Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...

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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a laboratory experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experimental design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically m*****ipulated and a per*****nal difference ***** controlled for, s*****ce individual difference variables, as a rule, cannot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a local college or university. While this may seem ***** introduce a degree of range restriction into the *****, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differ*****g in age; that is, there ***** a possibility that the behavior may be more likely in older subjects, less likely ***** younger ones or vice versa. That being the case, the kind of ***** restriction suffered by the ***** serves as a ***** of control on ***** age variable. Results ***** this study could be meaningfully compared with a subsequent study of the same phenomenon among septuagenarians, ***** instance.

Further, the subject pool is divided according to gender with 60 volunteers from each group r*****omly assigned to either ***** the two treatments.

To help in designing a study to understand the phenomenon of apparently altru*****tic behavior ***** bystanders, the following two variables are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that subjects a victim to a crisis.

Xeno-referenc*****g: an independent *****. It consists of a bystander's behavioral response to ***** absence or presence of other bystanders.

The second ***** variable is an individual difference variable - *****.

***** manipulation consists ***** two *****, and manipulates xeno-referencing ***** ***** personal difference variables, male ***** fe*****.

In the basic experimental treatment, a rese*****rch subject is taken to a room set up to resemble ***** street corner, with a riser representing ***** curb ***** t*****ped lines on the floor ***** street markings. During the experiment, two volunteer ac*****rs cross the "*****" from opposite directi*****s. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the street ***** must stoop to retrieve them. The ***** ***** assistant pretends not to notice and exits the room. A***** all treatments, ***** aspect of the manipulati***** is consistent.

The ***** in treatments for the two *****s arises when the situational variable is introduced; the presence ***** other bystanders. In treatment one, apart from the actors in the drama, the bystander ***** alone. In treatment two, the bystander is ***** first person stand*****g on the *****, but o*****rs are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on the curb ***** two females and two males, who do not intervene or comment in any way on the drama.

With such a manipulation, the study shows three things. First, it *****sesses the degree to which the presence of others influences ********** intervention in the situation ***** a general way. Second, it shows whether ***** are more or less likely than are females to intervene in a general *****. F**********y, ***** shows whether the


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