Essay - Crime and Gender Sampson and Laub's Life-course Theory Suggests that...

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Crime and Gender

Sampson ***** Laub's Life-course theory suggests that social bonds deter crime, especially when those bonds involve a high degree of personal investment. For example, an individual who is heavily involved in workplace committees and family life would possess strong ties that preclude committing *****s. Moreover, Sampson and ***** ***** acknowledges the ways social ***** evolve over time to explain why criminal behavior may emerge at certain times in a person's life. Sampson and Laub posit turning points as markers of changing social bonds. A divorce, moving to a new community, or meeting a new friend c*****n each be turning points ***** alter social bonding. If bonding streng*****ns, ***** behavi***** may be deterred. ***** the bonding weakens then the individual may ***** more prone ***** ***** crime. Trajectories are also based on the changes in social ***** p*****terns. A pers***** growing up in an impoverished community with weak familial ***** may be more likely to commit crimes than a ********** from a financially ***** socially stable environment. The Sampson and Laub Life-course theory can explain the gender gap in crime. Males ***** females may experience different turning points and trajectories. ***** same turning point ***** ***** construed differently for males versus fe*****. ***** example, joining a gang ***** be a powerful turning point but one th*****t might result in greater male versus *****male criminality. Males ***** ***** be more pressured by peers to join gangs and ***** gang-related ***** in order to sustain the deviant social network. Males ***** females might also experience different ***** due to *****ir differential parental and peer ***** bonding.

Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a greater num*****r of opportunities ***** commit *****. One potential reason ***** boys ***** exposed to a greater number of opportunities to commit crime is their different methods ***** social bonding. Family ties and nurturing behaviors are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant ***** are encouraged as ***** expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for *****. Another reason why boys may be exposed ***** more ***** to commit crime is related to lifestyle habits ***** routine *****haviors. Boys may be more likely ***** ***** crimes ********** their daily routines and ***** involve high-r*****k behaviors including heavy drinking or fighting.


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