Essay - Criminal Corrections Retribution, Deterrence, Incapacitation & Rehabilitation Since the Beginning...


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Criminal corrections

RETRIBUTION, DETERRENCE, INCAPACITATION & REHABILITATION

Since the beginning of recorded history, civilized society has attempted to design and create various methods aimed at decreasing the amount of criminal activity. So far, a number of these methods have proven ***** be effective under certain circumstances, yet they have also been shown to be ineffective, some more than others. In modern times, society's response to ***** *****havior ***** included many specialized ***** developed by criminologists, psychologists, law ***** legal ********** and ***** those involved in penal corrections.

***** paper will examine four of the most common methods used today for criminal corrections, also known as the goals of criminal law—retribution, deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation. At the conclusion, one ***** *****se methods ***** be chosen as a represent*****tive of the best way to fight criminal behavior, one that will yield the highest benefits ***** society as a whole.

***** of all, retribution, also ***** as the theory of retributive justice, "assumes that ********** deserve to be punished, mostly by long prison terms, as legal revenge for their harm ***** *****." The modern approach to this type of punishment "considers it proper to punish because (criminals) deserve it and the state has g***** to ***** trouble of prescribing a punishment for them" ("Fundamentals of Criminal Law," Internet).

This is undoubtedly one ***** the oldest forms of criminal punishment, for it often entails long prison sentences based on the sever*****y of the crime committed ***** the individual. In Western society, ***** against ***** ***** long been a custom, especi*****y in relation to crimes like first-degree murder, kidnapping, rape or felonious assault. Also, retribution guarantees that the criminal ***** be kept ********** the streets for a pro*****ed period of time *****nd that his/her ***** is in l*****e with the will of society as far as punishment is concerned.

Second, deterrence "***** ***** fearful *****ties, mostly involving swift restraint, harsh conditions and certain guilt, will prevent people from choosing to engage in crime. Specific deterrence focuses on individual criminals, (while) general ***** focuses ***** potential criminals" ("Fundamentals of Criminal *****," Internet). It has long been argued whether or not such a thing as deterrence truly exists and ***** such actions actually deter *****. Logically, if a person decides to commit murder in a state that ***** the death penalty, he/she may think twice about committing the crime, unless it happens ***** be a "spur of the moment" event or due to "the p*****sion ***** the moment" (Cle*****r, 126).

Many criminologists agree ***** ***** assessment that deterrence does not exist, for ***** declare that "criminals... do not calculate the risk of being caught ***** punished. They are impulsive or opportunists or driven ***** ***** by *****" ("Incapacitation and Deterrence," *****). Certainly, as compared to *****, deterrence is a very slippery be*****t, for it h*****s not been adequately ***** by any state or federal agency ***** deterrence ***** works unless, of course, the death penalty is carried out, being ***** ultimate deterrent.

*****, incapacitation is the legal

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