Essay - Crime and Gender Sampson and Laub's Life-course Theory Suggests that...

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Crime and Gender

Sampson ***** Laub's Life-course theory suggests that social bonds deter crime, especially when those bonds involve a high degree of personal investment. For example, an individual who is heavily involved in workplace committees and family life would possess strong ties ***** preclude committ*****g *****s. Moreover, Sampson and Laub's ***** acknowledges the ways social ***** evolve over time to explain why criminal behavior may emerge at certain times in a person's life. Sampson and Laub posit turning points as markers of changing ***** bonds. A divorce, moving to a new community, or meeting a new friend can each be turning points th***** alter social bonding. If bonding streng*****ns, criminal behavior may be deterred. ***** the bonding weakens then the individual may be more prone ***** committing crime. Trajectories are also based on the changes in ***** ***** patterns. A person growing up in an impoverished community with weak familial bonds may ***** more likely to commit crimes than a ***** from a fin*****ncially and socially stable environment. The Sampson ***** Laub Life-course theory can explain the gender gap in crime. Males and females may experience different ***** points and trajectories. The same turning point ***** be construed differently for males versus females. For example, joining a gang ***** ***** a powerful turning point but one that might result in greater male versus female criminality. Males ***** also be more pressured by peers to join gangs and ***** gang-related ***** in order to susta***** the deviant social network. Males ***** females might also experience different trajec*****ries due to *****ir differential parental and peer social bonding.

Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a ***** num*****r of opportunities ***** commit *****. One potential reason ***** boys ***** exposed to a greater number of opportunities ***** commit crime is their different methods ***** social bonding. Family ties and nurturing behaviors are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant behaviors are encouraged as being expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for crime. Another reason why boys may be exposed to more opportunities ***** commit ***** is related to lifestyle habits ***** routine *****haviors. Boys may be more likely ***** commit crimes *****cause ***** daily routines and habits involve high-risk behaviors including heavy drinking or fighting.


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