Essay - Changing Concepts of Nature and Individual Differences in the Late...

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Changing Concepts of Nature and individual Differences in the late Middle Ages

Explore the ways ***** which ***** humanities reflect changing concepts of nature and individual differences during the Late Middle *****. Select specific works to illustrate your view of the changes that have occurred and present explanation ***** how and why the ***** characterize the period. Make a connection to Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome and discuss ***** ***** that are evident.

It would be too easy to generalize that the ancient Greeks and Romans saw nature as 'good' and that early Christian medieval society did not. ***** such as Hippocrates celebrated the need to care of ***** body, while Pla*****nists disdained the value of the material, bodily world in contrast to the heavenly sphere of the 'forms.' Roman Stoics stressed mastery of ***** body as a way ***** *****coming more harmonious with the natural world and strove not to counteract humanity's innate sense of balance ***** nature but the ***** army mastered nature by constructing mighty aqueducts. Later, while Christian ascetics mortified their physical bodies, the natural world could not be rejected entirely by Christians as God had created the world, thus the world must be good, even if humanity was fallen. In fact, the stress upon ***** relics ***** signified the miracles and presence ***** ***** saints in the ***** ***** were ***** unlike ***** religious significance given to the corporal body in Ancient Egypt. Of course, the body itself did not ascend to heaven in Christian belief, as it ***** according to the pagan, *****ian belief system. However, the stress upon creating beautiful tombs to enclose the physical remains of the dead is analogous to Egyptian attitudes.

Thus, the divide in human thought regarding the individual ***** nature is not as clear as one might be tempted to assume. Particularly ***** the *****, as opposed ***** ***** early Middle Ages, there was a revivification in the interest s*****n towards ***** classical world, and learning which was part ***** a new respect for the individual and an acceptance of the natural sciences. For example, the ***** ***** philosopher Augustine wrote that although God ***** created ***** universe "as nebulous matter, within which lay 'primal seeds'" ***** "grew and developed into the universe and its life *****ms, guided ***** ***** natural laws that ***** had laid down...investigation ***** debate about ***** matters was ***** encouraged in the early Middle Ages; ***** himself wrote, 'Seek not to understand that you may *****lieve, but believe ***** you may understand'" (Waggoner, 1997). But later, Aquinas joined the two approaches of philosophy and theology to present a theory of the cosmos. "Reason was no longer conceived as ***** nemesis of Faith...***** [claimed] that both were paths to a single truth: 'God exists'" (Kreis, 2000). Philosophy and reason in general were no longer seen as hostile to faith.

The Late Middle Ages was characterized by *****terest in anatomy, as is *****ed ***** the ***** individuated re*****ations ***** ***** human form in


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