Essay - Eastern Religion Part One Summary of the History of Hinduism...


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Eastern Religion

Part One

Summary of the History ***** Hinduism and Buddhism

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***** history of Hinduism, according to Kinsley (45), dates back to the Indus Valley in India, with the Indo-Aryan people, or Vedas, around 1500 B.C.E. (bef*****e the Christian era). This period was known as "The Formative Period" - and ***** Vedas created four key volumes ***** literature (Sambitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas ***** Upanishads) which is believed ***** conta***** the moral roots of what is today ***** as Hindu*****m. Interestingly, in one of the early Sambitas texts, a "heroic visionary figure and poet" (K*****sley 45) named "rishi" experienced "directly" the "gods and powers" of the Vedic world, including ***** Vedic god Agni (representing fire and heat). The rishi also reportedly drank "soma" - probably a hallucinogenic mushroom ***** ***** thus were "transported" to the "realm of the gods."

***** the Speculative ***** (800 - 400 B.C.E.), the Upanishads writings dominated Vedic *****. ***** Upanishads were ***** first call in Hinduism for a "quest ***** liberation" (Kinsley 46) from the world, and ***** the ***** form of Yoga emerged from those writings.

In ***** Epic and Classical Periods (400 B.C.E. - 600 C.E.) the two great Hindu epics (***** Mahabharata ***** the Ramayana) ***** written. The ***** reflected the "tension" between the desire to "uphold" world order on one hand, and on the other hand, the desire ***** isolate a pers***** from society to "achieve individual liberation," according ***** Kinsley. During this *****, the *****s settled into communities, abandoning *****ir nomadic ways.

In the Medieval Period (***** - 1800 C.E.) *****re were a number of temples built, in conjunction with the rise of the devotional movement. Deities were part of ***** *****, and they represented Puranas, or "stories of old" (***** 48). And in the Modern Period of Hinduism (1800 to present), Islam moved into India, as did the Europeans (Britain), and the original purity of Hinduism was somewhat under attack ***** watered down. So, as a result of that, there ***** a movement to revive some of the ancient customs. Then, some years later, Gandhi interpreted the Gita teachings ***** a nonviolent pathway to the expression of truth. Also, Transcendental Meditation and Krishna Consciousness became important tools for ***** Hindus to return to their early traditions, and ***** interest the Western world in the Hindu spiritual search for truth ***** personal identity.

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The Indian prince who was to become known as a Buddha was originally called Siddhartha Gautama. He lived 2500 years ago (roughly 566 ***** *****6 B.C.E.), although scholars differ on exactly when he lived, and they d*****'t agree on many of the his*****rical data of his life and times. But, ***** to Lopez (101), the original Buddha achieved "enlightenment" in an instant - or, at least in a single night of meditation - ***** afterward began putting forth ***** "four noble **********" (Lopez 102). Buddha reportedly died at the age of 80, passing in***** nirvana. When he passed away, he left relics ***** his followers, *****

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