Essay - Crime and Gender Sampson and Laub's Life-course Theory Suggests that...


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Crime and Gender

Sampson ***** Laub's Life-course theory suggests that social bonds deter crime, especially when those bonds involve a high degree of person*****l investment. For example, an individual who is heavily involved in workplace committees *****d family life would possess strong ties that preclude committing *****s. Moreover, Sampson and Laub's ***** acknowledges the ways social ***** evolve over time to explain why criminal behavior may emerge at certain times in a person's life. S*****mpson ***** Laub posit turning points as markers of changing ***** bonds. A divorce, moving to a new community, or meeting a new friend c*****n each be turning points that alter social bonding. If bonding strengthens, ***** behavior may be deterred. If the bonding weakens then the individual may ***** more prone ***** committing crime. Trajectories are also based on the changes in social ***** patterns. A pers***** growing up in an impoverished community with weak familial bonds may be more likely to commit crimes than a *****on from a financially and *****ly stable environment. The Sampson ***** Laub Life-course theory can explain the gender gap in crime. Males and females may experience different ***** points and trajectories. ***** same turning point can ***** construed differently for males versus females. ***** example, joining a gang would be a powerful turning point but one that might result in greater male versus female criminality. Males ***** also be more pressured by peers to join gangs and commit gang-related ***** in order to susta***** ***** deviant social network. Males and females might also experience different ***** due ***** their differential parental and peer social bonding.

Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a ***** num*****r of opportunities ***** commit crime. One potential reason why boys ***** exposed to a greater number of opportunities ***** commit ***** is their different methods ***** social *****. Family ties and nurturing behaviors are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant behaviors are encouraged as ***** expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for crime. Another reason why boys may be exposed to more ***** to commit crime is related to *****style habits and routine behaviors. Boys may be more likely to commit crimes *****cause their daily routines and ***** involve high-r*****k behaviors including heavy drinking or fighting.

References

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