Essay - Criminal Corrections Retribution, Deterrence, Incapacitation & Rehabilitation Since the Beginning...


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Criminal corrections

RETRIBUTION, DETERRENCE, INCAPACITATION & REHABILITATION

***** the beginning of recorded history, civilized society has attempted to design and create various methods aimed at decreasing the amount of criminal activity. So far, a number of these methods have proven ***** be effective under certain circumstances, yet they have also *****en shown to be ineffective, some more than others. In modern times, society's response to ***** *****havior ***** included many specialized methods developed by criminologists, psychologists, law and legal officials and by those involved in penal corrections.

***** paper will examine four of the most common methods used today for criminal corrections, also known as ***** goals of criminal law—retribution, deterrence, incapacitation and rehabilitation. At the conclusion, one ***** these methods will be chosen as a represent*****tive of the best way to fight criminal behavior, ***** that ***** yield the highest benefits for society as a whole.

***** of all, retribution, also ***** as ***** theory of retributive justice, "********** that criminals deserve to be punished, mostly ***** long prison terms, as legal revenge for their harm to society." The modern approach to this type of punishment "considers it proper to punish because (criminals) deserve it and the state has gone to the trouble ***** prescribing a *****ment for them" ("Fundamentals of Criminal Law," Internet).

This is undoubtedly one ***** the oldest forms of criminal punishment, for ***** *****ten entails long ***** sentences based on the severity of ***** crime committed by the individual. In Western society, revenge against criminals ***** long been a custom, especi*****lly in relation to crimes like first-degree murder, kidnapping, rape or felonious assault. Also, retribution guarantees that the criminal will be kept *****f the streets for a pro*****ed period of time and that his/her ***** is in line with the will of society as far as punishment is concerned.

Second, deterrence "assumes that fearful *****ties, mostly involving swift restraint, harsh conditions and certain guilt, will prevent people from choosing to engage in crime. Specific deterrence focuses on ***** criminals, (while) general deterrence focuses ***** potential criminals" ("Fundamentals of Criminal *****," Internet). It has long ********** argued whether or not such a thing as deterrence truly exists and ***** such actions actually deter crime. Logically, if a person decides to commit murder in a state ***** ***** the death penalty, he/she may think twice about committing ***** crime, unless it happens ***** be a "spur of the moment" event or due to "the passion ***** the moment" (Clear, 126).

Many criminologists agree ***** the assessment that deterrence does ***** exist, for they declare that "criminals... do not calculate the risk of being caught ***** *****. They are impulsive or opportunists or driven to crime by *****" ("Incapac*****ation and Deterrence," *****). Certainly, as compared to retribution, deterrence is a very slippery be*****t, for it has not been adequately ***** by any state or federal agency ***** ***** actually w*****ks unless, of course, the death penalty is carried out, being ***** ultimate deterrent.

Third, ***** is the legal

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