Essay - Crime and Gender Sampson and Laub's Life-course Theory Suggests that...

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Crime and Gender

***** and Laub's Life-course theory suggests that social bonds deter crime, especially when those bonds involve a high degree of personal investment. For example, an individual who is heavily involved in workplace committees *****d family life would possess strong ties ***** preclude committ*****g crimes. Moreover, Sampson and ***** theory acknowledges the ways social bonds evolve over time to explain why criminal behavior may emerge at certain times in a person's life. S*****mpson and Laub posit turning points as markers of changing ***** bonds. A divorce, moving to a new community, or meeting a ***** friend c*****n each be turning ***** that alter social bonding. If bonding strengthens, criminal behavi***** ***** be deterred. If the bonding weakens then the individual may be more prone ***** committing crime. Trajectories are also based on the changes in social ***** patterns. A person growing up in an impoverished community with weak familial bonds may ***** more likely to commit crimes th***** a ***** from a financially and socially stable environment. The Sampson and Laub Life-course *****eory can explain the gender gap in crime. Males ***** females may experience different ***** points and trajectories. The same turning point ***** be construed *****ly for males versus fe*****. ***** example, joining a gang would be a powerful turning point but one th*****t might result in greater male versus female criminality. Males ***** ***** be more pressured by peers to join gangs and commit gang-related crime in order to susta***** ***** deviant social network. Males ***** females might also experience different trajectories due to their differential parental and peer ***** bonding.

Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a ***** number of opportunities to commit crime. One potential reason ***** boys ***** exposed ***** a greater number of opportunities to commit crime is ***** different methods ***** social *****. Family ties and nurturing *****ors are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant behaviors are encouraged as being expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for *****. Another reason why boys may be exposed ***** more opportunities to commit crime is related to *****style habits ***** routine *****. Boys may ***** more likely to ***** crimes because their daily routines and habits involve high-r*****k behaviors including heavy drinking or fighting.


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