Essay - Breastfeeding Introduction Child Malnutrition is One of the Most Widespread...


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Breastfeeding

Introduction

Child malnutrition is one of the most widespread problems the world faces until now. It has been associated to high rates of morbidity and mortality among children in the developing countries. Child ***** ***** been associated with a number ***** f*****ctors that can be addressed by the society. Some of these are poverty ***** the family's socio-economic status, availability of food and poor diet, immunization, ***** breastfeeding practice (Brenna, McDonald, Shlomowitz, 2003). In fact, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could decrease mortality ***** children younger than 5 years old to 13% (UNICEF, 2007). South Asia has the *****est morbidity and ***** rates among ***** younger ***** 5 ***** old: 70 million children younger than 5 years are from South Asia, ***** are unlikely ***** achieve their full growth and development (South ***** Breastfeeding Partners Forum, 2007).

Breastmilk may potentially contribute to the infant's physical, cognitive, and emotional *****. Breastfeeding protects ***** infant ***** contracting many common childhood diseases such as chronic diarrhea, pneumonia; developing autoimmune *****, tooth decay, and ***** retardation (Bhandari, Bahl, Mazumdar, Martines, Black, and Bhan, *****; Brennan et al., 2003). It *****so facilitates development of the g*****trointestinal tract while facilitating the absorption and digestion ***** fats, proteins, and carbohyd***** found in foodstuffs (Gab*****, Niebyl, and Simpson, ********** Rakel ***** Bope, 2007). It also lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and obesity as *****se children become older. It strengthens maternal-***** bond*****g, an activity which is pr*****oundly important to a child's emotional development. It is ***** economically beneficial because it is free. Breastmilk contains sufficient nutrients and provides immunologic components such as antibodies ***** ***** passively transferred from the mo*****r. The mother also benefits from ***** as it provides a natural contraceptive effect. The mother ***** also protected from rapid involution of the uterus, bre*****t ***** endometrial cancers, and diabetes (*****be et al., 2007).

***** its well-founded benefits, breastfeeding rates remain low in *****l parts of the world. The *****troduction of breastmilk within 1 hour remains low among South Asian countries. In Afghanistan, ***** is not introduced during ***** first ***** ***** feeding; in *****, Afghan babies are given breastmilk only as early as 4 months old (World Health Organization [WHO], 2001; ***** Asia Breastfeeding ***** Forum, 2007). It has been found that *****5% of mothers and infants breastfeed ***** children during the first 6 months (UNICEF, 2007). There have also ***** inconsistencies with regards to the right time supplementary solid foods should be *****. In Bangladesh, it was found that ***** median duration of exclusive breastfeeding ***** 3.7 months with nearly *****% ***** the mothers introducing milk supplements prior to ***** months. Most mothers ***** exclusively breastfeed their ***** for over 30 months (Ramachandran, 2004). In India, ***** practices were found to be almost similar ***** practices in ***** and West Bengal, except that the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 5.3 months ***** lasted to the ***** duration ***** 25.4 months. Other studies have shown that ***** rate decreased from 72% in the

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