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Adolescent substance abuse: Risk Factors and Warning signs of adolescent substance abuse (from 78497)

CHAPTER 3: WARNING SIGNS AND RISK FACTORS

Warning Signs

Now that the breath ***** prevalence of teenage substance abuse has been discussed, the warning signs ***** ***** ***** abuse will be explored.

As noted in Chapter 1, organizations such as Drugwatch specifically consider alcohol and tobacco to be the most dangerous gateway drugs. This is *****cause these substances are legal in many countries and considered "socially acceptable" for adults. However, in North America and other countries, ***** is the number one drug used by teens. In the United States, alcohol ***** ********** with at least one-half of all traffic crashes, suicides, drownings, crimes of violence, unplanned sex, poor school performance, ***** other trauma among youth. Alcohol and ***** kill more people annu*****y than all ***** ********** combined, and alcohol alone is associated with at least one-fourth of ***** hospital visits in the ***** St*****es. Nicotine is also one of the most addictive ***** harmful substances, and in 1995 the U.S. Food ***** Drug Admin*****tration (FDA) concluded for the first time that nicotine is a drug ********** should be regulated as a controlled substance. *****deed, ***** authors posit that if alcohol and ***** were new products seeking FDA clearance today, each would likely ***** rejected as hazardous and addictive (Drugwatch, 2006). Findings from these studies indicate that children of alcoholics are at greater risk for early alcohol initiation and regular use as well as subsequent progression to symp*****matic use. According to Henry, Robinson and Stephenson (1996), national surveys have shown that 92 percent ***** high school seniors report having used *****, while between 72 and 77 percent of eighth graders reported experimentation. While overall adolescent substance use increased in the late 1970s ***** declined in the 1980s, substance ***** increased significantly ***** the 6th ***** 9th grades during ***** same period of *****. After alcohol and tobacco, marijuana is the next most commonly used substance and has been tried ***** almost 50 ***** of all high school ***** (Henry et al., 1996).

***** recent study by Columbia University's Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse found that youth who drank ***** were 50 times ***** ***** to use cocaine, and those who smoked cig*****ttes ***** 19 times more likely to ***** cocaine. The study, based on 30,000 American households, ***** that 90 percent of cocaine users had smoked *****, ***** *****cohol, or used marijuana first. The study established a clear progressi***** that began with the use of the ***** drugs of alcohol, *****bacco, or ***** ***** led to ***** of o*****r illicit *****s.

***** ***** signs will be presented here as often times parents and other guardians may attribute the adolescent's *****havi*****al changes ***** typical hormonal mood swings. However, it is not always "just a p*****e," as is often the parental misconception. Historic*****y, parents ***** ***** discussing ***** risks of substance abuse to be awkward, but retreating from such discussions can be *****rilous, and leave the child unprepared

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