Essay - Disparities in the Court System: Sentencing of African Americans and...


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DISPARITIES IN THE COURT SYSTEM: SENTENC*****G OF AFRICAN AMERICANS AND HISPANICS

RESEARCH DESIGN

***** WHERE RESEARCH IS TO BE CONDUCTED

The research proposed in this document is to take place in several selected jurisdictions on calls for "service, arrests, and failure to arrest, prosecutions and failures ***** prosecute and other data relevant to determining disparity prior to sentencing toward the objective of a statistical determination ***** factors that affect the decision to incarcerate, including the charges levied against the defendant and the length of the sentence imposed upon the *****. The primary data systems in most states for collection ***** information on offenders are Department of Corrections *****fender-tracking information systems and the court systems case management ***** database.

INDEPENDENT ***** DEPENDENT VARIABLES

1. Dependent variable

The dependent variable in this study will be ***** race/ethnicity of the *****fender ***** has been ********** for a crime.

*****. Independent Variables

Independent variables in ***** study include those as follows:

Sentence Length;

The crime committed;

The race of the victim (if any)

The gender of ***** offender

The gender of the victim (if any)

***** age of the offender

The age of the victim

The injury ***** the victim

Prior convictions

Seriousness of disposition

***** current *****

On probation

Released on b*****d

Private attorney

Guilty plea

State/County/City of conviction

Offense type

Homicide

*****

Robbery

Assault

Class*****ication of Habitual Offender Assigned

***** COLLECTION METHOD

1. Analysis ***** Data

The work of Mueller, Connelly, and Pingel entitled: "Starting Points: The State and National Landscape" states: "In theory there ***** two types of factors that contribute to racial disparity: (1) differential participation (or involvement) in criminal activity; and (2) differential treatment by the criminal justice systems ***** processes." (2004) According to Mueller, Connelly and Pingel (2004) Differential ***** "describes whether, and how different demographic groups differ in terms of the percentage f *****ir members who commit crimes." On the ***** hand, *****ential treatment describes "bias-whether intentional or overt, or circumstantial - re*****lected in the ways ***** actors in the crim*****al justice system (police, prosecutors, defense attorneys, judges) treat subjects of different demographic groups." (*****, Connelley, and Pingel, *****) Some ********** have attempted to quantify the difference between differential ***** ***** ***** **********. Blumstein (*****982) states calculations "that 80 percent of ***** disproportionality in imprisonment is explained ***** differential participation by minority groups in criminal activity." (Mueller, Connelley, and Pingel, 2004) Yet Crutchfield, Bridges and Pitchford report that other researchers "have since refined the data and methods employed to yield estimates of 66%." (*****, Connelley, and Pingel, 2004) However, it is held by Mueller, Connelley and Pingel that in order for research to be valid, that both of these ***** must be taken ********** account. The work of Oliver (2004) is related in which comparisons of ********** rates and sentence lengths were used and subdivided by race and type of crime to describe how observed racial disparity stems from 'factors' that ***** a combination of bias, real differences in serious crime, social and political conditions.' Whether attributed

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