Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...

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***** beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration ***** child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition of children as *****ally unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults and little attention w***** paid to the many advances in cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth." (Van Wagner)

Intense *****terest in the field of child development really began ***** the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency in earlier psychological *****ory, especially with regard ***** the *****ories of Sigmund Freud, was to focus on ***** development from the perspective ***** abnormal ********** issues. This stance has since been adjusted and ameliorated by many c*****temporary theorists, such as Piaget ***** Eriksson.

While previous assessments of the infant or young child tended ***** emphasize the qualities of dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the ***** have impressed psychologists with his alertness to ***** environment and his ability ***** adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, psychologists realized that the child is not a "... passive recipient of environmental influences" but that development ***** in fact an active and inter***** process" (McKeachie and Doyle 460).

*****. Stages of development

Theoretical concerns with ***** to child and adolescent development ***** ***** to emphasize the various stages ***** growth ***** ***** - which includes both cognitive, psychological and physical aspects. One of the most famous of the experts in this field is Jean Piaget. ***** focused on ***** development and stated ***** there are a number of central developmental cognitive stages. The four developmental stages that Piaget identified ***** firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth ***** two years of age. ***** stage ***** characterized ***** the recognition ***** self as an agent of actions, ***** as shaking a rattle to make a noise. (Piaget)

***** Preoperational stage between the ages of ***** and seven is the ***** at ***** the child learns to use language and to represent objects by images and *****. At this stage thinking and thought processing is still very egocentric and the ***** ***** less aw***** ***** the perspective and viewpoints of others. (Piaget) This is a st*****ge when the child is, "... not yet able ***** conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by Piaget takes place between seven and eleven years of age and is characterized by conceptualization and logical analysis and categorization of the world around him or her. The F*****mal ***** st***** is ***** the individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypo*****ses systematically."


***** these stages represent cogent insights into child development they have also ***** criticized for being too rigid and not allowing ***** a more flexible view of the w*****y that children develop cognition, as well as the way that *****y develop concrete operations, often at a much earlier age than Piaget suggests.

Another view of child *****, which is


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