Essay - Crime and Gender Sampson and Laub's Life-course Theory Suggests that...


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Crime and Gender

Sampson and Laub's Life-course theory suggests that social bonds deter crime, especially when those bonds involve a high degree of person*****l investment. For example, an individual who is heavily involved in workplace committees and family life would possess strong ties that preclude committing crimes. Moreover, Sampson and ***** ***** acknowledges the ways social bonds evolve over time to explain why criminal behavior may emerge at certain *****s in a person's life. S*****mpson and Laub posit turning points as markers of changing social bonds. A divorce, moving to a new community, or meeting a ***** friend can each be turning ***** ***** alter social bonding. If bonding strengthens, criminal behavior ***** be deterred. If the bonding weakens then the individual may be more prone to committing crime. Trajectories are also based on the changes in ***** ***** p*****terns. A pers***** growing up in an impoverished community with weak familial ***** may ***** more likely to commit crimes th***** a *****on from a financially ***** socially stable environment. The Sampson and Laub Life-course theory can explain the gender gap in crime. Males ***** females may experience different ***** points and trajectories. ***** same turning point ***** be construed differently for males versus females. ***** example, joining a g*****ng ***** be a powerful turning point but one that might result in greater male versus female criminality. Males ***** also be more pressured by peers to join gangs and ***** gang-related crime in order to sustain the deviant social network. Males ***** ***** might also experience different ***** due to ********** *****ial parental and peer ***** bonding.

Opportunity theories of crime explain why boys are exposed to a ***** num*****r of opportunities ***** commit *****. One potential reason ***** boys ***** exposed to a greater number of opportunities to commit crime is their different methods ***** social bonding. Family ties and nurturing *****s are discouraged as being stereotypically feminine expressions, whereas deviant behaviors are encouraged as ***** expressions of masculinity. In other words, gender norms determine opportunities for crime. Another reason why boys may be exposed to more opportunities ***** commit crime is related to *****style habits and routine *****. Boys may be more ***** to commit crimes *****cause ***** daily *****s and ***** involve high-risk behaviors including heavy drinking or fighting.

References

Inf*****mation gleaned from "Module

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