Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...

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Bullying in schools is a topic receiving some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) def*****es bullying as "a form of aggressive behavior with an imbalance ***** power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes d*****tress by tormenting or harassing another less dominant person." In her search of the literature, Pepler found definitions f***** both direct (open attacks on the victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, and threatening and intimidating) and indirect (social isolati*****, social ostracism, exclusion, ***** nasty gossip) *****. Further, she defined indirect bullying as having the effect of negatively affecting the target victim's social status by changing the way others perceived responded to the individual. In indirect bullying, ***** noted that the bully ********** was not identified and typically was not retaliated against.

The need for more re***** on ***** ***** evident because of ***** f*****quency range reported by Pickett (2001): ***** 7% to 30% ***** students have been reported involved in bullying either as bully or as victim. ***** further defined bullying ***** a form of aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, and that the bully gained increased power over ***** victim (Pickett, 2001). Pickett also included sexual harassment as a form of bullying.

*****, Hirasing refined the definition of bullying, noting that it should be repeated and sustained and ***** it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Fin*****lly, Hirasing ***** that typically the victim of the bully cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations because the results on ***** the bullies and the victims can be signifi*****t. Hirasing's research found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common results of being bullied. Although ***** bullying has been *****ed more, Hirasing found ***** *****se outcomes ***** stronger for indirect bullying, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful ***** the aggressor; physical bullying was a warning sign for later delinquency in Hirasing's research. *****'s research showed that obese children are often *****ed, suggesting ***** there may be other subgroups likely ***** be targeted *****.

Because bullying correlates with such serious outcomes as depression, ***** thoughts and future delinquency, it ***** ***** to learn more about the ***** pattern. In add*****ion, Young points out that using force in interactions may prevent students from learning better, more effective and less damaging ways to work ***** conflicts with peers (Young, 2003). Peplar (1998) suggested that bullying ***** be part of the larger problem of violence in general. These studies suggest a need to clarify which children are likely to participate, either as bully, ***** victim, or as both; under what circumstances bullying is most likely to occur; and what effects bullying may have both on perpetra*****r and on victim.


***** is ********** that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study conducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Ger*****. He used a cross-section*****l and cross-national comparison for his design. 2,377 ***** from the two


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