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Evaluating the Effectiveness of Managers


The effectiveness ***** managers in a te*****m environment is directly linked to *****ir emotional intelligence (EI) and corresponding ability ***** create an environment of transformational leadership in their organizations.

Exceptional ***** have the ability to balance these attributes while at the same time accomplishing project deadlines, milestones, and eventual project completion while ***** the same time getting high levels of cooperation and coordination. The intent ***** this literature review is to provide insights into how managers are using a varied style of ***** intelligence and transformational strategies to manage their own activities and those ***** the teams they manage, inf***** team dynamics with emotional intelligence, making the tasks of accomplishing key milestones more achievable. While there are many theories specifically in the area of management *****, ***** ***** intelligence (*****) aspects ***** managers and ***** propensity to develop ***** ***** is essential for organizations to attain their objectives.

***** Generational Shift in Valuing Emotional Intelligence as a Management Performance Indicator

Early theorists often remarked that knowledge of and strategizing over the emotions of workers was tantamount to manipulative management practices, and that emotions were to be controlled first by the individual. Fayol, H. (1949) *****lieved ***** ***** should be a strict line of authority and centralization to assure a tightness of control on all managerial *****. The beginnings of EI ***** quite negative, as *****orists did not find the link in exceptional performance and positive management approaches to fostering ***** sustaining strong emotions of achievement, growth and recognition. The first theorists felt that emotions were ***** be *****led by the individual or he ***** she would succumb to *****ir influences (Young, 1936; Schaffer, Gilmer & Schoen, 1940).

***** cognitive side of emotions, where ***** are ***** used for helping to prioritize t*****ks, focus, organize, and motivate was the next generation of researchers' primary focus. These researchers specifically found that emotions weren't just a tangential part of a humans' existence, ********** were integral to all tasks, and even to the perspective on all events. Researchers also ***** that ***** are holistic in nature because they involve the whole human, mind and body; through neural, cognitive, ***** motor processes (Leeper, 1948; Mandler, 1975; Simon, 1982; Izard & Buechler, 1980; Plutchik, 1980; Tomkins, 1962; Izard, 1991).

In ***** ********** of what ***** later become EI as a str*****tegy of defining managerial effectiveness, researchers also found that emotions developed in an evolutionary process "to ***** new types of motivation and new action tendencies as well ***** a greater variety of behaviors ***** cope with the environment and life's demands" (*****, 1991, p9). The ***** ***** and motivation theorists of today po*****t out that emotion are viewed as *****d responses that can create outstanding leaders and star performers (Boyatzis, 1982; George, 2000). These theorists also state that exceptional and outstanding *****, performers, and managers are for the most part exceptional due to their ***** to manage their *****, and the *****s ***** elicit in others through effective use of


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