Essay - Bipolar Disorder Abstract: the Paper is Presenting Arguments in Favor...

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Bipolar disorder


***** paper is presenting arguments in favor of a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in the main character and narrator of ***** JD Salinger's novel, The Catcher in the Rye. After consider*****g, comparing and corroborating the symptoms indicated in medicine today ***** the story told by Holden Caulfield, the conclusion is that he is highly likely to have suffered of the illness, especially under the extraordinary circumstances of h***** younger brother's death, his parents', pr*****essors and peers unawareness of his medical problems and his own ability to hide for several years ***** aggravated state of mind.

Bipolar disorder

The key symptom of bipolar disorder is the swing in moods ***** has to be observed in an adolescent over a period ***** a few years *****d in a much more severe way than it happens ***** be *****istic of pu*****rty. Holden Caulfield, the sixteen year old boy who is the narrator and the main character in The Catcher in the ***** ***** clearly present*****g severe swings in moods passing from episodes of mania to episodes of depression rapidly and with no *****s of normal behavior between them.

He is telling the ***** that led to h***** current state ***** being an in-patient in a hospice. It starts with him being expelled for the fifth time out of high school. ***** setting is ***** ***** Pencey Prep, a private school in Agerstown, Pennsylv*****ia.

***** today is still searching for answers related to the causes and treatment of this mental illness. Its comorbidity with other juvenile ********** makes it even harder ***** set a reliable diagnose and decide upon the correct *****. "Difficulties in diagnosing early, especially prepubertal onset, bipolar disorder are not specific to the past half century. As early as 1931, Kasanin reported that nearly 25% of childhood-***** cases were misdiagnosed" (Geller, DelBello, 2003). The ***** when Holden Caulfield is taken to a psychi*****trist for an evaluation is exactly in his prepubertal **********, following ***** auto-mutilation manifestations during the night his youngest bro*****r died of leukemia.

Although he is mentioning being ***** into a doctor's office ***** being evaluated, he never discloses the *****s of the medical examination and the results ***** any kind of treatment the doctors might have chosen ***** *****. The researches in the field of bipolar ***** in children ***** prepubertal stages were still in *****ir ********** fazes ***** the middle ***** the twentieth *****.

Today, researchers are still conducting studies to help ***** understand ***** causes that lead to the onset of ***** illness. There are three main factors that ***** taken into consideration, like: biochemical factors, genes and environmental factors. Environmental factors, although may be a ***** factor, they are not necessarily established as the ***** cause, but rather as contributors to the onset ***** an *****.

While telling his story, Holden Caulfield is repeatedly saying ***** people often do ***** pay attention to *****thing and he is specifically making reference to his own problems and manifestations no adult around him seemed bright


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