Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...

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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some form, so ***** ***** Rights act had an immediate effect on admissi*****s policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with the law (Springer, 2003).

***** universities had actu*****y stopped practicing overt ***** discrimination prior to passage of the CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board of Education case (1954) outlawed racial ***** in public educational institutions, and ***** the time ***** the passage of ***** ***** all southern uni*****ersities were officially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, the end of desegregation was far less significant (Gr*****man, 2000).

***** main effect of ***** CRA for all American universities ***** the emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative ***** was initially proposed by President Johnson in an executive order immediately following passage ***** the CRA. Calling on federal c*****trac*****rs to take "affirmative action" to ensure that they did not discriminate, Johnson initiated a policy of inclusion th*****t has been criticized as "reverse discrimination" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense that criticism is accurate, because institutions ***** positive steps to include minorities ***** opposed to merely refraining from discriminating against them. However ***** minorities *****ten face systemic ***** economic obstacles ***** achievement in areas such as higher education, affirmative ***** is intended to redress the imbalance and ***** minority participation.

***** action has been the main result of the CRA for ***** world of ***** education. It appears ***** at first universities instituted ***** action in ***** to avoid prosecution by the *****, but now affirmative ***** ***** generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates ***** the ***** population (Springer, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding the University of Michigan's affirmative action policy ********** that universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause ***** ***** in favor of minority students if that ***** is designed to promote student *****. The ***** *****ed that institutions of higher learning have an interest in achieving diversity because ***** ***** educational ***** intellectual benefits of having d*****ferent perspectives represented (Springer, 2003).

There*****e although conservatives have criticized affirmative ***** as hypocritical because it discriminates with a view toward ending discrimination, it is clear that colleges *****d ***** these days want the benefits ***** a ***** diverse student ***** *****nd will pursue admissions ***** commensurate with ***** *****. Colleges often relax standards for other admissions categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when they feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began ***** a w*****y ***** prevent *****, ***** is used as a tool to ***** divers*****y (Gurin, *****).

Civil rights legislation in America was initially intended to protect the legal rights of African *****s following the abolition of slavery in 1865, and at first the ***** of ***** action ***** limited ***** black students (Grofman, 2000). However President Johnson


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