Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...

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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some f*****m, so the Civil Rights act had an immediate effect on admissions policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with ***** law (Springer, 2003).

Most universities ***** actu*****y stopped practicing overt racial discrimination prior to passage ***** the CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board of Education case (1954) outlawed racial discrimination in public *****al institutions, and by the time of the passage of the ***** all southern uni*****ersities were officially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, the end of desegregation was far less significant (Gro*****an, 2000).

***** main effect ***** ***** CRA for all American universities was the emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative ***** ***** initially proposed ***** President Johnson in an executive order immediately following passage ***** the CRA. Calling on ***** c*****tractors to take "affirmative action" to ensure that they did not discriminate, ***** initiated a policy of inclusion th*****t has been criticized as "reverse discrimination" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense that criticism is accurate, because institutions ***** positive steps to include minorities as opposed to merely refraining from d*****criminating against them. However ***** minorities often face systemic *****d economic obstacles to achievement in are***** such as higher education, affirmative action is *****tended ***** redress the imbalance and ensure minority participation.

Affirmative action has been the main result of ***** CRA ***** the world of ***** education. It appears ***** at first universities instituted affirmative action in ***** to avoid prosecution by the *****, but now affirmative ***** ***** generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates ***** the student population (Springer, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding ***** University of Michigan's affirmative action policy *****es that universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause by discriminating in favor of minority students if that ***** is designed to promote student diversity. The Court *****ed that institutions of higher learning have an interest in achiev*****g diversity because ***** ***** educational ***** intellectual benefits of having d*****ferent perspectives represented (Springer, *****).

Therefore although conservatives have criticized affirmative ***** as hypocritical because it discriminates ***** a view toward ending discrimination, it is clear that colleges and universities these days want the benefits of a more diverse student ***** ***** will pursue adm*****sions policies commensurate with ***** diversity. Colleges ***** relax standards for other admissions categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when they feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began as a w*****y ***** prevent discrimination, ***** is used as a tool to ***** divers*****y (Gurin, *****).

Civil rights leg*****lation in America w***** initially intended to protect the legal rights of African *****ns ***** ***** abolition of slavery in 1865, and at first the ***** of ***** action ***** limited ***** black students (Gr*****man, 2000). However President John*****n


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