Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...

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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a laboratory experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experimental design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically manipulated and a per*****nal difference ***** controlled for, s*****ce individual difference variables, as a rule, c*****nnot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a local college or university. While this may seem ***** introduce a degree ***** range restriction into the *****, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differing in age; that is, there ***** a possibility that the behavior ***** be more likely in older subjects, less likely ***** younger ones or vice versa. That being the case, the kind of ***** restriction suffered by the sample serves as a kind of control on the ********** variable. Results of this study could be meaningfully compared with a subsequent study of the same ***** am*****g septuagenarians, f***** instance.

Further, the subject pool is divided according to gender ***** 60 ***** *****rom each group randomly assigned to either of the two treatments.

***** help in designing a study to understand the phenomenon of apparently altru*****tic behavior among bystanders, the following two ***** are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that ***** a victim to a crisis.

Xeno-referencing: an independent *****. It consists ***** a bystander's *****al response to the absence or presence of other bystanders.

The second independent variable is an ***** difference ***** - gender.

The manipulation consists ***** two treatments, and manipulates xeno-referencing ***** two personal difference variables, male or fe*****.

In the basic experimental treatment, a research subject is taken to a room set up to resemble ***** street corner, with a riser representing the curb ***** taped lines on the floor representing street markings. During the experiment, ***** volunteer actors cross the "street" from opposite directi*****s. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the ***** and must stoop to retrieve them. The sec*****d volunteer assistant pretends not ***** *****ice and exits the room. A***** all treatments, ***** aspect of the manipulation is consistent.

The difference in treatments for the two groups arises when ***** situational variable is introduced; the presence of other bystanders. In treatment one, apart from the actors in ***** drama, the bystander ***** alone. In treatment two, the ***** is the first person stand*****g on the *****, but o*****rs are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on ***** ***** are two females and two males, who do not intervene or comment in any way ***** the *****.

With such a *****, the study shows three things. First, it assesses the degree to which the presence ***** others influences subjects' intervention in the situation in a general way. Second, it shows whether ***** are ***** or less ***** than are females to ***** in a general way. Finally, ***** shows whether the


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