Essay - Eastern Religion Part One Summary of the History of Hinduism...


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Eastern Religion

Part One

Summary of the History of Hinduism and Buddhism

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***** history of Hinduism, according to Kinsley (45), dates back to the Indus Valley in India, with the Indo-Aryan people, or Vedas, around 1500 B.C.E. (bef*****e the Christian era). This period was known as "The Formative Period" - and the Vedas created four key volumes of lit*****ture (Sambitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas ***** Upanishads) which is believed to conta***** the moral roots of what is today known as Hinduism. Interestingly, in one of the early Sambitas texts, a "heroic visionary figure and poet" (***** 45) named "rishi" experienced "directly" the "gods and powers" ***** the Vedic world, including the Vedic god Agni (representing fire and heat). ***** ***** also reportedly drank "soma" - probably a h*****llucinogenic mushroom ***** ***** thus were "transported" to the "realm of the *****."

***** the Speculative Period (800 - 400 B.C.E.), the Upanishads writings dominated Vedic literature. The Upanishads ***** the first call in ***** for a "quest ***** liberation" (K*****sley 46) from the *****, and ***** the first form of Yoga emerged from those writings.

In the Epic and Classical Periods (***** B.C.E. - 600 C.E.) ***** two great Hindu epics (the Mahabharata and the Ramayana) were written. ***** ***** reflected the "tension" between the desire ***** "uphold" world order on one hand, and on ***** other hand, the desire to isolate a person ***** society ***** "*****chieve individual *****," according to Kinsley. During this period, ***** *****s settled into communities, abandoning their nomadic ways.

In the Medieval Period (600 - 1800 C.E.) there ***** a number of temples built, in conjunction with the rise of the devotional movement. Deities were part of the temples, and they represented Puranas, or "stories of old" (***** 48). And in the Modern Period of H*****duism (1800 to present), Islam moved into India, as did the Europeans (Britain), and the original purity of Hinduism was somewhat under attack and watered down. So, as a result of that, there ***** a movement to revive some of the ancient customs. Then, some years later, G*****hi interpreted the Gita teachings ***** a nonviolent p*****thway to ***** expression of truth. Also, Transcendental Meditation and Krishna Consciousness became important tools for the Hindus to return ***** *****ir ***** traditions, and to interest the Western world in the H*****du spiritual search for truth and personal identity.

Buddhism

The *****n prince who was to become known as a Buddh***** was originally called Siddhartha Gautama. He lived 2500 ***** ago (roughly 566 - *****6 B.C.E.), although scholars differ on exactly when he *****, and they d*****'t agree on many of the his*****rical data of his life and times. But, ***** to Lopez (101), ***** original Buddha achieved "enlightenment" in an *****stant ***** or, at least in a single night of meditation - and afterward began putting f*****th ***** "four noble truths" (Lopez 102). Buddha reportedly died at the age of 80, passing in***** nirvana. When he passed away, he left relics ***** his followers, *****

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