Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...


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CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

The beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration of child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition ***** children as ********** unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of ***** ***** little attention was paid to the many advances in cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth." (Van Wagner)

Intense *****terest in the field of child development really began in the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency ***** earlier psychological theory, especially ***** regard to the theories of Sigmund Freud, ***** to focus on ***** development from the perspective of abnormal developmental issues. This stance has since been adjusted and ameliorated by ***** c*****temporary theorists, such as Piaget and Eriksson.

While previous assessments of the infant or young child tended ***** emphasize the qualities of dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the infant have impressed psychologists with his alertness to ***** environment ***** ***** ability ***** adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, psychologists realized that the child is not a "... p*****ssive recipient of *****al influences" but that development is in fact an active and inter***** process" (McKeachie and Doyle 460).

*****. Stages of development

Theoretical concerns with ***** to child and adolescent development have ***** ***** emphasize ***** various stages of growth ***** development - which includes both cognitive, ***** and physical aspects. One ***** the most famous of the experts in th***** field is Jean Piaget. Piaget focused on ***** development and stated ***** *****ere are a number of central ***** cognitive stages. The four developmental stages that Piaget identified ***** firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by the ***** ***** self as an agent of actions, ***** as shaking a rattle to make a noise. (Piaget)

The Preoperational stage between the ages ***** ***** ********** seven is ***** stage at ***** the child learns to use language and ***** represent objects by images and *****. At this ***** thinking and thought processing is still very egocentric and the child is less aware of the perspective and viewpoints ***** others. (Piaget) This is a stage when the child is, "... not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by Piaget takes place between seven and eleven years of age ***** is characterized by conceptualization and logical analysis ***** categorization of the world around him or her. ***** F*****mal ***** stage is when the individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically."

Piaget)

While these stages represent cogent insights in***** ***** development they have also been criticized for being too rigid and not allowing for a more flexible view of the w*****y that ***** develop cognition, as well as the way that *****y develop concrete operations, *****ten at a much earlier age than Piaget suggests.

Another view of child *****, which *****

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