Essay - Crime and Gender Sampson and Laub's Life-course Theory Suggests that...

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Crime and Gender

Sampson and Laub's Life-course theory suggests that social bonds deter crime, especially when those bonds involve a high degree of personal investment. For example, an individual who is heavily involved in workplace committees *****d family life would possess strong ties that preclude committ*****g crimes. Moreover, Sampson and ***** ***** acknowledges the ways social bonds evolve over time to explain why criminal behavior may emerge at certain times in a person's life. Sampson and Laub posit turning points as markers of changing ***** bonds. A divorce, moving to a new community, or meeting a new friend can each be turning ***** ***** alter social bonding. If bonding strengthens, criminal behavi***** ***** be deterred. If the bonding weakens then the individual may ***** more prone ***** committing crime. Trajectories are also based on the changes in social b*****ding p*****terns. A person growing up in an impoverished community with weak familial bonds may be more likely to commit crimes than a person from a financially and *****ly stable environment. The Sampson ***** Laub Life-course theory can explain the gender gap in crime. Males and females may experience different ***** points and trajectories. ***** same turning point ***** ***** construed differently for males versus females. For example, joining a g*****ng ***** be a powerful turning ***** but one th*****t might result in greater male versus female criminality. Males ***** also be more pressured by peers to join gangs and ***** gang-related crime in order to susta***** ***** deviant social network. Males ***** females might also experience different ***** due to their differential parental and peer social bonding.

Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a greater num*****r of opportunities ***** commit crime. One potential reason ***** boys are exposed to a greater number ***** opportunities ***** commit crime is ***** different methods of social *****. Family ties and nurturing *****ors are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant behaviors are encouraged as ***** expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for *****. Another reason why boys may be exposed to more opportunities to commit crime is related to *****style habits and routine behaviors. Boys may be more likely to ***** crimes because their daily *****s and habits involve high-r*****k behaviors including heavy drinking or fighting.


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