Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...

1 2
Copyright Notice

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some f*****m, so the ***** Rights act had an immediate effect on admissions policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with ***** law (Spr*****ger, 2003).

Most universities had actually stopped practicing overt ***** discrimination prior to p*****sage of the CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board ***** Education case (1954) outlawed racial ***** in public educational institutions, and by the time of the passage of ***** CRA all southern uni*****ersities were officially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, the end of desegregation was far less significant (Gro*****an, 2000).

***** main effect ***** ***** CRA for all American universities was the emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative action ***** initially proposed by President Johnson in an executive order *****ly following passage of the CRA. Calling on ***** c*****trac*****rs to take "affirmative action" to ensure that they did not discriminate, Johnson initiated a policy ***** inclusion that has been criticized as "reverse discrimination" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense ***** criticism is *****ccurate, because institutions ***** positive steps to include minorities ***** opposed to merely refraining from d*****criminating against them. However because minorities often face systemic and economic obstacles to achievement in areas such as higher education, affirmative ***** is *****tended ***** redress the imbalance and ensure minority participation.

***** action has ***** the main result of the CRA ***** ***** world of higher education. It appears that at first universities instituted ***** action in ***** to avoid prosecution by the government, but now affirmative ***** ***** generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates ***** the ***** population (Springer, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding the University of Michigan's affirmative action policy ********** ***** universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause by discriminating in favor of minority students if that discrimination is designed to promote student *****. The ***** *****ed that institutions of ***** learning have an interest in achiev*****g diversity because of ***** educational and intellectual benefits ***** having d*****ferent perspectives represented (Springer, 2003).

Therefore although conservatives have criticized affirmative action as hypocritical because it discriminates ***** a view tow*****rd ending discrimination, it is clear that colleges and ***** these days want the benefits of a more diverse student popul*****tion ***** will pursue admissions ***** commensurate with ***** *****. Colleges often relax standards for other ***** categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when ***** feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began ***** a way ***** prevent *****, ***** is used as a tool to ***** divers*****y (Gurin, 2002).

***** rights leg*****lation in America was initially intended to protect the legal rights of African *****s following the abolition of slavery in 1865, and at first the benefits of affirmative ***** were limited to black students (Grofman, 2000). However President *****


Download full paper (and others like it)    |    Order a one-of-a-kind, customized paper

Other topics that might interest you:

© 2001–2016   |   Dissertations on The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial   |   Research Papers Sample