Essay - Eastern Religion Part One Summary of the History of Hinduism...


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Eastern Religion

Part One

Summary of the History ***** Hinduism and Buddhism

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***** history of Hinduism, according to Kinsley (45), dates back to the Indus Valley in India, with the Indo-Aryan people, or Vedas, around 1500 B.C.E. (before the Christian era). This period was known as "The Formative Period" - and ***** Vedas created four key volumes ***** literature (Sambitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas ***** Upanishads) which is believed ***** contain the moral roots of what is today ***** as Hindu*****m. Interestingly, in one of the early Sambitas texts, a "heroic visionary figure and poet" (***** 45) named "rishi" experienced "directly" the "gods and powers" of the Vedic world, including the Vedic god Agni (representing fire and heat). ***** ***** also reportedly drank "soma" - probably a h*****llucinogenic mushroom - ***** thus were "transported" to the "realm of the *****."

In the Speculative Period (800 - 400 B.C.E.), the Upanishads writings dominated Vedic literature. The Upanishads were the first call in Hinduism for a "quest ***** liberation" (Kinsley 46) from the *****, and ***** the ***** form of Yoga emerged from those writings.

In ***** Epic ***** Classical Periods (400 B.C.E. - 600 C.E.) the two great Hindu epics (the Mahabharata and the Ramayana) ***** written. The ***** reflected the "tension" between the desire ***** "uphold" world order on one hand, and on ***** other hand, the desire to isolate a pers***** from society ***** "*****chieve individual *****," ***** to Kinsley. During this period, ***** Indo-Aryans settled into communities, abandoning their nomadic ways.

In the Medieval Period (600 - 1***** C.E.) *****re were a number of temples built, in conjunction with the rise of the devotional movement. Deities ***** part of the temples, and they represented Puranas, or "stories of old" (***** 48). And in the Modern Period of Hinduism (1800 to present), Islam moved into India, as did the Europeans (Britain), and the original purity of Hinduism was somewhat under attack and watered down. So, as a result of that, there w***** a movement to revive some of the ancient customs. **********, some years later, Gandhi interpreted the Gita teachings as a nonviolent p*****th*****ay to ***** expression ***** truth. Also, Transcendental Meditation and Krishna Consciousness became important tools for the Hindus to return ***** their early traditions, and to interest the Western ***** in the H*****du spiritual search for truth and personal identity.

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The Indian prince who was to become known as a Buddh***** was *****ly called Siddhartha Gautama. He lived 2500 ***** ago (roughly 566 - *****6 B.C.E.), although scholars differ on exactly when he lived, and they d*****'t agree on many of the his*****rical data of his life and times. But, according to Lopez (101), ***** original Buddha achieved "enlightenment" in an instant - or, at least in a single night of medit*****tion - ***** afterward began putting f*****th ***** "***** noble truths" (Lopez 102). Buddha reportedly died at the age of 80, passing in***** nirvana. When he passed away, he left relics with his followers, *****

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