Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...

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The beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration of child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition of children as developmentally unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of ***** and little attention was paid to the many advances ***** cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth." (Van Wagner)

Intense interest in the field of child development really began in the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency ***** earlier psychological theory, especially with regard to the theories of Sigmund Freud, was to focus on ***** development from the perspective of abnormal developmental issues. This stance has since been adjusted and ameliorated by ***** c*****temporary *****orists, such as Piaget and Eriksson.

While previous assessments of the infant or young child tended ***** emphasize the qualities of dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the infant have impressed psychologists with his alertness to the environment ***** ***** ability ***** adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, ***** realized that the child is not a "... p*****ssive recipient of *****al influences" but that development is in fact an active and inter***** process" (***** and ***** 460).

*****. Stages ***** development

***** concerns with ***** to child and adolescent development ***** tended ***** emphasize the various stages of growth ***** development - which includes both cognitive, psychological and physical aspects. One of the most famous ***** the experts in th***** field is Jean *****. Piaget focused on ***** development ***** stated ***** there are a number of central ***** cognitive stages. The four developmental stages that Piaget identified were firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by the recognition of self as an agent of actions, ***** as shaking a rattle to make a no*****e. (Piaget)

***** Preoperational stage between the ages ***** ***** *****d seven is the stage at ***** the child learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words. At this stage thinking and thought processing is still very egocentric and the child is less aw***** of the perspective and viewpoints of others. (Piaget) This is a stage when the child is, "... not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by ***** takes place between seven and eleven years of age ***** is characterized by conceptualization and logical analys***** and categorization of the world around him or her. ***** Formal ***** stage is when the individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypo*****ses systematically."


While these stages represent cogent insights into ***** development they have also ***** criticized for being too rigid and not allowing ***** a more flexible view of the w*****y that ***** develop cognition, as well as the way that they develop concrete operations, often at a much earlier age than Pi*****t suggests.

Another view of child *****ment, which *****


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