Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...

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Bullying in schools is a topic receiv*****g some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) defines bullying as "a form of aggressive behavior with an imbalance of power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes d*****tress by tormenting or harassing ano*****r less dominant person." In her search of the literature, Pepler found definitions for both direct (open attacks on ***** victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, ***** threatening and intimidating) and indirect (social isolation, social ostracism, exclusion, and nasty gossip) *****. Further, she defined indirect bullying as having the effect of negatively affecting ***** target victim's social status ***** changing the way others perceived responded to the individual. ***** indirect bullying, Pepler noted that ***** bully *****ten w***** not identified and typically was ***** retaliated against.

The need for more research on ***** ***** evident because of the frequency range reported by Pickett (2001): ***** 7% to 30% of students have been reported involved in bully*****g either as bully or as victim. Pickett further defined bullying as a ********** ***** aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, and that the bully gained incre*****ed power over the victim (Pickett, 2001). Pickett also included sexual harassment as a form of bullying.

*****, Hirasing refined the definition of bullying, noting that it should be repeated ***** sustained and ***** it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Fin*****lly, Hirasing noted that typically the victim of the ***** cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations because ***** results on ***** the bullies and the victims can be signifi*****t. Hirasing's research found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common results of being bullied. Although aggressive ***** has been researched more, Hirasing found that *****se outcomes ***** stronger for indirect bullying, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful ***** the aggressor; physical bullying was a warning sign for later delinquency in Hiras*****g's research. Pickett's ***** showed that obese children are often *****ed, suggesting that there may be other subgroups likely ***** be targeted *****.

***** bullying correlates with such serious outcomes as depression, ***** thoughts and future delinquency, it is important to learn ***** about the behavior pattern. In addition, Young points out that using force in *****teractions may prevent students from ********** better, more effective and less damaging ways to work ***** conflicts with *****s (Young, 2003). Peplar (1998) suggested that bullying may be part of the larger problem of violence in general. These studies suggest a need ***** clarify which children are likely to participate, either as bully, ***** victim, or as both; under what circumstances ***** is most ***** to occur; ***** ***** effects bullying may have both on perpetrator and on victim.


***** is *****thing that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study conducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Germany. He used a cross-sectional and cross-national comparison for his de*****. 2,377 students from ***** two


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