Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...


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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some f*****m, so ***** ***** Rights act had an immediate effect on admissi*****s policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with the law (Springer, 2003).

***** universities ***** actu*****y stopped practicing overt ***** discrimination prior to p*****sage of the CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board of Education case (1954) outlawed racial ***** in public *****al institutions, and ***** the time of the passage of ***** CRA all southern uni*****ersities were officially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, the end of desegregation was far less significant (Gro*****an, 2000).

***** main effect ***** the ***** for all American universities ***** ***** emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative ***** was initially proposed by President Johnson in an executive order *****ly following passage ***** the CRA. Calling on federal c*****trac*****rs to take "affirmative action" to ensure that they did not discriminate, ***** initiated a policy of inclusion th*****t has been criticized as "reverse discrimination" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense that criticism is accurate, because ***** ***** positive steps to include minorities as opposed to merely refraining from d*****criminating against them. However ***** minorities often face systemic ***** economic obstacles to achievement in are***** such as higher education, affirmative action is intended to redress the imbalance and ***** minority participation.

***** action has ***** ***** main result of the CRA for ***** world of ***** education. It appears ***** at first universities instituted affirmative action in ***** to avoid prosecution ***** the government, but now affirmative ***** ***** generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates ***** the student population (Springer, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding the University ***** Michigan's affirmative action policy *****es that universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause by discriminating in favor of minority students if that discrimination is designed to promote student *****. The ***** *****ed that institutions of higher learning have an interest in achieving diversity because ***** the educational *****d intellectual benefits of having d*****ferent perspectives represented (Springer, *****).

There*****e although conservatives have criticized affirmative action as hypocritical because it discriminates with a view tow*****rd ending *****, it is clear that colleges and universities these days want the benefits of a ***** diverse student ***** and will pursue adm*****sions ***** commensurate with that *****. Colleges ***** relax standards for other admissions categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when they feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began ***** a way to prevent discrimination, now is used as a tool to promote diversity (Gurin, *****).

Civil rights leg*****lation in America was initially intended to protect the legal rights of African *****s ***** ***** abolition of slavery in 1865, and at ***** the ***** of affirmative action ***** limited ***** black students (Grofman, 2000). However President Johnson

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