Essay - Bystander Intervention 2x2 Study March 7, 2005this Study Seeks to...

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Bystander Intervention

2x2 Study

March 7, 2005This study seeks to understand bystander intervention through a laboratory experiment. To do so, it will use a 2x2 experiment*****l design in which an environmental variable particular to the phenomenon is systematically m*****ipulated and a personal difference ***** controlled for, since individual difference variables, as a rule, cannot be manipulated.

The sample consists of 120 undergraduate college volunteers from a local college or university. While this may seem to introduce a degree of range restriction into the study, it should technically amplify the results since the behavior in question may differ across subjects differing in age; that is, *****re is a possibility that the behavior ***** be more likely in older subjects, less likely ***** younger ones or vice versa. That being ***** case, the kind of ***** restriction suffered by the sample serves as a ***** of control on the *****ge variable. Results of ***** study could be meaningfully compared with a subsequent study of the same phenomen***** among septuagenarians, for instance.

*****, the subject pool ***** divided according to gender with 60 ***** from each group randomly assigned to either ***** the two treatments.

***** help in designing a study to understand the phenomenon of apparently altruistic behavior among *****s, the following two ***** are defined:

Altruism: the dependent variable, consists of a bystander's intervention in an event that ***** a victim to a crisis.

Xeno-referenc*****g: an independent *****. It consists ***** a bystander's behavioral response to the absence or presence of o*****r bystanders.

The second ***** variable is an ***** difference ***** - *****.

The manipulation consists of two *****, and manipulates xeno-referencing ***** ***** personal ***** variables, male or female.

In the basic experimental treatment, a rese*****rch subject is taken to a room set up to resemble a street corner, with ***** riser representing the curb and taped lines on the floor ***** street markings. During the experiment, two volunteer actors cross the "*****" ***** opposite directi*****s. They collide and one of the assistants drops numerous packages on the street and must stoop to retrieve them. The second volunteer assistant pretends not ***** *****ice and exits the room. Across all treatments, this aspect of the manipulation is consistent.

The difference in treatments ***** the two *****s arises when the situational variable is introduced; the presence ***** o*****r bystanders. In treatment one, apart from the actors in ***** drama, the bystander ***** alone. In ***** two, the bystander is ***** first person standing on the corner, but o*****rs are present as well. Standing behind the volunteer on ***** curb ***** two females and two males, who do not intervene or comment in any way ***** the drama.

With such a manipulation, the ***** shows three things. First, it ********** the degree to which the presence of others influences ********** intervention in the situation ***** a gener*****l way. Second, it shows whether males are more or less likely than ***** females to ***** in a general way. F**********y, ***** shows whether the


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