Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...


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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some f*****m, so ***** Civil Rights act had an immediate effect on admissions policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with the law (Spr*****ger, 2003).

Most universities had actu*****y stopped practicing overt ***** discrimination prior to p*****sage of the CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board of Education case (1954) outlawed racial ***** in public educational institutions, and by the time ***** the passage of ***** CRA all southern uni*****ersities were *****ficially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, ***** end of desegregation was far less significant (Grofman, 2000).

The main effect of the ***** for all American universities ***** ***** emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative action was initially proposed ***** President Johnson in an executive order *****ly following passage of ***** CRA. Calling on ***** contrac*****rs to take "affirmative action" to ensure that they did not discriminate, Johnson initiated a policy of inclusion that has been criticized as "reverse discrimination" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense ***** criticism is accurate, because institutions ***** positive steps to include minorities ***** opposed to merely refraining from d*****criminating against them. However because minorities ********** face systemic *****d economic obstacles ***** achievement in areas such as higher education, affirmative action is *****tended to redress the imbalance and ensure minority participation.

Affirmative action has ***** ***** main result of the ***** for the world of higher education. It appears that at first universities instituted ***** action in ***** to avoid prosecution by the *****, but now affirmative action ***** generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates ***** the student population (Springer, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding the University ***** Michigan's affirmative action policy ********** ***** universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause ***** discriminating in favor of ***** students if that ***** is designed to promote student *****. The Court noted that institutions of higher learning have an interest in achieving diversity ***** ***** ***** educational and intellectual benefits of having different perspectives represented (Springer, 2003).

Therefore although conservatives have criticized affirmative ***** as hypocritical because it discriminates ***** a view tow*****rd ending discrimination, it is clear that colleges and universities these days want the benefits of a ***** diverse student ***** ***** will pursue admissions ***** commensurate with that *****. Colleges often relax standards for other admissions categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when they feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began ***** a w*****y ***** prevent *****, now is used as a tool to ***** divers*****y (Gurin, 2002).

Civil rights legislation in America w***** initially intended to protect the legal rights of African *****s following the abolition of slavery in 1865, and at first the benefits of affirmative action ***** limited ***** black students (Grofman, 2000). However President John*****n

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