Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...

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***** beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration of child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition ***** children as *****ally unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of ***** and little attention w***** paid to the many advances ***** cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical gro*****th." (Van Wagner)

***** interest in the field of child development really began in the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency in earlier psychological theory, especially with regard to the *****ories of Sigmund Freud, was to focus on ***** development from the perspective of abnormal ********** issues. This stance has since been adjusted and ameliorated by many c*****temporary *****orists, such as Piaget and Eriksson.

While previous assessments ***** the infant or young child tended ***** emphasize the qualities of dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the infant have impressed psychologists with his alertness to the environment ***** his ability ***** adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, psychologists realized that the child is not a "... p*****ssive recipient of environmental influences" but that development ***** in fact an active and inter***** process" (***** and ***** 460).

*****. Stages ***** development

Theoretical concerns with regard to child and adolescent development ***** tended ***** emphasize ***** various stages of growth ***** ***** - which includes both cognitive, psychological and ***** aspects. One of the most famous of the experts in t***** ***** is Jean Piage*****. Piaget focused on cognitive development and stated that there are a number ***** central developmental cognitive stages. The four developmental stages that Piaget identified ***** firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by the ***** of self as an agent of actions, ***** as shaking a rattle to make a no*****e. (Piaget)

***** Preoperational stage between the ages of ***** and seven is the ***** at which the child learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words. At this stage thinking and thought processing is still very egocentric and the ***** is less aware of the perspective and viewpoints of others. (Piaget) This is a stage when the child is, "... not yet able ***** conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by ***** takes ***** between seven and eleven years of age and is characterized ***** conceptualization and logical analys***** ***** categorization of the world around him or her. The F*****mal Operations st***** is when the individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically."


***** these stages represent cogent insights into child development they have also ***** criticized for being too rigid and not allowing for a more flexible view of the way ***** children develop cognition, as well as the way that they develop concrete operations, *****ten at a much earlier age than Pi*****t suggests.

***** view of child *****, which *****


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