Essay - Criminal Corrections Retribution, Deterrence, Incapacitation & Rehabilitation Since the Beginning...


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Criminal corrections

RETRIBUTION, DETERRENCE, INCAPACITATION & REHABILITATION

Since the beginning of recorded history, civilized society has attempted to design and create various methods aimed at decreasing the amount of criminal activity. So far, a number of these methods have proven ***** be effective under certain circumstances, yet they have also *****en shown to be ineffective, some more than others. In modern times, society's response to ***** *****havior ***** included many specialized ***** developed by criminologists, psychologists, law ***** legal ********** and by those involved in penal corrections.

This paper will examine four of the most common methods used today for criminal corrections, ***** known as the goals of criminal law—retribution, deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation. At ***** conclusion, one ***** these methods ***** be chosen as a representative of the best way to fight criminal behavior, one that will yield the highest benefits for society as a whole.

***** ***** all, retribution, also ***** as the theory of retributive justice, "assumes that ********** deserve to be punished, mostly ***** long prison terms, as legal revenge for their harm to *****." The modern approach to this type of punishment "considers it proper to punish because (criminals) deserve it and the state h***** gone to t*****e trouble ***** prescribing a *****ment for them" ("Fundamentals of Criminal Law," *****ternet).

***** is undoubtedly one of the oldest forms of criminal punishment, for it *****ten entails long ***** sentences based on the sever*****y of ***** crime committed by the individual. In Western society, revenge against ***** has long been a custom, especi*****y in relation to crimes like first-degree murder, kidnapping, rape or felonious assault. Also, retribution guarantees that the criminal will be kept off the streets for a pro*****ed period of time *****nd ***** his/her punishment is in l*****e with the will of society as far as ***** is concerned.

Second, deterrence "***** that fearful penalties, mostly involving swift restraint, harsh conditions and certain guilt, ***** prevent people from choosing to engage in crime. Specific deterrence focuses on individual **********, (while) general deterrence focuses ***** potential criminals" ("Fundamentals of Criminal *****," Internet). It has long been argued whether or not such a thing as deterrence truly exists and ***** such actions actually deter *****. Logically, if a person decides to commit murder in a state that h***** the death penalty, he/she may think twice about committing the crime, unless it happens to be a "spur of the moment" event or due to "the passion of the moment" (Clear, 126).

***** criminologists agree with ***** assessment that deterrence does ***** exist, f***** ***** declare ***** "criminals... do not calculate the risk of being caught and *****. They are impulsive or opportunists or driven to crime ***** *****" ("Incapacitation ***** Deterrence," Internet). Certainly, as compared to *****, deterrence is a very slippery beast, for it has not ***** adequately proven by any state or federal agency that ***** ***** w*****ks unless, of course, the death penalty is carried out, being ***** ultimate deterrent.

Third, ***** is the legal

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