Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...

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The beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration ***** child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition of children as developmentally unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of ***** and little attention was paid to the many advances in cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth." (Van Wagner)

***** *****terest in the field of child development really began in the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency ***** earlier psychological theory, especially with regard ***** the *****ories of Sigmund Freud, was to focus on child development from the perspective ***** abnormal ********** issues. This stance has since been adjusted and ameliorated by many contemporary theorists, such as Piaget ***** Eriksson.

While previous assessments of the infant or young child tended ***** emp*****ize the qualities ***** dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the infant have impressed psychologists with his alertness to ***** environment and his ability ***** adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, ***** realized that the child is not a "... p*****ssive recipient of environmental influences" but that development is in fact an active and inter***** process" (McKeachie and ***** 460).

*****. Stages ***** development

***** concerns with regard to child and adolescent development ***** ***** to emphasize ***** various stages of growth ***** development - which includes both cognitive, psychological and physical aspects. One ***** the most famous of the experts in t***** field ***** Jean Piage*****. *****t focused on cognitive development ***** stated that there are a number ***** central developmental cognitive stages. The four developmental stages that Piaget identified were firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth and two years of age. ***** stage is characterized ***** the recognition of self as an agent of actions, such as shaking a rattle to make a no*****e. (Piaget)

The Preoperational stage between the ages of two and seven is ***** ***** at which the child learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words. At this stage thinking and thought processing is still very egocentric and the ***** ***** less aware ***** the perspective and viewpoints of others. (Piaget) This is a st*****ge when the child is, "... not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by ***** takes ***** between seven and eleven years of age ***** is characterized ***** conceptualization and logical analys***** ***** categorization of the world around him or her. The Formal ***** stage is when ***** individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically."


While these stages represent cogent insights into ***** development they have also been criticized for being too rigid and not allowing for a more flexible view of the w*****y that children develop cognition, as well as the way that *****y develop concrete operations, often at a much earlier age than Pi*****t suggests.

***** view of child *****, which is


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