Essay - Bipolar Disorder Abstract: the Paper is Presenting Arguments in Favor...


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Bipolar disorder

Abstract:

***** paper is presenting arguments in favor of a diagnos***** of bipolar disorder in the main character and narrator ***** ***** JD Salinger's novel, The Catcher in the Rye. After considering, comparing and corroborating the symptoms indicated in medicine today and ***** story told by Holden Caulfield, the conclusion is that he is highly likely to have suffered of the illness, especially under the extraordinary circumstances of h***** younger brother's death, his parents', professors and peers unawareness of his medical problems and his own ability to hide for several years his aggravated state of mind.

Bipolar disorder

***** key symptom of bipolar ***** is the swing in moods that has to be observed ***** an adolescent over a period of a few years and in a much more severe way than it happens to be characteristic of puberty. Holden Caulfield, the sixteen year old boy who is ***** ***** and the ma***** character in The Catcher in ***** Rye is clearly present*****g severe swings in moods pass*****g from episodes ***** mania to episodes of depression rapidly and with no *****s of *****rmal behavior between them.

He is telling the story ***** led to ***** current ***** of being an in-patient in a hospice. It starts with him be*****g expelled for the fifth time out ***** high school. ***** setting is that of Pencey Prep, a priv*****te school in Agers*****wn, Pennsylv*****ia.

Medicine today is still searching for answers related to the causes ***** treatment of this mental illness. Its comorbidity with other juvenile disorders makes it even harder to set a reliable diagnose and decide upon the correct *****. "Difficulties in diagnosing early, especially prepubertal onset, bipolar disorder are not specific to the past half century. As early as 1931, Kasanin reported that nearly 25% of childhood-***** cases were misdiagnosed" (Geller, DelBello, 2003). The ***** when Holden Caulfield is taken to a psychi*****trist for an evaluation is exactly in his prepubertal *****, following ***** auto-mutilation manifestations during the night his youngest br***** died ***** leukemia.

Although he is mentioning being ***** into a doctor's office and being evaluated, he never d*****closes the conclusions of the medical examination and the results of any kind of treatment the doctors might have chosen ***** *****. The researches in ***** field of bipolar ***** in children and prepubertal stages were still in their *****cipient fazes ***** the middle ***** the twentieth *****.

Today, researchers are still conducting studies to help ***** understand ***** causes that lead to the onset of the *****. There are three main factors that ***** taken ***** consideration, like: biochemical factors, genes and environmental factors. Environmental factors, although may be a ***** factor, they are not necessarily established as the main cause, but ra*****r as contributors to the onset ***** an illness.

While telling ***** story, Holden Caulfield is repeatedly saying that people often do not pay attention to *****thing and he is specifically making reference to his own ***** and ***** no adult around him seemed bright

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