Essay - Criminal Corrections Retribution, Deterrence, Incapacitation & Rehabilitation Since the Beginning...


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Criminal corrections

RETRIBUTION, DETERRENCE, INCAPACITATION & REHABILITATION

Since the beginning of recorded history, civilized society has attempted to design and create various methods aimed at decreasing the amount of criminal activity. So far, a number of these methods have proven ***** be effective under certain circumstances, yet they have also been shown to be ineffective, some more than others. In modern times, society's response to criminal behavior ***** included many specialized ***** developed by criminologists, psychologists, law and legal *****ficials and by those involved in penal *****.

***** paper will examine four of the most common methods used today for ***** corrections, also known as the goals of criminal law—retribution, deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation. At the conclusion, one ***** *****se methods will be chosen as a represent*****tive of the best way to fight criminal behavior, ***** that will yield the highest benefits for society as a whole.

***** ***** all, retribution, also known as the theory of retributive justice, "assumes that criminals deserve ***** be punished, mostly by long prison terms, as legal revenge for their harm to *****." The modern approach to this type of punishment "considers it proper to punish because (*****) deserve it and the state has gone to the trouble of prescribing a punishment for them" ("Fundamentals of Criminal Law," Internet).

***** is undoubtedly one of the oldest forms of criminal punishment, for ***** often entails long prison sentences based on the severity of the crime committed ***** the individual. In Western society, revenge against criminals ***** long been a cus*****m, especi*****lly in relation to ********** like first-degree murder, kidnapping, rape or felonious assault. Also, retribution guarantees that the criminal will be kept off the streets f***** a pro*****ed period of time and that his/her punishment is in line with the will of society as far as ***** is concerned.

Second, deterrence "assumes that fearful **********, mostly involving swift restraint, harsh conditions and certain guilt, ***** prevent people from choosing to engage in crime. Specific ***** focuses on ***** *****, (while) general deterrence focuses ***** potential *****s" ("Fundamentals of Criminal Law," Internet). It has long been argued whether or not such a thing as deterrence truly exists and whether such actions actually deter *****. Logically, if a person decides to commit murder in a st*****te ***** ***** the death penalty, he/she may think twice about committing ***** crime, unless it happens ***** be a "spur of the moment" event or due to "the p*****sion ***** the moment" (Clear, 126).

Many criminologists agree w*****h the assessment that deterrence does not exist, for ***** declare ***** "criminals... do not calculate the risk of being caught ***** punished. They are impulsive or opportunists or driven to ***** by circumstances" ("Incapacitation and Deterrence," *****). Certainly, as compared to *****, deterrence is a very slippery be*****st, for it has not been adequately ***** by any state or federal agency that deterrence actually w*****ks unless, of course, the death penalty is carried out, ***** the ultimate deterrent.

*****, incapacitation is the legal

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