Essay - Breastfeeding Introduction Child Malnutrition is One of the Most Widespread...

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Child malnutrition is one of the most widespread problems ***** world faces until now. It has been associated to high rates of morbidity and mortality among children in the develop*****g countries. Child malnutrition ***** been associated with a number of f*****ctors that can be addressed by the society. Some ***** these are poverty and the family's socio-economic status, availability of food and poor diet, immunization, and breastfeeding practice (Brenna, McDonald, Shlomowitz, 2003). In fact, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could decrease mortality ***** children younger than 5 years old to 13% (UNICEF, 2007). South Asia has the ********** morbidity and ***** rates among children younger ***** 5 ***** old: 70 million children younger than 5 years are from ***** Asia, ***** are unlikely to achieve their full growth and development (South ***** Breastfeeding Partners Forum, 2007).

Breastmilk may potentially contribute to the infant's physical, cognitive, and emotional development. Breastfeeding protects the infant ***** contracting many common childhood diseases such as chronic diarrhea, pneumonia; developing autoimmune diseases, tooth decay, ***** growth retardation (Bhandari, Bahl, Mazumdar, Martines, Black, and Bhan, 2003; Brennan et al., 2003). It also facilitates development ***** the gastrointestinal tract while facilitating the absorption and digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates found in foodstuffs (Gab*****, Niebyl, and Simpson, 2007; Rakel ***** Bope, 2007). It also lowers ***** risk of cardiovascular ***** and obesity as these children become older. It strengthens maternal-infant bonding, an activity which is profoundly important to a child's emotional development. It is also economically beneficial because it ***** free. Breastmilk contains sufficient nutrients and provides immunologic components such as antibodies ***** are passively transferred from the mo*****r. The mother also benefits from ***** as it provides a natural contraceptive effect. ***** mother is also protected from rapid involution of the uterus, bre*****t ***** endometrial cancers, and diabetes (********** et al., 2007).

***** its well-founded benefits, breastfeeding rates remain low in all parts of the world. The *****troduction of breastmilk within 1 hour remains low among South Asian countries. In Afghanistan, ***** is not introduced during ***** first hour ***** feeding; in *****, Afghan babies are given breastmilk only as early as 4 months old (World Health Organization [WHO], 2001; South Asia Breastfeeding Partners Forum, 2007). It ***** been found that *****5% of mothers and infants breastfeed their children during the first 6 months (UNICEF, 2007). *****re have also been inconsistencies with regards to the right time supplementary solid foods should be introduced. In Bangladesh, it was found ***** the median duration ***** exclusive ********** ***** 3.7 months with nearly 70% of the mothers introducing milk supplements prior to 6 months. Most mothers ***** exclusively breastfeed their ***** for over 30 months (Ramachandran, 2004). In *****dia, breastfeeding *****s were found ***** be almost similar to practices in Bangladesh and West Bengal, except that the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 5.3 months ***** lasted ***** the ***** duration of 25.4 months. Other studies have shown that ***** rate decreased from 72% in the


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