Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...


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Bullying

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Bullying in schools is a topic receiv*****g some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) defines bullying as "a form of *****ggressive behavior with an imbalance of power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes d*****tress by tormenting or harassing another less dominant person." In her search ***** the literature, Pepler found definitions f***** both direct (open attacks on the victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, ***** threatening and intimidating) and indirect (social isolati*****, social ostracism, exclusion, and nasty gossip) bullying. Further, she defined indirect bullying as having the effect of negatively affecting the target victim's social status ***** changing the way others perceived responded to the individual. In indirect bullying, ***** noted that ***** bully often was not identified and typically was not retaliated against.

***** need for more research on ***** was evident because of the frequency range reported by Pickett (2001): ***** 7% to 30% of students have been reported involved in bullying either as bully or as victim. ***** further defined bullying ***** a form of aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, ***** that the bully gained increased power over the victim (Pickett, 2001). ***** also included sexual harassment as a form of bullying.

Fin*****lly, Hirasing refined the definition ***** bullying, noting that it should be repeated and sustained and ***** it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Fin*****lly, Hirasing noted that typically the victim of the bully cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations beca***** ***** results on ***** the bullies and the *****s can be signifi*****t. Hirasing's ***** found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common results ***** being bullied. Although ***** bullying has been researched *****, Hirasing found ***** *****se outcomes were stronger for indirect *****, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful ***** the aggressor; physical bullying was a warning sign for later delinquency in Hiras*****g's research. Pickett's research showed that obese children are ***** targeted, suggesting ***** there may be other subgroups likely ***** be targeted *****.

Because ***** correlates with such serious outcomes as depression, ***** thoughts ***** future delinquency, it is ***** to learn more about the behavior pattern. ***** add*****ion, Young points out that using force in interactions may prevent students from ********** better, more effective and less damaging ways to work out conflicts with peers (Young, 2003). Peplar (*****) suggested that bullying ***** be part of the larger problem of violence in general. These studies suggest a need to clarify which children are likely to participate, either as bully, as victim, or as both; under what circumstances bullying is most ***** to occur; and ***** effects ***** may have both on perpetrat***** ***** on victim.

FIRST STUDY

Bullying is ********** that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study conducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Ger*****. He used a cross-sectional ***** cross-national comparison for his de*****. 2,377 ***** from ***** two

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