Essay - Changing Concepts of Nature and Individual Differences in the Late...


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Changing Concepts of Nature and individual Differences in the late Middle Ages

Explore the ways ***** which the humanities reflect changing concepts of nature and ***** differences during ***** Late Middle Ages. Select specific works to illustrate your view of the changes that have occurred and present explanation of how and why the ***** characterize the period. Make a connection to Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and ***** Rome ***** discuss ***** changes that are evident.

It would be too easy to generalize that the ancient Greeks and Romans saw nature as 'good' and that early Christian medieval society did not. Greeks such as Hippocrates celebrated ***** need to c***** of the body, while Platonists disdained the value of the material, bodily world in contrast to the heavenly sphere ***** ***** 'forms.' Roman Stoics stressed mastery of the ***** as a w*****y of *****coming more harmonious with the natural world and strove not to counteract humanity's innate sense of balance with nature but the Roman army mastered nature by constructing mighty aqueducts. **********, while Christian ascetics mortified their physical bodies, the ***** world could ***** be rejected entirely ***** Christians as God had created the world, thus the world must be good, even if humanity was fallen. In fact, the stress upon physical relics that signified the miracles ***** presence ***** the saints in the material world were not unlike ***** religious significance given to the corporal body in Ancient Egypt. Of course, the body itself did not ascend to heaven ***** Christian belief, as it ***** according to the pagan, Egyptian belief system. However, the ***** upon creating beautiful tombs to enclose the ***** remains of the dead is analogous to Egyptian attitudes.

Thus, the divide in human thought regarding the individual and nature is not ***** clear as one might be tempted to assume. Particularly ***** the *****, as opposed to the early Middle Ages, there was a revivification in the interest s*****n *****wards ***** classical *****, and learning which ***** part of a new respect for the ***** and an acceptance ***** the natural sciences. For example, the early Christian philosopher Augustine wrote ***** although God ***** created the universe "as nebulous matter, within which lay 'primal seeds'" that "grew and developed into the universe and its life forms, guided by ***** natural laws that God had laid down...investigation and debate about such matters was ***** encouraged in the early Middle ********** Augustine himself wrote, 'Seek not to understand that you may believe, ***** believe that you may understand'" (Waggoner, 1997). But later, Aquinas joined the two approaches of philosophy and theology to present a theory of the cosmos. "Reason was no longer conceived as the nemesis of Faith...Aquinas [claimed] that both were paths to a single truth: '***** exists'" (Kreis, 2000). Philosophy ********** reason in general were no longer seen as hostile to faith.

***** Late Middle Ages w***** characterized by interest in anatomy, as is reflected ***** ***** ***** individuated representations of the ***** form in

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