Essay - Bullying Introduction Bullying in Schools is a Topic Receiving Some...


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Bullying

INTRODUCTION

Bullying in schools is a topic receiving some interest from researchers in recent years. Pepler (1998) defines bullying as "a form of aggressive behavior with an imbalance ***** power; the dominant person(s) intentionally and repeatedly causes d*****tress by tormenting or harassing another less dominant person." In her search of the literature, Pepler found definitions for both direct (open attacks on the victim--kicking, pushing, hitting, teasing, taunting, mocking, ***** threatening and intimidating) and indirect (social isolation, social ostracism, exclusion, ***** nasty gossip) *****. Further, she defined indirect bullying as having the effect of negatively affecting ***** target victim's ***** status by changing the way o*****rs perceived responded to the individual. ***** ***** bullying, Pepler noted that ***** bully *****ten w***** not identified and typically was not retaliated against.

The need for more research on bullying was evident because of the frequency range reported by Pickett (2001): from 7% to 30% ***** students have been reported involved in ***** either as bully or as victim. Pickett further def*****ed bullying as a ********** of aggression that uses repeated use of aggressive interventions, and that the bully gained increased power over ***** victim (Pickett, 2001). Pickett also included sexual harassment as a form of bullying.

*****, Hirasing refined the definition of bullying, noting that it should be repeated ***** sustained and that it could involve more than one child acting as bully in a group. Fin*****lly, Hirasing noted that typically the victim of the bully cannot defend him or herself.

Bullying is an important facet of childhood peer relations because ***** results on both the bullies and the *****s can be signifi*****t. Hirasing's research found that depression and even suicidal ideation were common ***** ***** being bullied. Although aggressive bullying has been *****ed *****, Hirasing found that *****se outcomes were stronger for indirect bullying, especially on girls. Bullying was also harmful ***** the aggressor; physical ***** was a w*****rning sign for later delinquency in Hiras*****g's research. Pickett's ***** showed that obese children are often targeted, suggesting ***** there may be other subgroups likely to ***** targeted also.

Because bullying correlates with such serious outcomes as depression, suicidal thoughts and future delinquency, it is ***** to learn more about the ***** pattern. In addition, Young points out that using force in interactions may prevent students ***** learning better, more effective and less damaging ways to work ***** conflicts with peers (*****, 2003). Peplar (*****) suggested that bullying ***** be part of the larger problem of violence in general. These studies suggest a need to clarify which ***** are likely to participate, ***** as bully, ***** victim, or as *****; under what circumstances ***** is most likely to occur; ***** what effects bullying may ***** both on perpetrat***** and on victim.

***** STUDY

***** is something that happens in many countries, not just the United States. A study c*****ducted by Henrike Schulz compared bullying in Great Britain and Germany. He used a cross-sectional ***** cross-national comparison for his de*****. 2,377 students from ***** two

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