Essay - Crime and Gender Sampson and Laub's Life-course Theory Suggests that...


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Crime and Gender

***** and Laub's Life-course theory suggests that social bonds deter crime, especially when those bonds involve a high degree of personal investment. For example, an individual who is heavily involved in workplace committees and family life would possess strong ties ***** preclude committ*****g crimes. Moreover, Sampson and ***** theory acknowledges the ways social bonds evolve over time to explain why criminal behavior may emerge at certain ********** in a person's life. Sampson ***** Laub posit turning points as markers of changing ***** bonds. A divorce, moving to a new community, or meeting a new friend can each be turning ***** th***** alter social bonding. If bonding streng*****ns, ***** behavi***** ***** be deterred. If the bonding weakens then the individual may ***** more prone to committing crime. Trajectories are also based on the changes in ***** ***** patterns. A pers***** growing up in an impoverished community with weak familial bonds may be more likely to commit crimes th***** a *****on from a fin*****ncially and socially stable environment. The Sampson ***** Laub Life-course *****eory can ***** the gender gap in crime. Males and females may experience different ***** points and trajectories. The same turning point ***** ***** construed *****ly for males versus fe*****. For example, joining a gang ***** be a powerful turning point but one that might result in greater male versus female criminality. Males ***** also be more pressured by peers to join gangs and ***** gang-related ***** in order to sustain ***** deviant social network. Males ***** females might also experience different trajectories due to their *****ial parental and peer ***** bonding.

Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a ***** num*****r of opportunities to commit crime. One potential reason why boys ***** exposed to a greater number of opportunities to commit ***** is their different methods of social bonding. Family ties and nurturing behaviors are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant ***** are encouraged as ***** expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for crime. Another reason ***** boys may be exposed to more ***** to commit crime is related to lifestyle habits and routine *****haviors. Boys may be more likely to ***** crimes because their daily routines and habits involve high-risk behaviors including heavy drinking or fighting.

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