Essay - Changing Concepts of Nature and Individual Differences in the Late...


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Changing Concepts of Nature and individual Differences in the late Middle Ages

Explore the ways ***** which the humanities reflect changing concepts of nature and individual differences during the Late Middle Ages. Select specific works to illustrate your view of the changes that have occurred and present explanation ***** how ***** why the ***** characterize the period. Make a connection ***** Ancient Egypt, ***** Greece and Ancient Rome and discuss the changes that are evident.

***** would be too easy to generalize that the ancient Greeks and Romans saw ***** as 'good' and that early Christian medieval society did not. Greeks such as Hippocrates celebrated ***** need to care of the body, while Pla*****nists disdained the value ***** the material, bodily world in contrast to the heavenly sphere of the 'forms.' Roman Stoics stressed mastery of the body as a way of becoming more harmonious with the natural ***** and strove ***** to counteract humanity's innate sense ***** balance ***** nature but the Roman army mastered nature by constructing mighty aqueducts. **********, while ***** ascetics mortified their physical bodies, the ***** world could not be rejected entirely by Christians as God had created ***** *****, thus the world must be good, even if humanity was fallen. In fact, the stress upon ***** relics that signified the miracles ***** presence of ***** saints in the ***** world were ***** unlike the religious significance given to ***** corporal ***** in Ancient Egypt. Of course, the body itself did not ascend to heaven ***** Christian belief, as it ***** according to the pagan, *****ian belief system. However, the stress upon creating beautiful tombs to enclose the physical remains ***** the dead is analogous to Egyptian attitudes.

*****, the divide in human thought regarding the individual and nature is not as clear as one might be tempted to assume. Particularly ***** the late, as opposed ***** the early Middle Ages, there was a revivification in the interest shown towards the classical *****, and learning which ***** part of a new respect for the individual and an accept*****ce ***** the natural sciences. For example, the ***** ***** philosopher Augustine wrote that although God had created ***** universe "as nebulous matter, within which lay 'primal seeds'" that "grew and developed into the universe and its life forms, guided ***** ***** ***** laws that God had laid down...investigation ***** debate about ***** matters was ***** encouraged in the early Middle Ages; ***** himself wrote, 'Seek not to understand that you may *****lieve, ***** believe ***** you may understand'" (Waggoner, 1997). But later, Aquinas joined the two approaches of philosophy and theology to present a theory of the cosmos. "Reason was no longer conceived as ***** nemesis of Faith...***** [claimed] that both were paths to a single truth: '***** exists'" (Kreis, 2000). Philosophy *****nd reason in general were no longer seen as hostile to faith.

***** Late Middle Ages w***** characterized by *****terest in anatomy, as is reflected ***** the ***** individuated representations of ***** human form in

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