Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...

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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some form, so the Civil Rights act had an immediate effect on admissions policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with the law (Springer, 2003).

***** universities ***** actu*****y stopped practicing overt ***** discrimination prior to p*****sage of ***** CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board ***** Education case (1954) outlawed racial discrimination in public educational institutions, and ***** the time of the passage of the CRA all southern uni*****ersities were officially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, the end of desegregation was far less significant (Grofman, 2000).

The main effect of ***** CRA for all American universities ***** the emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative ***** was initially proposed by President Johnson in an executive order *****ly following passage ***** the CRA. Calling on federal c*****tractors to take "affirmative action" to ensure that they did not discriminate, ***** initiated a policy of inclusion th*****t has been criticized as "reverse discrimination" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense that criticism is accurate, because ***** ***** positive steps to include minorities as opposed to merely refraining from d*****criminating against them. However ***** minorities *****ten face systemic ***** economic obstacles to achievement in are***** such as higher education, affirmative action is intended ***** redress the imbalance and ***** minority participation.

***** action has ***** ***** main result of the CRA for the world of higher education. It appears that at first universities instituted affirmative action in ***** to avoid prosecution ***** the government, but now affirmative action is generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates in the ***** population (Springer, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding the University ***** Michigan's affirmative ***** policy *****es ***** universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause by discriminating in favor of ***** students if that ***** is designed to promote student *****. The ***** noted that institutions of higher learning have an interest in achiev*****g diversity because of the educational ***** intellectual benefits of having d*****ferent perspectives represented (Springer, 2003).

Therefore although conservatives have criticized affirmative action as hypocritical because it discriminates with a view tow*****rd ending discrimination, it is clear that colleges and ***** these days want the benefits ***** a ***** diverse student popul*****tion ***** will pursue adm*****sions policies commensurate with that *****. Colleges often relax standards for other admissions categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when they feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began ***** a way ***** prevent *****, ***** is used as a tool to promote divers*****y (Gurin, 2002).

***** rights leg*****lation in America was initially intended to protect the legal rights of African Americans ***** the abolition of slavery in 1865, and at ***** the benefits of affirmative action ***** limited to black students (Grofman, 2000). However President John*****n


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