Essay - Changing Concepts of Nature and Individual Differences in the Late...

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Changing Concepts of Nature and individual Differences in the late Middle Ages

Explore the ways in which the humanities reflect chang*****g concepts of nature and individual differences during the Late Middle Ages. Select specific works to illustrate your view of the changes that have occurred and present explanation ***** how ***** why the ***** characterize the period. Make a connection to Ancient Egypt, ***** Greece and Ancient Rome ***** discuss the ***** that are evident.

***** would be too easy to generalize that the ancient Greeks and Romans saw ***** as 'good' and that early Christian medieval society did not. ***** such as Hippocrates celebrated ***** need to c***** of the body, while Platonists disdained the value of ***** material, bodily world in contrast to the heavenly sphere of the 'forms.' Roman Stoics stressed mastery of ***** body as a way of *****coming more harmonious with the natural ***** and strove not to counteract humanity's innate sense of balance with nature but the Roman army mastered nature by constructing mighty aqueducts. *****r, while ***** ascetics mortified their physical bodies, the ***** world could ***** be rejected entirely ***** Christians as God had created ***** world, thus the world must be good, even if humanity w***** fallen. In fact, the stress upon physical relics ***** signified the miracles and presence of the saints in the ***** world were not unlike the religious significance given to the corporal body in Ancient Egypt. Of course, the body itself did ***** ascend ***** heaven in Christian belief, as it ***** according to the pagan, *****ian belief system. However, the ***** upon creating beautiful *****mbs to enclose the ***** remains ***** the dead is analogous to Egyptian attitudes.

Thus, the divide in human thought regarding the ***** ***** nature is not as clear as one might be tempted to assume. Particularly during the late, as opposed to ***** early Middle Ages, there was a revivification in the interest s*****n towards ***** classical *****, and learning which ***** part of a new respect for the individual and an acceptance ***** the natural sciences. For example, the early Christian philosopher Augustine wrote that although God ***** created the universe "as nebulous matter, within which lay 'primal seeds'" that "grew and developed into the universe and its life forms, guided by ***** natural laws that God had laid down...investigation ***** debate about ***** matters was ***** encouraged in the early Middle Ages; Augustine himself wrote, 'Seek not to understand that you may believe, but believe ***** you ***** understand'" (Waggoner, 1997). But later, Aquinas joined the two approaches of philosophy and theology to present a theory of the cosmos. "Reason was no longer conceived as the nemesis of Faith...***** [claimed] that both were paths to a single truth: 'God exists'" (Kreis, 2000). Philosophy and reason in general were no longer seen as hostile to faith.

***** Late Middle Ages was characterized by interest in anatomy, as is ********** in the ***** individuated representations of ***** ***** form in


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