Essay - Curriculum Evaluation Models Ornstein and Hunkins (2003) Categorize Two Approaches...

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Curriculum Evaluation Models

Ornstein and Hunkins (2003) categorize two approaches to curriculum development as technical-scientific and nontechnical-nonscientific. The technical-scientific approach is a blueprint for structure the learning environment and coordinating ***** elements of personnel, materials and equipment. Educators use a r*****tional approach to accomplish their tasks and systematically outline procedures to facilitate the creation of *****. It's essentially a means-ends paradigm which emphasizes the ability to evaluate a *****- designed program. However, with use of the nontechnical-nonscientific ***** curriculum evolves rather than being planned. This approach foc*****s on individual's self-percepti*****s and personal preferences, their own assessments of self-needs and ***** attempts at self-integration. ***** learner is highly involved in the planning process. The nontechnical-nonscientific ***** stresses *****, subjective, aesthetic, heuristic, and transactional nature of curriculum

While both technical-scientific and nontechnical-nonscientific ***** each have different suggested process models for implementation, it is useful to explain a commonly used model ***** ***** to further understand the differences in the approaches. The Taba Model is often used for the technical-scientific approach and emphasizes teacher-***** instruction.

This model recommends a five-step ***** sequence (Curriculum development):

Producing pilot te*****ching-learning un*****s representative of the grade level or subject area.

***** experimental units to set upper and lower limits of required abilities.

Revising and consolidating

Developing a framework for scope and sequence

***** and disseminating new units (in-service training)

In contrast, ***** Glatthorn Naturalistic Model for supporting the ***** ***** suggests (Ritz):

***** the alternatives

Staking out the territory

Developing a constituency

***** the knowledge base

Blocking in the unit

***** quality learning experiences

Developing the course examination

***** the learning scenarios

Increasingly, teachers are called upon to incorporate ***** of both technical-scientific and nontechnical-nonscientific approaches to curriculum development to achieve the ***** benefits of each. Teachers will need to look at process models for implementing these two approaches to achieve the benefits of both outcome-based education which emphasizes what students are expected to learn as well as open-ended ***** which encourages teachers to create a positive ***** experience for the student. The former is best served by technical-scientific ***** while the later is best accomplished by ***** approaches. Fortunately, the ***** do appear to be complimentary more so than conflicting ideologies as positioned by some.

Therefore, teachers should seek out an integrative approach to *****ir curriculum ***** approaches that weds ***** models. Practically speaking, this will mean striking a balance between student-centered and subject-centered curriculum and forming me*****urable expectations for the general student population as ***** as the flexibility ***** aim for highly individualized expectations that are unique to each student and that may be more *****ly assessed. And, of *****, a broader community ***** ***** to be brought into the curriculum development process.


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Ornstein & Hunkins (2003). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, ***** issues (4th ed). Boston: Allyn and Becon.

Ritz, J. Curriculum development.


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