Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...

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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a labora*****ry experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experiment*****l design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically m*****ipulated and a personal difference variable controlled for, s*****ce individual difference *****s, as a rule, c*****nnot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a loc*****l college or university. While this may seem to introduce a degree ***** range restriction into the *****, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differing in age; that is, there is a possibility that the behavior may be more likely in older subjects, less likely in younger ones or vice versa. That being ***** case, the kind of ***** restriction suffered by the sample serves as a kind of control on ***** *****ge variable. Results of this study could be meaningfully compared with a subsequent study of the same phenomenon among septuagenarians, ***** instance.

Further, the subject pool is divided according to gender ***** 60 volunteers from each group r*****omly assigned to either of the two treatments.

To help in designing a study to understand the phenomenon of apparently altruistic behavior ***** bystanders, the following two variables are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that ***** a victim to a crisis.

Xeno-referencing: an independent variable. It consists ***** a bystander's *****al response to the absence or presence of other *****.

The second ***** variable is an ***** difference variable - *****.

The manipulation consists ***** two treatments, and manipulates xeno*****referencing across ***** personal ***** *****, male or female.

In the basic experimental treatment, a rese*****rch ***** is taken to a room set up to resemble ***** street corner, with a riser representing the curb *****nd taped lines on the floor ***** street markings. During the experiment, two volunteer actors cross the "*****" from opposite directions. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the street and must stoop to retrieve them. The ***** volunteer assistant pretends not to *****ice and exits the room. A***** all treatments, this aspect of the manipulation is consistent.

The difference in treatments for the two groups arises when the situational variable is introduced; the presence ***** o*****r bystanders. In treatment one, apart from the actors in the drama, the bystander ***** alone. In treatment two, the bystander is the first person standing on the corner, but o*****rs are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on ***** curb are two females and ***** males, who do not intervene or comment in any way on the *****.

With such a *****, the ***** shows three things. First, it assesses the degree to which the presence of others influences subjects' intervention in the situation ***** a gener*****l way. Second, it shows whether ***** are ***** or less ***** than are females to intervene in a general *****. Fin*****y, ***** shows ***** the


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