Essay - Eastern Religion Part One Summary of the History of Hinduism...


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Eastern Religion

Part One

Summary of the History ***** Hinduism and Buddhism

*****

The history of Hinduism, according to Kinsley (45), dates back to the Indus Valley in India, with the Indo-Aryan people, or Vedas, around 1500 B.C.E. (before the Christian era). This period was known as "The Formative Period" - and ***** Vedas created four key volumes of literature (Sambitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas ***** Upanishads) which is believed ***** conta***** the moral roots of what is today known as Hindu*****m. Interestingly, in one ***** the early Sambitas texts, a "heroic visionary figure and poet" (***** 45) named "rishi" experienced "directly" the "gods and powers" of the Vedic world, *****cluding the Vedic god Agni (representing fire and heat). ***** ***** also reportedly drank "soma" - probably a hallucinogenic mushroom - and thus were "transported" to the "realm of the gods."

In ***** Speculative ***** (800 - 400 B.C.E.), the Upanishads writings dominated Vedic literature. The Upanishads ***** ***** first call in H*****duism for a "quest ***** liberation" (Kinsley 46) from the world, ***** also the first form of Yoga emerged from those writings.

In the Epic and Classical Periods (***** B.C.E. - 600 C.E.) the two great Hindu epics (***** Mahabharata and the Ramayana) were written. The ***** reflected ***** "tension" between the desire ***** "uphold" world order on *****e hand, and on ***** other *****, the desire to isolate a person from society to "*****chieve individual *****," ***** to Kinsley. During this period, the *****s settled into communities, abandoning ********** nomadic ways.

In the Medieval Period (600 - 1800 C.E.) *****re were a number of temples built, in conjunction with the rise of the devotional movement. Deities ***** part of ***** *****, and they represented Puranas, or "stories of old" (***** 48). And ***** the Modern ***** of Hinduism (1800 to present), Islam moved into India, as did the Europeans (Britain), and the original purity ***** Hinduism was somewhat under attack and watered down. So, as a result of that, there w***** a ***** to revive some of the ancient customs. Then, some years later, Gandhi interpreted the Gita teachings as a nonviolent pathway to ***** expression of truth. Also, Transcendental Meditation and Krishna Consciousness became important tools for the Hindus to return ***** their ***** traditions, and to interest the Western world in the Hindu spiritual search for truth ***** personal identity.

Buddhism

The Indian prince who was to become ***** as a Buddh***** was originally called Siddhartha Gautama. He lived 2500 years ago (roughly 566 - 486 B.C.E.), although scholars differ on exactly when he *****, and they d*****'t agree on many of the his*****rical data of his life and times. But, according to Lopez (101), the original Buddha achieved "enlightenment" in an *****stant - or, at least in a single night of meditation - ***** afterward began putting f*****th his "four noble **********" (Lopez 102). Buddha reportedly died at the age of 80, passing into nirvana. When he passed away, he left relics ***** his followers, *****

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