Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...


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CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

***** beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration of child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition of children as developmentally unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults and little attention was paid to the many advances ***** cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth." (Van Wagner)

***** interest in the field of child development really began ***** the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency in earlier psychological *****ory, especially ***** regard to the theories of Sigmund Freud, was to focus on child development from the perspective ***** abnormal *****al issues. This stance has s*****ce been adjusted and ameliorated by many contemporary *****orists, such as Piaget ***** Eriksson.

While previous assessments of the infant or young child tended to emp*****ize the qualities ***** dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the infant have impressed psychologists with his alertness to ***** environment ***** ***** ability to adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, psychologists realized that the child is not a "... p*****ssive recipient of environmental influences" but that development ***** in fact an active and interactive process" (McKeachie and Doyle 460).

2. Stages ***** development

***** concerns with ***** ***** child and adolescent development ***** ***** to emphasize the various stages of growth and development - which includes both cognitive, psychological and physical aspects. One of the most famous of the experts in this ***** is Jean Piaget. Piaget focused on ***** development and stated that there are a number of central developmental cognitive stages. The four developmental stages ***** Piaget identified ***** firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized ***** the ***** ***** self as an agent of actions, ***** as shaking a rattle to make a no*****e. (Piaget)

The Preoperational stage between the ages ***** two and seven is the stage at which the child learns to use language and to represent objects by images and *****. At ***** ***** thinking and thought processing ***** still very egocentric and the ***** is less aware of the perspective and viewpoints of others. (Piaget) This is a st*****ge when the child is, "... not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by Piaget takes place between seven and eleven years of age ***** is characterized by conceptualization and logical analysis ***** categorization of the world around him or her. The Formal Operations st***** is ***** the individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically."

Piaget)

***** these stages represent cogent insights into ***** development they have also ***** criticized for being too rigid and not allowing for a more flexible view of the way that ***** develop cognition, as well as the way that *****y develop concrete operations, *****ten at a much earlier age than Piaget suggests.

***** view of child development, which *****

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