Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...


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Bullying

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Bullying in schools is a topic receiv*****g some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) def*****es bullying as "a form of *****ggressive behavior with an imbalance of power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes d*****tress by tormenting or harassing ano*****r less dominant person." In her search of the literature, Pepler found definitions f***** both direct (open attacks on ***** victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, and threatening ***** intimidating) and indirect (social isolation, ***** ostracism, exclusion, ***** nasty gossip) *****. Further, she defined indirect bullying as having the effect of negatively affecting ***** target victim's social status ***** changing the way others perceived responded to the individual. ***** indirect bullying, Pepler noted that the bully often w***** not identified and typically was ***** retaliated against.

The need for more re***** on bullying was evident because of ***** f*****quency range reported by Pickett (2001): from 7% to 30% ***** students have been ***** involved in bully*****g either as bully or as victim. ***** further defined bullying ***** a form of aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, and that the bully gained increased power over ***** victim (Pickett, 2001). Pickett also included sexual harassment as a form of bullying.

Fin*****lly, Hirasing refined the definition of bullying, noting that it should be repeated and sustained and ***** it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Fin*****lly, Hirasing noted that typically the victim of the ***** cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations because the results on both the bullies and the *****s can be signifi*****t. Hirasing's research found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common results ***** being bullied. Although aggressive ***** has been *****ed more, Hirasing found that *****se outcomes were stronger for indirect bullying, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful for the aggressor; physical ***** was a w*****rning sign ***** later delinquency in Hirasing's research. *****'s ***** showed that obese children are often *****ed, suggesting that there may be other subgroups likely ***** be targeted *****.

Because bullying correlates with such serious outcomes as depressi*****, suicidal thoughts ***** future delinquency, it ***** important to learn more about the ***** pattern. In addition, Young points out that using force in interactions may prevent students ***** *****ing better, more effective and less damaging ways to work ***** conflicts with peers (*****, 2003). Peplar (1998) suggested that bullying ***** be part of the larger problem of violence in general. These studies suggest a need ***** clarify which children are likely to participate, ***** as bully, as victim, or ***** both; under what circumstances bullying is most likely to occur; ***** ***** effects bullying may ***** both on perpetrator and on victim.

FIRST STUDY

***** is ********** that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study conducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Germany. He used a cross-sectional ***** cross-national comparison for his design. 2,377 ***** from ***** two

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