Essay - Criminal Corrections Retribution, Deterrence, Incapacitation & Rehabilitation Since the Beginning...


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Criminal corrections

RETRIBUTION, DETERRENCE, INCAPACITATION & REHABILITATION

***** the beginning of recorded history, civilized society has attempted to design and create various methods aimed at decreasing the amount of criminal activity. So far, a number of these methods h*****ve proven ***** be effective under certain circumstances, yet they have also *****en shown to be ineffective, some more than others. In modern times, society's response to ***** behavior ***** included many specialized methods developed by criminologists, psychologists, law and legal *****ficials ***** ***** those involved in penal *****.

***** paper will examine four of the most common ***** used today for criminal corrections, also known as ***** goals of criminal law—retribution, deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation. At the conclusion, one ***** *****se methods ***** be chosen as a represent*****tive of the best way to fight criminal behavior, ***** that will yield the highest benefits ***** society as a whole.

***** ***** all, retribution, also ***** as ***** theory of retributive justice, "assumes that *****s deserve to be punished, mostly by long prison terms, as legal revenge for their harm ***** society." The modern approach to this type of punishment "considers it proper to punish because (criminals) deserve it and the state has gone to the trouble of prescribing a punishment for them" ("Fundamentals of Criminal Law," Internet).

This is undoubtedly one ***** the oldest forms of criminal *****, for ***** *****ten entails long ***** sentences based on the severity of ***** crime committed ***** the individual. In Western society, revenge against ***** ***** long been a custom, especi*****lly in relation to crimes like first-degree murder, kidnapping, rape or felonious assault. Also, retribution guarantees that the criminal will be kept off the streets for a pro*****ed period of time *****nd ***** his/her punishment is in l*****e with the will of society as far as ***** is concerned.

Second, deterrence "***** that fearful penalties, mostly involving swift restraint, harsh conditions and certain guilt, ***** prevent people from choosing to engage in crime. Specific deterrence focuses on individual **********, (while) general ***** focuses on potential criminals" ("Fundamentals of Criminal Law," Internet). It has long been argued whether or not such a thing ********** deterrence truly exists and ***** such actions actually deter *****. Logically, if a person decides to commit murder in a state ***** ***** the death penalty, he/she may think twice about committing the crime, unless it happens ***** be a "spur of the moment" event or due to "the p*****ssion ***** the moment" (Clear, 126).

Many criminologists agree ***** the assessment that deterrence does not exist, f***** ***** declare ***** "criminals... do not calculate the risk of being caught and punished. They are impulsive or opportunists or driven to crime by circumstances" ("Incapacitation and Deterrence," *****). Certainly, as compared to retribution, deterrence is a very slippery beast, for it has not ***** adequately ***** by any state or federal agency that ***** ***** w*****ks unless, of course, the death ***** is carried out, being ***** ultimate deterrent.

Third, ***** is the legal

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