Essay - American History the Forces Shaping American Domestic and Foreign Policy:...

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American history

The Forces Shaping American Domestic and Foreign Policy: 1890-1928

***** latter half of the 19th century was rife with social ***** economic changes that would shape ***** development of American domestic and foreign policy between 1890 ***** 1928. The policies ***** would be created were drafted at the confluence of a variety ***** events. These included the lasting effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction, industrialization, demographic growth, imperialism, ***** statism. Combined, these factors contributed to the creation of U.S. foreign and domestic policy that was much more proactive and intrusive by 1928 than it had been in 1890.

The social changes that occurred ***** the wake of the ***** War during the Reconstruction Era are well-documented. Newly emancipated slaves changed social and ***** conditions in the South, their freedom crippl*****g a plantation-based agricultural economy. At the same time, however, ***** ***** taking powerful hold in the North--particularly the Northeast. By 1894, the United States had been transformed from a former British hold*****g into the l*****rgest manufacturing nation in the world (Johnson 531).

Fueling this industrial growth was an influx ***** new workers. After the Civil War, the U.S. population stood at about 39 million, with half of those people still living in rural communities. However, by World War I, n*****ural ***** growth had swollen the *****'s population to 100 million, more ***** 70% ***** whom now lived in urban *****as. Added to that was an incredible influx of immigr*****ts during this period. Between 1890 and 1914 alone, 15 million immigrants arrived on U.S. shores looking for work ***** to put down roots (***** 513-514).

Socially, the United States was in a transition period during the late 19th century as the ideals of Populism flourished and then gave way ***** Progressivism. The former l*****ted roughly from 1880 until 1900 and represented the last hurrah of ***** U.S.' agricultural economy, stressing farmers' ideals. Dissimilarly, Progressivism ***** driven by educated urban intellectuals who brought ***** socialist values to ***** policy during that era (Johnson 607). At the same time, the U.S.--like so many o*****r nations--became gripped by imperialist sensibilities. ***** ***** ***** their politicians came to believe that American control should be extended to territ*****ial holdings beyond the lower contiguous states and territories (John*****n 609). As ***** ***** already mentioned *****, ***** facilitated significant changes in domestic ***** foreign *****.

Overall the tendency ***** foreign and domestic policy changes was toward extension of ***** role and authority of the U.S. government at home and abroad. Domestically, policies shifted toward increased st*****ism. Under Woodrow Wilson in particular the U.S. government acquired significant new powers ***** allowed it to act w*****h greater influence on American soil. The passage ***** a Constitutional Amendment authorizing an income tax on all Americ*****s cemented ***** fiduciary power in the federal government ***** ***** it the ability to act with ***** impunity. The rise of Progressivism during this era also influenced domestic *****. ***** threat of Big Business loomed large and Big Government was perceived to be


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