Essay - Crime and Gender Sampson and Laub's Life-course Theory Suggests that...

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Crime and Gender

Sampson and Laub's Life-course theory suggests that social bonds deter crime, especially when those bonds involve a high degree of personal investment. For example, an individual who is heavily involved in workplace committees *****d family life would possess strong ties ***** preclude committing crimes. Moreover, Sampson and Laub's theory acknowledges the ways social bonds evolve over time to explain why criminal behavior may emerge at certain *****s in a person's life. Sampson and Laub posit turning points as markers of changing social bonds. A divorce, moving to a new community, or meeting a new friend can each be turning ***** that alter social bonding. If bonding strengthens, ***** behavior may be deterred. ***** the bonding weakens then the individual may ***** more prone ***** committing crime. Trajectories are also based on the changes in ***** bonding patterns. A person growing up in an impoverished community with weak familial bonds may be more likely to commit crimes than a ***** from a financially ***** socially stable environment. The Sampson and Laub Life-course theory can ***** the gender gap in crime. Males ***** females may experience different ***** points and trajectories. The same turning point ***** be construed *****ly for males versus females. For example, joining a gang ***** ***** a powerful turning point but one th*****t might result in greater male versus female criminality. Males may also be more pressured by peers to join gangs and ***** gang-related ***** in order to sustain ***** deviant social network. Males and females might also experience different trajec*****ries due to their *****ial parental and peer social bonding.

Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a ***** number of opportunities to commit *****. One potential reason ***** boys are exposed to a greater number of opportunities ***** commit crime is their different methods ***** social *****. Family ties and nurturing behaviors are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant behaviors are encouraged as being expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for *****. Another reason why boys may be exposed to more ***** ***** commit crime is related to lifestyle habits ***** routine *****. Boys may be more likely ***** ***** crimes ********** ***** daily routines and habits involve high-r*****k behaviors including heavy drinking or fighting.


*****f*****mation gleaned from "Module


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