Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...


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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some form, so ***** ***** Rights act had an immediate effect on admissi*****s policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with the law (Springer, 2003).

***** universities ***** actually stopped practicing overt ***** discrimination prior to passage ***** the CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board of Education case (1954) outlawed racial discrimination in public *****al institutions, and by the time ***** the passage of ***** ***** all southern universities were *****ficially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, the end of desegregation was far less significant (Grofman, 2000).

***** main effect of the CRA for all American universities was the emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative ***** ***** initially proposed ***** President Johnson in an executive order *****ly following passage ***** the CRA. Calling on ***** contractors to take "affirmative action" to ensure that they did not discriminate, Johnson initiated a policy of inclusion th*****t has been criticized as "reverse discrimination" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense th*****t criticism is accurate, because ***** ***** positive steps to include minorities ***** opposed to merely refraining from d*****criminating against them. However ***** minorities often face systemic *****d economic obstacles ***** achievement in areas such as higher education, affirmative action is *****tended to redress the imbalance and ensure minority participation.

***** action has been the main result of the ***** for ***** world of ***** education. It appears that at first universities instituted ***** action in order ***** avoid prosecution by the *****, but now affirmative action is generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates ***** the student population (*****, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding ***** University ***** Michigan's affirmative ***** policy notes that universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause ***** discriminating in favor of ***** students if that ***** is designed to promote student *****. The ***** noted that institutions of higher learning have an interest in achieving diversity because ***** the educational and intellectual benefits of having d*****ferent perspectives represented (Springer, *****).

There*****e although conservatives have criticized affirmative action as hypocritical because it discriminates ***** a view tow*****rd ending discrimination, it is clear that colleges and universities these days want the benefits of a ***** diverse student ***** *****nd will pursue adm*****sions policies commensurate with ***** diversity. Colleges ***** relax standards for other admissions categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when they feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began as a w*****y ***** prevent *****, ***** is used as a tool to ***** divers*****y (Gurin, *****).

***** rights legislation in America was ***** intended to protect the legal rights of African *****s following ***** abolition of slavery in 1865, and at ***** the ***** of affirmative ***** were limited to black students (Grofman, 2000). However President *****

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