Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...

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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a laboratory experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experiment*****l design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically m*****ipulated and a personal difference variable controlled for, since individual difference *****s, as a rule, c*****nnot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a local college or university. While this may seem to introduce a degree of range restriction into the study, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differ*****g in age; that is, there is a possibility that the behavior may be more likely in older subjects, less likely ***** younger ones or vice versa. That being the case, the kind of ***** restriction suffered by the ***** serves as a ***** of control on ***** age variable. Results of th***** ***** could be meaningfully compared wi***** a subsequent study of the same phenomen***** among septu*****narians, ***** instance.

Further, the subject pool is divided acc*****ding to gender *****th 60 volunteers from each group r*****omly assigned to either ***** the two treatments.

To help in designing a study to understand ***** phenomenon of apparently altruistic behavior among bystanders, the following two variables are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that ********** a victim to a crisis.

Xeno-referencing: *****n independent *****. It consists ***** a bystander's behavioral response to ***** absence or presence of other *****.

The second independent variable is an ***** difference variable - *****.

***** manipulation consists of two treatments, and manipulates xeno-referencing ***** ***** personal ***** *****, male or fe*****.

In the basic experimental treatment, a rese*****rch subject is taken to a room set up to resemble a street corner, with ***** riser representing ***** curb ***** taped lines on the floor representing street markings. During the experiment, two volunteer ac*****rs cross the "*****" ***** opposite directions. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the street ***** must stoop to retrieve them. The ***** volunteer assistant pretends not ***** ********** and exits the room. A***** all treatments, this aspect ***** the manipulation is consistent.

The dif*****rence in treatments for the two *****s arises when the situational variable is introduced; the presence of o*****r bystanders. In treatment one, apart from the actors in the drama, the bystander ***** alone. In ***** two, the bystander is the first person standing on the *****, but others are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on the curb ***** two females and ***** males, who do not intervene or comment in any way ***** the *****.

With such a manipulation, the study shows three things. First, it *****sesses the degree to which the presence of others influences subjects' intervention in the situation ***** a gener*****l way. Second, it shows whether males are ***** or less likely than are females to intervene in a general way. F**********y, ***** shows ***** the


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