Essay - Changing Concepts of Nature and Individual Differences in the Late...

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Changing Concepts of Nature and individual Differences in the late Middle Ages

Explore the ways in which ***** humanities reflect chang*****g concepts of nature and ***** differences during the Late Middle *****. Select specific works to illustrate your view of the changes that have occurred and present explanation ***** how and why the ***** characterize the period. Make a connection ***** Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and ***** Rome ***** discuss the changes that are evident.

***** would be too easy to generalize that the ancient Greeks and Romans saw nature as 'good' and that early Christian medieval society did not. Greeks such as Hippocrates celebrated ***** need to care of the body, while Platonists disdained the value ***** ***** material, bodily world in contrast to the heavenly sphere of the 'forms.' Roman Stoics stressed mastery of ***** body as a w*****y of becoming more harmonious with the natural ***** and strove not to counteract humanity's innate sense ***** balance ***** nature but the ***** army mastered nature by constructing mighty aqueducts. *****r, while Christian ascetics mortified their physical bodies, the natural world could not be rejected entirely ***** Christians as God had created the *****, thus the world must be good, even if humanity w***** fallen. In fact, the stress upon physical relics that signified the miracles ***** presence of the saints in the ***** world were not unlike the religious significance given to ***** corporal body in Ancient Egypt. Of course, the body itself did ***** ascend ***** heaven in Christian *****lief, as it ***** according to the pagan, Egyptian belief system. However, the ***** upon creating beautiful *****mbs to enclose the physical remains ***** the dead is analogous to Egyptian attitudes.

Thus, the divide in human thought regarding the individual and nature is not as clear as one might be tempted to assume. Particularly ***** the *****, as opposed ***** ***** early Middle Ages, there w***** a revivification in the interest s*****n towards ***** classical *****, and learning which was part of a new respect for the individual and an acceptance ***** the natural sciences. For example, the early ***** philosopher Augustine wrote ***** although God had created ***** universe "as nebulous matter, within which lay 'primal seeds'" that "grew and developed into the ***** and its life forms, guided by ***** ***** laws that God had laid down...investigation and debate about such matters was not encouraged in the early Middle Ages; August*****e himself wrote, 'Seek not to understand that you may *****lieve, but believe that you may understand'" (Waggoner, 1997). But later, Aquinas joined the two approaches of philosophy and ********** to present a theory of the cosmos. "Reason was no longer conceived as the nemesis of Faith...Aquinas [claimed] that both were paths to a single truth: '***** exists'" (Kreis, 2000). Philosophy and reason in general were ***** longer seen as hostile to faith.

***** Late Middle Ages was characterized by *****terest in anatomy, as is reflected in ***** more individuated re*****ations ***** the human form in


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