Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...

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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a labora*****ry experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experiment*****l design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically m*****ipulated and a per*****nal difference variable controlled for, s*****ce individual difference variables, as a rule, cannot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a local college or university. While this may seem ***** introduce a degree ***** range restriction into the study, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differ*****g in age; that is, there ***** a possibility that the behavior may be more likely in older subjects, less likely in younger ones or vice versa. That being the case, the kind of range restriction suffered by the sample serves as a kind of control on ***** age variable. Results ***** this ***** could be meaningfully compared with a subsequent study of the same phenomenon among septu*****narians, ***** instance.

Further, the subject pool is divided according to gender ***** 60 volunteers from each group r*****omly assigned to either of the two treatments.

***** help in designing a study to understand the phenomenon of apparently altruistic behavior ***** bystanders, the following two ***** are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that *****s a victim to a crisis.

Xeno-referenc*****g: an independent variable. It consists ***** a ***** behavioral response to the absence or presence of o*****r bystanders.

The second ***** variable is an individual difference ***** - gender.

The manipulation consists ***** two *****, and manipulates xeno*****referencing across two personal difference variables, male ***** fe*****.

In the basic experimental treatment, a rese*****rch subject is taken to a room set up to resemble ***** street corner, with a riser representing the curb *****nd taped lines on the floor representing street markings. During the experiment, two volunteer ac*****rs cross the "*****" from opposite directions. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the street and must stoop to retrieve them. The second ***** assistant pretends not ***** notice and exits the room. A***** all treatments, this aspect of the manipulation is consistent.

The dif*****rence in treatments for the two groups arises when ***** situational variable is *****d; the presence of o*****r *****. In treatment one, apart from the actors in ***** drama, the bystander ***** alone. In treatment two, the bystander is the first person standing on the *****, but o*****rs are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on ***** ***** ***** two females and two males, who do not intervene or comment in any way on the *****.

With such a manipulation, the ***** shows three things. First, it *****sesses the degree to which the presence ***** others influences ********** intervention in the situation in a gener*****l way. Second, it shows whether ***** are more or less likely than are females to ***** in a general *****. F*****ally, it shows whether the


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