Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...


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Bullying

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Bullying in schools is a topic receiving some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) def*****es bullying as "a form of *****ggressive behavior with an imbal*****ce of power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes distress by tormenting or harassing another less dominant person." In her search ***** the literature, Pepler found definitions for both direct (open attacks on ***** victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, ***** threatening and intimidating) ***** indirect (social isolati*****, social ostracism, exclusion, and nasty gossip) bullying. Further, she defined indirect ***** as having the effect of negatively affecting the target victim's ***** status ***** changing the way others perceived responded to the individual. In indirect bullying, ***** noted that ***** bully ********** was not identified and typically was not retaliated against.

***** need for more re***** on bullying was evident because of the frequency range reported by Pickett (2001): ***** 7% to 30% of students have been reported involved in bullying either as bully or as victim. Pickett further defined bullying ***** a form of aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, ***** that the bully gained increased power over the victim (*****, 2001). Pickett also included sexual harassment as a form of bullying.

Fin*****lly, Hirasing refined the definition ***** bullying, noting that it should be repeated and sustained and that it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Finally, Hirasing ***** that typically the victim of the bully cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations beca***** the results on ***** the bullies and the *****s can be signifi*****t. Hirasing's research found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common ***** ***** being bullied. Although aggressive ***** has been researched more, Hirasing found that these outcomes were stronger for indirect bullying, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful for the aggressor; physical ***** was a w*****rning sign ***** later delinquency in Hiras*****g's research. *****'s research showed that obese children are often *****ed, suggesting ***** there may be other subgroups likely ***** be targeted *****.

***** bullying correlates with such serious outcomes as depression, suicidal thoughts ***** future delinquency, it is important to learn more about the behavior pattern. In addition, Young points out that using force in interactions may prevent students from ********** better, more effective and less damaging ways to work ***** conflicts with peers (*****, 2003). Peplar (1998) suggested that bullying may be part of the larger problem of violence in general. These studies suggest a need ***** clarify which ***** are likely to participate, either as bully, as victim, or ***** both; under what circumstances bullying is most ***** to occur; and ***** effects bullying may ***** both on perpetrat***** and on victim.

FIRST STUDY

***** is something that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study c*****ducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Germany. He used a cross-sectional ***** cross-national comparison for his design. 2,377 ***** from the two

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