Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...


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CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

***** beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration of child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition of children as ********** unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults and little attention was paid to the many advances ***** cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth." (Van Wagner)

***** interest in the field of child development really began in the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency in earlier psychological *****ory, especially with regard to the theories of Sigmund Freud, was to focus on ***** development from the perspective ***** abnormal ********** issues. This stance has s*****ce been adjusted and ameliorated by many c*****temporary *****orists, such as Piaget and Eriksson.

While previous assessments of the infant or young child tended to emphasize the qualities of dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the ***** have impressed psychologists with his alertness to ***** environment ***** his ability ***** adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, psychologists realized that the child is not a "... p*****ssive recipient of *****al influences" but that development ***** in fact an active and interactive process" (***** and Doyle 460).

*****. Stages ***** development

Theoretical concerns with ***** to child and adolescent development ***** tended ***** emphasize the various stages of growth ***** development - which includes both cognitive, ***** and physical aspects. One of the most famous ***** the experts in this ***** is Jean *****. Piaget focused on cognitive development ***** stated that there are a number of central developmental cognitive stages. The four developmental stages that Piaget identified ***** firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth and two years of age. ***** stage ***** characterized ***** the ***** ***** self as an agent of actions, such as shaking a rattle to make a noise. (Piaget)

***** Preoperational stage between the ages ***** ***** and seven is ***** ***** at which the child learns to use language ***** ***** represent objects by images and words. At this stage thinking and thought processing is still very egocentric and the ***** ***** less aware of the perspective ***** viewpoints ***** others. (Piaget) This is a st*****ge when the child is, "... not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by ***** takes place between seven and eleven years of age ***** is characterized ***** conceptualization and logical analysis ***** categorization of the world around him or her. The Formal Operations st***** is when the individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically."

Piaget)

While these stages represent cogent insights in***** ***** development they have also ***** criticized for be*****g too rigid and not allowing ***** a more flexible view of the way that ***** develop cognition, as well as the ***** that they develop concrete operations, often at a much earlier age than Pi*****t suggests.

***** view of child *****, which *****

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