Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...

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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a labora*****ry experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experimental design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically m*****ipulated and a personal difference ***** controlled for, s*****ce individual difference variables, as a rule, cannot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a local college or university. While this may seem ***** introduce a degree ***** range restriction into the *****, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differ*****g in age; that is, there ***** a possibility that the behavior may be more likely in older subjects, less likely in younger ones or vice versa. That being ***** case, the kind of ***** restriction suffered by the ***** serves as a kind of control on the age variable. Results ***** this study could be meaningfully compared with a subsequent study of the same phenomen***** among septuagenarians, f***** instance.

*****, the subject pool is divided according to gender ***** 60 volunteers from each group randomly assigned to either ***** the two treatments.

***** help in designing a study to understand the phenomenon of apparently altruistic behavior ***** bystanders, the following two variables are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that subjects a victim to a crisis.

Xeno-referencing: an independent variable. It consists of a bystander's behavioral response to ***** absence or presence ***** other bystanders.

The second independent variable is an individual difference variable - gender.

The manipulation consists of two treatments, and manipulates xeno*****referencing ***** ***** personal difference variables, male ***** fe*****.

In the basic experimental treatment, a rese*****rch subject is taken to a room set up to resemble a street corner, with ***** riser representing the curb ***** taped lines on the floor representing street markings. During the experiment, two volunteer ac*****rs cross the "street" ***** opposite directions. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the street and must stoop to retrieve them. The ***** ***** assistant pretends not to notice and exits the room. Across all treatments, this aspect of the manipulation is consistent.

The ***** in treatments for the two groups arises when ***** situational variable is introduced; the presence of o*****r *****. In treatment one, apart from the actors in the drama, the bystander ***** alone. In treatment two, the bystander is the first person standing on the corner, but others are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on ***** curb ***** two *****males and two males, who do not intervene or comment in any way ***** the drama.

With such a *****, the ***** shows three things. First, it ********** the degree to which the presence ***** others influences *****' intervention in the situation in a general way. Second, it shows whether ***** are more or less ***** than are females to intervene in a general way. F*****ally, it shows ***** the


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