Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...

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Bullying in schools is a topic receiv*****g some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) def*****es bullying as "a form of aggressive behavior with an imbal*****ce of power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes d*****tress by tormenting or harassing another less dominant person." In her search ***** the literature, Pepler found definitions f***** both direct (open attacks on the victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, ***** threatening and intimidating) ***** indirect (social isolati*****, ***** ostracism, exclusion, and nasty gossip) bullying. Further, she defined indirect ***** as having the effect of negatively affecting ***** target victim's social status by changing the way others perceived responded to the individual. In ***** bullying, ***** noted that ***** bully often was not identified and typically was not retaliated against.

***** need for more re***** on bullying ***** evident because of the frequency range reported ***** Pickett (2001): ***** 7% to 30% of students have been ***** involved in ***** either as bully or as victim. Pickett further def*****ed *****ing as a form ***** aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, and that the bully gained increased power over ***** victim (*****, 2001). Pickett also included sexual harassment as a ***** of bullying.

Fin*****lly, Hirasing refined the definition of bullying, noting that it should be repeated ***** sustained and ***** it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Fin*****lly, Hirasing noted that typically the victim of the ***** cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations beca***** the results on ***** the bullies and the victims can be signifi*****t. Hirasing's research found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common results ***** being bullied. Although aggressive ***** has been researched more, Hirasing found ***** these outcomes were stronger for indirect bullying, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful for the aggressor; physical ***** was a warning sign for later delinquency in Hiras*****g's research. Pickett's ***** showed that obese children are often *****ed, suggesting that there may be other subgroups likely to ***** targeted *****.

***** bullying correlates with such serious outcomes as depressi*****, suicidal thoughts ***** future delinquency, it is important to learn more about the ***** pattern. In addition, Young points out that using force in interactions may prevent students from *****ing better, more effective and less damaging ways to work out conflicts with *****s (*****, 2003). Peplar (1998) suggested that bullying may be part of the larger problem ***** violence in general. These studies suggest a need ***** clarify which ***** are likely to participate, either as bully, ***** victim, or as both; under what circumstances bullying is most ***** to occur; ***** ***** effects bullying may ***** both on perpetrat***** and on victim.

***** STUDY

Bullying is something that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study c*****ducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Ger*****. He used a cross-sectional and cross-national comparison for his de*****. 2,377 ***** from the two


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