Essay - Crime and Gender Sampson and Laub's Life-course Theory Suggests that...


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Crime and Gender

Sampson and Laub's Life-course theory suggests that social bonds deter crime, especially when those ***** involve a high degree of personal investment. For example, an individual who is heavily involved in workplace committees and family life would possess strong ties ***** preclude committing *****s. Moreover, Sampson and ***** ***** acknowledges the ways social bonds evolve over time to explain why criminal behavior may emerge at certain *****s in a person's life. S*****mpson and Laub posit turning points as markers of changing social bonds. A divorce, moving to a new community, or meeting a ***** friend can each be turning ***** th***** alter social bonding. If bonding strengthens, criminal behavi***** may be deterred. ***** the bonding weakens then the individual may be more prone ***** ***** crime. Trajectories are also based on the changes in social bonding patterns. A person growing up in an impoverished community with weak familial ***** may ***** more likely to commit crimes th***** a ***** from a fin*****ncially and socially stable environment. The Sampson ***** Laub Life-course *****eory can explain the gender gap in crime. Males and females may experience different turning points ***** trajectories. The same turning point can be construed *****ly for males versus fe*****. ***** example, joining a g*****ng would ***** a powerful turning point but one that might result in greater male versus *****male criminality. Males ***** also be more pressured by peers to join gangs and commit gang-related ***** in order to susta***** ***** deviant social network. Males and females might also experience different ***** due to their differential parental and peer social bonding.

Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a greater number of opportunities to commit *****. One potential reason why boys ***** exposed to a greater number of opportunities to commit crime is their different methods of social bonding. Family ties and nurturing ********** are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant behaviors are encouraged as being expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for crime. Another reason ***** boys may be exposed to more opportunities ***** commit crime is related to lifestyle habits and routine behaviors. Boys may be more likely to commit crimes ********** their daily routines and ***** involve high-risk behaviors including heavy drinking or fighting.

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