Essay - Bipolar Disorder Abstract: the Paper is Presenting Arguments in Favor...

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Bipolar disorder


***** paper is presenting arguments in favor of a di*****gnosis of bipolar disorder in the main character and narrator of the JD Salinger's novel, The Catcher in the Rye. After considering, comparing and corroborating the symptoms indicated in medicine today ***** ***** story told by Holden Caulfield, the conclusion is that he is highly likely to have suffered of the illness, especially under the extraordinary circumstances of h***** younger brother's death, his parents', professors and peers unawareness of his medical problems and his own ability to hide for several years his aggravated state of mind.

Bipolar disorder

***** key symptom of bipolar ***** is the swing in moods ***** has to be observed in an adolescent over a period of a few years and in a much more severe way than it happens ***** be *****istic of puberty. Holden Caulfield, the sixteen year old boy who is ***** narrator and the ma***** character in The Catcher in ***** ***** is clearly present*****g severe swings in moods passing from episodes of mania to episodes of depression rapidly and with no *****s of *****rmal behavior between them.

He is telling the ***** that led to ***** current ***** ***** being an in-patient in a hospice. It starts with him be*****g expelled for the fifth time out of high school. The setting ***** that of Pencey Prep, a private school in Agers*****wn, Pennsylvania.

Medicine today is still searching for answers related to the causes and treatment of th***** mental *****. Its comorbidity with other juvenile disorders makes it even harder to set a reliable diagnose and decide upon the correct treatment. "Difficulties in diagnosing early, especially prepubertal on*****, bipolar disorder are not specific to the past half century. As early as 1931, Kasanin reported ***** nearly 25% of childhood-onset cases were misdiagnosed" (Geller, DelBello, 2003). The ***** when ***** Caulfield is taken ***** a psychi*****trist for an evaluation is exactly in his prepubertal years, following ***** auto-mutilation manifestations during the night his youngest brother died of leukemia.

Although he is mentioning being taken into a doctor's office and being evaluated, he never discloses the conclusions of the medical examination and the results ***** any kind of treatment the doctors might ***** chosen ***** him. The researches in ***** field ***** bipolar disorder in children and prepubertal stages were still in their *****cipient fazes by the middle of the twentieth *****.

Today, researchers are still conducting studies to help *****m understand the causes that lead to the onset of ***** illness. There are three main factors that ***** taken ***** consideration, like: biochemical factors, genes and environmental factors. Environmental factors, although may be a key factor, they are ***** necessarily established as the main cause, but ra*****r as contributors to the onset of an illness.

While telling his story, Holden Caulfield is repeatedly saying ***** people *****ten do not pay attention to anything and he is specifically making reference to his own problems and ***** no adult around him seemed bright


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