Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...


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CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

The beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration of child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition of children as *****ally unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults ***** little attention w***** paid to the many advances ***** cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth." (Van Wagner)

***** interest in the field of child development really began in the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency in earlier psychological *****ory, especially with regard to the theories of Sigmund Freud, was to focus on child development from the perspective of abnormal ********** issues. This stance has s*****ce been adjusted and ameliorated by many contemporary *****orists, such as Piaget ***** Eriksson.

While previous assessments ***** the infant or young child tended to emp*****ize the qualities of dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the ***** have impressed psychologists with his alertness to the environment and ***** ability ***** adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, psychologists realized that the child is not a "... passive recipient of *****al influences" but that development ***** in fact an active and inter***** process" (McKeachie and ***** 460).

2. Stages ***** development

***** concerns with regard to child and adolescent development have ***** to emphasize the various stages of growth ***** ***** - which includes both cognitive, ***** and physical aspects. One ***** the most famous of the experts in this field is Jean *****. Piaget focused on ***** development ***** stated that there are a number of central developmental cognitive stages. The four developmental stages that Piaget identified were firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth and two years of age. ***** stage ***** characterized by the ***** of self as an agent of actions, ***** as shaking a rattle to make a noise. (Piaget)

The Preoperational stage between the ages of ***** *****d seven is the ***** at ***** the child learns to use language and ***** represent objects ***** images and words. At ***** stage thinking and thought processing is still very egocentric and the ***** is less aware of the perspective ***** viewpoints of others. (Piaget) This is a st*****ge when the child is, "... not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by ***** takes ***** between seven and eleven years of age and is characterized ***** conceptualization and logical analysis ***** categorization of the world around him or her. ***** F*****mal Operations stage is ***** the individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypo*****ses systematically."

Piaget)

While these stages represent cogent insights in***** child development they have also ***** criticized for be*****g too rigid and not allowing ***** a more flexible view of the way that ***** develop cognition, as well as the way that they develop concrete operations, often at a much earlier age than Piaget suggests.

***** view of child *****, which *****

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