Essay - Changing Concepts of Nature and Individual Differences in the Late...


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Changing Concepts of Nature and individual Differences in the late Middle Ages

Explore the ways in which the humanities reflect chang*****g concepts of nature and individual differences during the Late Middle Ages. Select specific works to illustrate your view of the changes that have occurred and present explanation ***** how and why the concepts characterize the period. Make a connection to Ancient Egypt, ***** Greece and Ancient Rome and discuss ***** ***** that are evident.

***** would be too easy to generalize that the ancient Greeks and Romans saw ***** as 'good' and that early Christian medieval society did not. ***** such as Hippocrates celebrated the need to care of the body, while Pla*****nists disdained the value of ***** material, bodily world in contrast to the heavenly sphere of the 'forms.' Roman Stoics stressed mastery of ***** ***** as a w*****y of *****coming more harmonious with the natural ***** and strove not to counteract humanity's innate sense ***** balance with nature but the ***** army mastered nature by constructing mighty aqueducts. **********, while Christian ascetics mortified their physical bodies, the natural world could ***** be rejected entirely by *****s as God had created ***** world, thus the world must be good, even if humanity was fallen. In fact, the stress upon physical relics that signified the miracles ***** presence of ***** saints in the ***** world were not unlike ***** religious significance given to the corporal body in Ancient Egypt. Of course, the body itself did not ascend ***** heaven ***** Christian *****lief, as it did according to the pagan, Egyptian belief system. However, the stress upon creating beautiful tombs to enclose the physical remains of the dead is analogous to Egyptian attitudes.

Thus, the divide in human thought regarding the ***** and nature is not ***** clear as one might be tempted to assume. Particularly ***** the late, as opposed ***** the early Middle Ages, there w***** a revivification in the interest s*****n to*****ards the classical *****, and learning which was part of a new respect for ***** individual and an acceptance of the natural sciences. For example, the ***** Christian philosopher Augustine wrote ***** although God had created ***** universe "as nebulous matter, ********** which lay 'primal seeds'" that "grew and developed into the universe and its life forms, guided ***** ***** natural laws that ***** had laid down...investigation ***** debate about ***** matters ***** not encouraged in the early Middle ********** Augustine himself wrote, 'Seek ***** to understand that you may *****lieve, but believe that you may understand'" (Wagg*****r, 1997). But later, Aquinas joined the two approaches of philosophy and ********** to present a theory of the cosmos. "Reason was no longer conceived as the nemesis of Faith...Aquinas [claimed] ***** both were paths to a single truth: 'God exists'" (Kreis, 2000). Philosophy and reason in general were ***** longer seen as hostile to faith.

The Late Middle Ages was characterized by interest in ana*****my, as is reflected ***** the ***** individuated re*****ations of ***** ***** form in

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