Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...

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Bullying in schools is a topic receiving some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) defines bullying as "a form of aggressive behavior with an imbalance ***** power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes d*****tress by tormenting or harassing another less dominant person." In her search of the literature, Pepler found definitions f***** both direct (open attacks on ***** victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, and threatening and intimidating) ***** indirect (social isolati*****, social ostracism, exclusion, and nasty gossip) bullying. Further, she defined indirect ***** as having the effect of negatively affecting the target victim's ***** status by changing the way others perceived responded to the individual. ***** indirect bullying, ***** noted that the bully often was not identified and typically was not retaliated against.

The need for more re***** on ***** ***** evident because of the f*****quency range reported by Pickett (2001): from 7% to 30% ***** students have been reported involved in bully*****g either as bully or as victim. Pickett further defined *****ing ***** a form of aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, ***** that the bully gained increased power over ***** victim (*****, 2001). Pickett also included sexual harassment as a ***** of bullying.

Fin*****lly, Hirasing refined the definition ***** bullying, noting that it should be repeated and sustained and ***** it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Finally, Hirasing ***** that typically the victim of the bully cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations beca***** ***** results on both the bullies and the victims can be significant. Hirasing's research found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common ***** ***** being bullied. Although aggressive bullying has been *****ed *****, Hirasing found that these outcomes ***** stronger for indirect bullying, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful for the aggressor; physical ***** was a w*****rning sign for later delinquency in Hiras*****g's research. *****'s ***** showed that obese children are often *****ed, suggesting that there may be other subgroups likely to be targeted *****.

***** bullying correlates with such serious outcomes as depression, ***** thoughts and future delinquency, it ***** ***** ***** learn more about the ***** pattern. In add*****ion, Young points out that using force in interactions may prevent students from ********** better, more effective and less damaging ways to work ***** conflicts with *****s (*****, 2003). Peplar (1998) suggested that bullying ***** be part of the larger problem ***** violence in general. These studies suggest a need to clarify which children are likely to participate, ***** as bully, ***** victim, or as ********** under what circumstances bullying is most likely to occur; ***** ***** effects bullying may ***** both on perpetra*****r and on victim.


Bullying is ********** that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study conducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Ger*****. He used a cross-sectional ***** cross-national comparison for his de*****. 2,377 ***** from ***** two


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