Essay - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Cra) Formally Ended Racial...


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The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) formally ended racial and gender discrimination by any entity doing business with or receiving money from the federal government. Nearly all institutions of higher education receive federal funding in some f*****m, so ***** ***** Rights act had an immediate effect on admissi*****s policies and student recruitment as universities endeavored to comply with the law (Springer, 2003).

***** universities ***** actu*****y stopped practicing overt ***** discrimination prior to passage ***** ***** CRA. The landmark Brown v. Board of Education case (1954) outlawed racial discrimination in public *****al institutions, and ***** the time of the passage of the ***** all southern uni*****ersities were *****ficially desegregated. In the north and west, with much more racially homogenous populations, ***** end of desegregation was far less significant (Grofman, 2000).

The main effect of the CRA for all American universities was the emergence of the policy of affirmative action. Affirmative ***** was initially proposed by President Johnson in an executive order immediately following passage ***** ***** CRA. Calling on federal c*****trac*****rs to take "affirmative action" to ensure that they did not discriminate, ***** initiated a policy of inclusion th*****t has been criticized as "reverse discrimination" (Gurin, 2002). In a sense that criticism is accurate, because ***** take positive steps to include minorities as opposed to merely refraining from d*****criminating against them. However ***** minorities ********** face systemic ***** economic obstacles to achievement in are***** such as higher education, affirmative action is intended to redress the imbal*****ce and ensure minority participation.

***** action has been ***** main result of the CRA for ***** world of ***** education. It appears ***** at first universities instituted ***** action in order to avoid prosecution by the government, but now affirmative action ***** generally justified in terms of the diversity it creates in the student population (Springer, 2003). A recent Supreme Court decision upholding ***** University ***** Michigan's affirmative action policy ********** that universities do not violate the constitution's equal protection clause ***** discriminating in favor of minority students if that ***** is designed to promote student *****. The Court noted that institutions of higher learning have an interest in achieving diversity because ***** the educational ***** intellectual benefits of having different perspectives represented (Springer, *****).

There*****e although conservatives have criticized affirmative action as hypocritical because it discriminates with a view tow*****rd ending discrimination, it is clear ***** colleges ********** universities these days want the benefits ***** a more diverse student popul*****tion and will pursue admissions policies commensurate with that diversity. Colleges often relax standards for other ***** categories (legacies, athletes, musicians) when ***** feel it is their interest to do so. Affirmative action, which began ***** a way ***** prevent discrimination, ***** is used as a tool to promote diversity (Gurin, *****).

Civil rights legislation in America w***** initially intended to protect the legal rights of African *****ns ***** the abolition of slavery in 1865, and at first the ***** of affirmative ***** ***** limited ***** black students (Gr*****man, 2000). However President John*****n

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