ***** 19 ***** more likely to ***** cocaine. The study, based on 30,000 American households, reported that 90 ***** of cocaine users had smoked tobacco, drank *****cohol, or used marijuana first. The study established a clear progression that began with the use ***** the gateway drugs of alcohol, tobacco, ***** ***** and led to use of o*****r illicit substances.

The ***** signs will be presented here as often times parents ***** other guardians may attribute the adolescent's *****havioral changes ***** typical hormonal mood swings. *****, it is not always "just a p*****e," as is ***** ***** parental m*****conception. Historically, ***** have ***** discussing the risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can ***** *****rilous, and leave the child unprepared

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