Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...


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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a laboratory experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experimental design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically manipulated and a personal difference variable controlled for, s*****ce individual difference variables, as a rule, cannot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a local college or university. While this may seem ***** introduce a degree of range restriction into the *****, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differ*****g in age; that is, there ***** a possibility that the behavior ***** be more likely in older subjects, less likely ***** younger ones or vice versa. That being the case, the kind of range restriction suffered by the sample serves as a ***** of control on ***** age variable. Results ***** this study could be meaningfully compared with a subsequent study of the same ***** among septu*****narians, f***** instance.

Further, the subject pool is divided according to gender ***** 60 volunteers from each group r*****omly assigned to either of the two treatments.

***** help in designing a study to understand ***** phenomenon of apparently altru*****tic behavior among *****s, the following two variables are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that subjects a victim to a crisis.

Xeno-referenc*****g: an independent *****. It consists ***** a bystander's behavioral response to ***** absence or presence of other bystanders.

The second ***** variable is an individual difference variable - gender.

The manipulation consists ***** two *****, and manipulates xeno-referencing ***** ***** personal difference variables, male or fe*****.

In the basic ***** treatment, a rese*****rch subject is taken to a room set up to resemble a street corner, with a riser representing the curb and taped lines on the floor representing street markings. During the experiment, two volunteer ac*****rs cross the "*****" from opposite directi*****s. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the street ***** must stoop to retrieve them. The ***** ***** assistant pretends not ***** *****ice and exits the room. Across all treatments, this aspect of the manipulati***** is consistent.

The dif*****rence in treatments for the two ********** arises when ***** situational variable is introduced; the presence of o*****r *****. In treatment one, apart from the actors in the drama, the bystander is alone. In treatment two, the ***** is the first person standing on the *****, but o*****rs are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on the ***** ***** two females and two males, who do not intervene or comment in any way ***** the *****.

With such a manipulation, the study shows three things. First, it assesses the ***** to which the presence ***** others influences *****s' intervention in the situation ***** a general way. Second, it shows whether ***** are more or less likely than are females to intervene in a general *****. Finally, ***** shows whether the

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