Essay - Bipolar Disorder Abstract: the Paper is Presenting Arguments in Favor...

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Bipolar disorder


***** paper is presenting arguments in favor of a diagnos***** of bipolar disorder in the main character and narrator of ***** JD Salinger's novel, The Catcher in the Rye. After considering, comparing and corroborating the symptoms indicated in medicine today and the story told by Holden Caulfield, the conclusion is that he is highly likely to have suffered of the illness, especially under the extraordinary circumstances of h***** younger brother's death, his parents', pr*****essors and peers unawareness of his medical problems and ***** own ability to hide for several years his aggravated state of mind.

Bipolar *****

***** key symptom of bipolar disorder is the swing in moods ***** has to be observed ***** an adolescent over a period ***** a few ye*****rs and in a much more severe way than it happens ***** be characteristic of puberty. Holden *****, ***** sixteen year old boy who is the ***** and the ma***** character in The Catcher in ***** ***** ***** clearly presenting severe swings in moods passing from episodes of mania to ***** of depression rapidly and with no periods of normal behavior between them.

He is telling the ***** that led to his current state of being an in-patient in a hospice. It starts with him be*****g expelled for ***** fifth time out ***** high school. ***** setting is that of Pencey Prep, a priv*****te school in Agerstown, Pennsylv*****ia.

***** today is still searching for answers related to the causes and treatment of this mental *****. Its comorbidity with other juvenile disorders makes it even harder ***** set a reliable diagnose and decide upon the correct *****. "Difficulties in diagnosing early, especially prepubertal onset, bipolar disorder are not specific to the past half century. As early as 1931, Kasanin reported ***** n***** 25% of childhood-onset cases were misdiagnosed" (Geller, DelBello, 2003). The time when ***** Caulfield is taken ***** a psychi*****trist for an evaluation is exactly in his prepubertal years, following ***** auto-mutilation manifestations during the night his youngest br***** died ***** leukemia.

***** he is mentioning being ***** into a doctor's office ***** ***** evaluated, he never d*****closes ***** *****s of the medical examination and the results ***** any kind of treatment the doctors might ***** chosen ***** him. The researches in the field ***** bipolar disorder in children ***** prepubertal stages were still in their ********** fazes ***** the middle of the twentieth *****.

Today, researchers are still conducting studies to help *****m understand the causes that lead to the onset of the illness. There are three main factors that are taken ***** consideration, like: biochemical factors, genes and environmental factors. Environmental factors, although may be a ***** factor, they are ***** necessarily established as the ***** cause, but ra*****r as contributors to the onset ***** an illness.

While telling ***** story, Holden ***** is repeatedly saying ***** people often do not pay attention to ********** and he is specifically making reference to his own ***** and ***** no adult around him seemed *****ight


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