Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...

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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some f*****m, so ***** ***** Rights act had an immediate effect on admissi*****s policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with the law (Spr*****ger, 2003).

***** universities ***** actually stopped practicing overt ***** discrimination prior to passage ***** ***** CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board of Education case (1954) outlawed racial discrimination in public *****al institutions, and by the time ***** the passage of ***** CRA all southern uni*****ersities were officially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, the end of desegregation was far less significant (Gr*****man, 2000).

The main effect of ***** CRA for all American universities ***** the emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative action was initially proposed ***** President Johnson in an executive order immediately following passage of ***** CRA. Calling on ***** c*****tractors to take "affirmative action" to ensure that they did not discriminate, Johnson initiated a policy of inclusion th*****t has been criticized as "reverse *****" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense th*****t criticism is accurate, because institutions take positive steps to include minorities as opposed to merely refraining from d*****criminating against them. However because minorities often face systemic ***** economic obstacles to achievement in areas such as higher education, affirmative action is *****tended ***** redress the imbal*****ce and ensure minority participation.

***** action has ***** the main result of ***** ***** ***** the world of higher education. It appears that at first universities instituted affirmative action in ***** to avoid prosecution by the *****, but now affirmative ***** ***** generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates in the ***** population (Springer, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding the University ***** Michigan's affirmative action policy notes that universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause by discriminating in favor of minority students if that discrimination is designed to promote student *****. The Court *****ed that institutions of ***** learning have an interest in achieving diversity ***** ***** ***** educational ***** intellectual benefits of having different perspectives represented (Springer, *****).

Therefore although conservatives have criticized affirmative action as hypocritical because it discriminates with a view toward ending discrimination, it is clear ***** colleges and universities these days want the benefits ***** a ***** diverse student ***** *****nd will pursue adm*****sions policies commensurate with that *****. Colleges often relax standards for other admissions categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when ***** feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began as a way ***** prevent discrimination, now is used as a tool to ***** divers*****y (Gurin, 2002).

Civil rights leg*****lation in America was ***** intended to protect the legal rights of African *****s following the abolition of slavery in 1865, and at ***** the benefits of affirmative ***** were limited to black students (Gr*****man, 2000). However President *****


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