Essay - Child Development Introduction the Beginning of the Theoretical and Practical...

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***** beginning of the theoretical and practical exploration of child development began in essence with the fairly recent recognition of children as ********** unique and progressively different to adults. As one commentator notes, "Children were often viewed simply as small versions of adults ***** little attention was paid to the many advances ***** cognitive abilities, language usage, and physical growth." (Van Wagner)

***** interest in the field of child development really began ***** the early Twentieth Century. However, the tendency in earlier psychological *****ory, especially ***** regard ***** the *****ories of Sigmund Freud, was to focus on ***** development from the perspective of abnormal ********** issues. This stance has since been adjusted and ameliorated by ***** c*****temporary *****orists, such as Piaget ***** Eriksson.

While previous assessments ***** the infant or young child tended ***** emp*****ize the qualities of dependency, inadequacy and passivity, "... "...Recent observations of the ***** have impressed psychologists with his alertness to ***** environment and his ability ***** adapt" (McKeachie and Doyle 460). In other words, psychologists realized that the child is not a "... passive recipient of *****al influences" but that development ***** in fact an active and inter***** process" (***** and ***** 460).

*****. Stages of development

***** concerns with regard to child and adolescent development have ***** to emphasize ***** various stages of growth ***** ***** - which includes both cognitive, ***** and physical aspects. One ***** the most famous of the experts in this ***** is Jean *****. Piaget focused on ***** development ***** stated ***** there are a number ***** central developmental cognitive stages. The four developmental stages that Piaget identified were firstly the Sensorimotor stage, which takes place between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by the recognition of self as an agent of actions, ***** as shaking a rattle to make a no*****e. (Piaget)

***** Preoperational stage between the ages of two and seven is the stage at ***** the child learns to use language ***** to represent objects by images and words. At ***** stage thinking and thought processing ***** still very egocentric and the ***** is less aware ***** the perspective and viewpoints of others. (Piaget) This is a st*****ge when the child is, "... not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations." (Piaget: funderstnading) The Concrete Operations stage put forward by Piaget takes ***** between seven and eleven years of age and is characterized by conceptualization and logical analys***** ***** categorization of the world around him or her. ***** F*****mal ***** stage is ***** the individual can "...Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypo*****ses systematically."


***** these stages represent cogent insights into ***** development they have also ***** criticized for being too rigid and not allowing ***** a more flexible view of the w*****y ***** ***** develop cognition, as well as the way that they develop concrete operations, often at a much earlier age than Pi*****t suggests.

Another view of child *****, which *****


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