Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...

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Bullying in schools is a topic receiv*****g some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) def*****es bullying as "a form of *****ggressive behavior with an imbal*****ce ***** power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes distress by tormenting or harassing ano*****r less dominant person." In her search of the literature, Pepler found definitions f***** both direct (open attacks on ***** victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, and threatening ***** intimidating) and indirect (social isolati*****, ***** ostracism, exclusion, ***** nasty gossip) bullying. Further, she defined indirect bullying as having the effect of negatively affecting the target victim's social status ***** changing the way others perceived responded to the individual. In indirect bullying, ***** noted that the bully often w***** not identified and typically was ***** retaliated against.

The need for more research on bullying ***** evident because of ***** frequency range reported by Pickett (2001): ***** 7% to 30% ***** students have been ***** involved in bullying either as bully or as victim. ***** further defined *****ing ***** a ********** of aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, and that the bully gained increased power over the victim (Pickett, 2001). Pickett also included sexual harassment as a form of bullying.

*****, Hirasing refined ***** definition of bullying, noting that it should be repeated ***** sustained and ***** it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Fin*****lly, Hirasing noted that typically the victim of the bully cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations beca***** the results on ***** the bullies and the victims can be signifi*****t. Hirasing's ***** found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common ***** ***** being bullied. Although aggressive bullying has been researched more, Hirasing found that *****se outcomes ***** stronger for indirect bullying, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful ***** the aggressor; physical ***** was a w*****rning sign for later delinquency in Hiras*****g's research. Pickett's ***** showed that obese children are often *****ed, suggesting that there may be other subgroups likely ***** be targeted *****.

Because bullying correlates with such serious outcomes as depression, suicidal thoughts and future delinquency, it is important to learn ***** about the behavior pattern. In addition, Young points out that using force in interactions may prevent students from learning better, more effective and less damaging ways to work ***** conflicts with *****s (*****, 2003). Peplar (1998) suggested that bullying ***** be part of the larger problem of violence in general. These studies suggest a need ***** clarify which ***** are likely to participate, ***** as bully, as victim, or as both; under what circumstances bullying is most ***** to occur; ***** ***** effects ***** may ***** both on perpetrat***** and on victim.

***** STUDY

Bullying is something that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study conducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Ger*****. He used a cross-section*****l and cross-national comparison for his de*****. 2,377 ***** from ***** two


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