Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...


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Bullying

INTRODUCTION

Bullying in schools is a topic receiv*****g some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) defines bullying as "a form of aggressive behavior with an imbal*****ce of power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes distress by tormenting or harassing another less dominant person." In her search ***** the literature, Pepler found definitions for both direct (open attacks on the victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, ***** threatening and intimidating) ***** indirect (social isolation, social ostracism, exclusion, and nasty gossip) *****. Further, she defined indirect bullying as having the effect of negatively affecting the target victim's social status ***** changing the way o*****rs perceived responded to the individual. ***** indirect bullying, Pepler noted that ***** bully ********** w***** not identified and typically was ***** retaliated against.

***** need for more research on ***** was evident because of the frequency range reported by Pickett (2001): ***** 7% to 30% of students have been reported involved in bullying either as bully or as victim. ***** further defined bullying as a ********** ***** aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, and that the bully gained increased power over ***** victim (Pickett, 2001). Pickett also included sexual harassment as a form of bullying.

Fin*****lly, Hirasing refined the definition of bullying, noting that it should be repeated ***** sustained and that it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Finally, Hirasing ***** ***** typically the victim of the bully cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations beca***** the results on ***** the bullies and the victims can be significant. Hirasing's research found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common ***** of being bullied. Although aggressive bullying has been researched more, Hirasing found ***** *****se outcomes were stronger for indirect bullying, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful for the aggressor; physical ***** was a w*****rning sign for later delinquency in Hirasing's research. *****'s ***** showed that obese children are often targeted, suggesting ***** there may be other subgroups likely to ***** targeted also.

***** bullying correlates with such serious outcomes as depressi*****, ***** thoughts and future delinquency, it is important ***** learn ***** about the behavior pattern. In addition, Young points out that using force in interactions may prevent students from learning better, more effective and less damaging ways to work ***** conflicts with peers (Young, 2003). Peplar (1998) suggested that bullying ***** be part of the larger problem ***** violence in general. These studies suggest a need ***** clarify which ***** are likely to participate, either as bully, as victim, or as both; under what circumstances ***** is most ***** to occur; and what effects bully*****g may have both on perpetrat***** and on victim.

FIRST STUDY

***** is something that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study conducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Germany. He used a cross-sectional ***** cross-national comparison for his design. 2,377 students from ***** two

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