Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...

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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some form, so the ***** Rights act had an immediate effect on admissions policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with the law (Springer, 2003).

***** universities had actually stopped practicing overt racial discrimination prior to passage ***** ***** CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board of Education case (1954) outlawed racial discrimination in public *****al institutions, and ***** the time ***** the passage of the ***** all southern universities were officially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, ***** end of desegregation was far less significant (Grofman, 2000).

***** main effect of the CRA for all American universities ***** the emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative action was initially proposed by President Johnson in an executive order *****ly following passage ***** ***** CRA. Calling on ***** c*****tractors to take "affirmative *****" to ensure that they did not discriminate, Johnson initiated a policy of inclusion th*****t has been criticized as "reverse discrimination" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense that criticism is accurate, because ***** take positive steps to include minorities ***** opposed to merely refraining from discriminating against them. However because minorities often face systemic ***** economic obstacles to achievement in areas such as higher education, affirmative action is *****tended to redress the imbalance and ***** minority participation.

***** action has ***** the main result of the ***** ***** the world of ***** education. It appears ***** at first universities instituted ***** action in ***** ***** avoid prosecution by the government, but now affirmative ***** is generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates in the student population (Springer, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding ***** University of Michigan's affirmative action policy *****es that universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause ***** discriminating in favor of minority students if that discrimination is designed to promote student diversity. The ***** *****ed that institutions of higher learning have an interest in achiev*****g ***** because of the educational ***** intellectual benefits ***** having different perspectives represented (Springer, *****).

Therefore although conservatives have criticized affirmative ***** as hypocritical because it discriminates with a view toward ending *****, it is clear that colleges and ***** these days want the benefits of a ***** diverse student popul*****tion ***** will pursue adm*****sions policies commensurate with that diversity. Colleges often relax standards for other admissions categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when ***** feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began as a w*****y ***** prevent discrimination, ***** is used as a tool to promote diversity (Gurin, *****).

Civil rights leg*****lation in America w***** initially intended to protect the legal rights of African *****ns ***** ***** abolition of slavery in 1865, and at first the ***** of affirm*****ive action ***** limited ***** black students (Grofman, 2000). However President Johnson


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