Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...

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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a laboratory experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experimental design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically manipulated and a personal difference ***** controlled for, s*****ce individual difference variables, as a rule, cannot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a local college or university. While this may seem ***** introduce a degree ***** range restriction into the study, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differing in age; that is, there ***** a possibility that the behavior ***** be more likely in older subjects, less likely ***** younger ones or vice versa. That being the case, the kind of range restriction suffered by the sample serves as a ***** of control on the ********** variable. Results ***** ***** ***** could be meaningfully compared with a subsequent study of the same ***** am*****g septuagenarians, f***** instance.

Further, the subject pool is divided according to gender ***** 60 volunteers from each group r*****omly assigned to either of the two treatments.

***** help in designing a study to understand ***** phenomenon of apparently altru*****tic behavior among bystanders, the following two variables are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that ***** a victim to a crisis.

Xeno-referenc*****g: *****n independent variable. It consists of a ***** behavioral response to the absence or presence ***** o*****r bystanders.

The second independent variable is an ***** difference variable - *****.

The manipulation consists of two treatments, and manipulates xeno-referencing across two personal ***** variables, male ***** female.

In the basic ***** treatment, a research ***** is taken to a room set up to resemble ***** street corner, with a riser representing ***** curb ***** taped lines on the floor ***** street markings. During the experiment, ***** volunteer actors cross the "*****" ***** opposite directi*****s. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the street and must stoop to retrieve them. The second ***** assistant pretends not to notice and exits the room. Across all treatments, this aspect of the manipulation is consistent.

The difference in treatments for the two groups arises when ***** situational variable is *****d; the presence ***** other bystanders. In treatment one, apart from the actors in ***** drama, the bystander ***** alone. In treatment two, the bystander is ***** first person standing on the corner, but others are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on ***** ***** ***** two females and two males, who do not intervene or comment in any way ***** the drama.

With such a manipulation, the study shows three things. First, it assesses the degree to which the presence of others influences subjects' intervention in the situation ***** a general way. Second, it shows whether males are more or less likely than are females to intervene in a general *****. Fin*****y, it shows whether the


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