Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...


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CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

The beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration ***** child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition of children as *****ally unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults and little attention w***** paid to the many advances ***** cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical gro*****th." (Van Wagner)

Intense interest in the field of child development really began ***** the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency in earlier psychological *****ory, especially ***** regard ***** the *****ories of Sigmund Freud, was to focus on ***** development from the perspective of abnormal ********** issues. This stance has since been adjusted and ameliorated by many contemporary *****orists, such as Piaget ***** Eriksson.

While previous assessments of the infant or young child tended ***** emp*****ize the qualities of dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the infant have impressed psychologists with his alertness to ***** environment ***** ***** ability ***** adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, ***** realized that the child is not a "... p*****ssive recipient of *****al influences" but that development ***** in fact an active and inter***** process" (McKeachie and Doyle 460).

2. Stages of development

Theoretical concerns with regard to child and adolescent development have ***** to emphasize ***** various stages of growth and ***** - which includes both cognitive, psychological ***** physical aspects. One of the most famous of the experts in this ***** is Jean *****. Piaget focused on ***** development and stated ***** there are a number of central developmental cognitive stages. The four developmental stages that Piaget identified were firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth ***** two years of age. This stage is characterized by the recognition ***** self as an agent of actions, such as shaking a rattle to make a noise. (Piaget)

***** Preoperational stage between the ages ***** two and seven is ***** ***** at which the child learns to use language ***** to represent objects ***** images and words. At ***** stage thinking and thought processing ***** still very egocentric and the ***** is less aware of the perspective ***** viewpoints ***** others. (Piaget) This is a st*****ge when the child is, "... not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by ***** takes ***** between seven and eleven years of age ***** is characterized by conceptualization and logical analys***** ***** categorization of the world around him or her. ***** F*****mal ***** stage is ***** the individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypo*****ses systematically."

Piaget)

While these stages represent cogent insights into ***** development they have also been criticized for being too rigid and not allowing ***** a more flexible view of the way that children develop cognition, as well as the ***** that they develop concrete operations, often at a much earlier age than Pi*****t suggests.

Another view of child development, which is

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