Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...

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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a labora*****ry experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experiment*****l design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically manipulated and a personal difference variable controlled for, since individual difference *****s, as a rule, cannot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a local college or university. While this may seem to introduce a degree ***** range restriction into the *****, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differ*****g in age; that is, there ***** a possibility that the behavior ***** be more likely in older subjects, less likely ***** younger ones or vice versa. That being the case, the kind of range restriction suffered by the sample serves as a ***** of control on the age variable. Results ***** ***** study could be meaningfully compared with a subsequent study of the same phenomen***** among septuagenarians, f***** instance.

*****, the subject pool is divided according to gender ***** 60 volunteers from each group randomly assigned to either ***** the two treatments.

To help in designing a study to understand the phenomenon of apparently altruistic behavior among *****s, the following two variables are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that subjects a victim to a crisis.

Xeno-referenc*****g: *****n independent variable. It consists ***** a bystander's *****al response to ***** absence or presence of other bystanders.

The second ***** variable is an individual difference ***** - *****.

***** manipulation consists of two *****, and manipulates xeno-referencing ***** two ***** difference *****, male or female.

In the basic experimental treatment, a research subject is taken to a room set up to resemble a street corner, with a riser representing ***** curb and taped lines on the floor representing street markings. During the experiment, two volunteer actors cross the "*****" ***** opposite directi*****s. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the street and must stoop to retrieve them. The ***** volunteer assistant pretends not to *****ice and exits the room. Across all treatments, this aspect ***** the manipulati***** is consistent.

The ***** in treatments for the two ********** arises when the situational variable is *****d; the presence of other *****. In treatment one, apart from the actors in the drama, the bystander is alone. In ***** two, the bystander is the first person standing on the corner, but o*****rs are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on the ***** are two females and ***** males, who do not intervene or comment in any way ***** the drama.

With such a manipulation, the ***** shows three things. First, it ********** the ***** to which the presence of others influences *****' intervention in the situation ***** a general way. Second, it shows whether ***** are more or less ***** than ***** females to intervene in a general way. Fin*****y, it shows whether the


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