Essay - Breastfeeding Introduction Child Malnutrition is One of the Most Widespread...

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Child malnutrition is one of the most widespread problems ***** world faces until now. It has been associated to high rates of morbidity and mortality among children in the developing countries. Child malnutrition has been associated with a number of factors that can be addressed by the society. Some ***** these are poverty and the family's socio-economic status, availability of food and poor diet, immunization, and breastfeeding practice (Brenna, McDonald, Shlomowitz, 2003). In fact, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could decrease mortality among children younger than 5 years old to 13% (UNICEF, 2007). South Asia ***** ***** ********** morbidity and ***** rates among ***** younger ***** 5 ***** old: 70 million children younger than 5 years are from South Asia, and are unlikely to achieve their full growth and development (South ***** Breastfeeding Partners Forum, 2007).

Breastmilk may potentially contribute ***** the infant's physical, cognitive, and emotional development. Breastfeeding protects ***** infant ***** contracting many common childhood diseases such as chronic diarrhea, pneumonia; developing autoimmune dise*****es, tooth decay, and growth retardation (Bhandari, Bahl, Mazumdar, Martines, Black, and Bhan, 2003; Brennan et al., 2003). It also facilitates development of the gastrointestinal tract while facilitating the absorption and digestion ***** fats, proteins, and carbohyd***** found in foodstuffs (Gab*****, Nie*****l, and Simpson, 2007; Rakel and Bope, 2007). It also lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases ***** obesity as these ***** become older. It strengthens maternal-***** bonding, an activity which is profoundly import*****t to a child's emotional development. It is ***** economically beneficial because it is free. Breastmilk contains sufficient nutrients and provides immunologic comp*****nts such as antibodies ***** ***** passively transferred from the mo*****r. The mother also benefits from breastfeeding as it provides a natural contraceptive effect. ***** mother is also protected ***** rapid involution of the uterus, bre*****t and endometrial cancers, and diabetes (*****be et al., *****).

***** its well-founded benefits, breastfeeding rates remain low in all parts of the world. The *****troduction of breastmilk within 1 hour *****s low among South Asian countries. In Afghanistan, ***** is not introduced during the first ***** ***** feeding; in *****, Afghan babies are given breastmilk only as early as 4 months old (World Health Organization [WHO], 2001; ***** Asia Breastfeeding ***** Forum, 2007). It has been found that *****5% of *****s and infants breastfeed *****ir children during the first 6 months (UNICEF, 2007). ********** have also been incons*****tencies with regards ***** the right time supplementary solid foods should be introduced. In Bangladesh, it was found that the median duration of exclusive ********** ***** 3.7 months with n***** *****% ***** the mothers introducing milk supplements prior to ***** months. Most mothers ***** exclusively breastfeed their ***** for over 30 ***** (Ramachandran, 2004). In India, breastfeeding *****s were found ***** be almost similar to practices in Bangladesh and West Bengal, except that the median duration of exclusive ***** was 5.3 months ***** lasted ***** the median duration ***** 25.4 months. Other studies have shown ***** breastfeeding rate decreased from 72% in the


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