Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...


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Bullying

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Bullying in schools is a topic receiving some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) def*****es bullying as "a form of aggressive behavior with an imbal*****ce ***** power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes d*****tress by tormenting or harassing another less dominant person." In her search of the literature, Pepler found definitions f***** both direct (open attacks on ***** victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, and threatening and intimidating) ***** indirect (social isolation, social ostracism, exclusion, and nasty gossip) *****. Further, she defined indirect bullying as having the effect of negatively affecting the target victim's social status by changing the way others perceived responded to the individual. In ***** bullying, ***** noted that ***** bully often was not identified and typically was not retaliated against.

***** need for more re***** on bullying ***** evident because of the f*****quency range reported by Pickett (2001): from 7% to 30% ***** students have been reported involved in bullying either as bully or as victim. ***** further defined *****ing ***** a form of aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, ***** that the bully gained increased power over ***** victim (Pickett, 2001). Pickett also included sexual harassment as a ***** of bullying.

Fin*****lly, Hirasing refined the definition ***** bullying, noting that it should be repeated and sustained and that it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Fin*****lly, Hirasing noted ***** typically the victim of the bully cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations because the results on both the bullies and the *****s can be signifi*****t. Hirasing's research found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common results of being bullied. Although ***** bullying has been researched more, Hirasing found ***** ********** outcomes were stronger for indirect bullying, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful ***** the aggressor; physical bullying was a w*****rning sign for later delinquency in Hiras*****g's research. *****'s research showed that obese children are often *****ed, suggesting that there may be other subgroups likely to be targeted *****.

Because ***** correlates with such serious outcomes as depression, ***** thoughts and future delinquency, it ***** important to learn more about the ***** pattern. In addition, Young points out that using force in interactions may prevent students from ********** better, more effective and less damaging ways to work ***** conflicts with peers (*****, 2003). Peplar (*****) suggested that bullying ***** be part of the larger problem ***** violence in general. These studies suggest a need to clarify which children are likely to participate, ***** as bully, as victim, or ***** *****; under what circumstances ***** is most likely to occur; and ***** effects bullying may have both on perpetrat***** ***** on victim.

FIRST STUDY

***** is ********** that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study c*****ducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Ger*****. He used a cross-sectional and cross-national comparison for his design. 2,377 ***** from ***** two

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