Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...

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***** Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

Biological Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that gender is a biological or inborn quality ***** people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people are born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting biological theories ***** ***** men and woman are different anatomically or physically and therefore exhibit different traits or tendencies that comprise gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create *****ir identity based on physiological ***** in the body (*****, 45).

Kimmel points out ***** biological theorists suggest that biology ***** mankind the "blocks" or foundation they need ***** build create and form their identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According to biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" into man's biology thus inborn or biological differences ex*****t in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

Psychological *****ories of *****

***** theories suggest ***** gender differences result from psychological or mental differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological ***** tend to ***** or argue that it is individual person's interpretations of life ***** one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine or feminine that ********** ***** differences (Kimmel, 2000).

Kimmel cites Freud as a leading ***** theorist suggesting that gender is something that people shape and form by "interacting" ***** their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). Psychological *****s would also ***** that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter their associated gender identity.

Cross Cultural Perspective ***** Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective ***** gender ***** suggests ***** the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least that is what ***** suggests. Kimmel cites Gilbert Herdt to prove this theory by describing rituals of various cultures showing how people can learn gender ***** such as homosexuality and then revert ***** an***** gender identity once they ***** grown adults (Kimmel, 62).

***** further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural ***** in customs and sexuality practices that can impact gender ***** more so than biological or psychological constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, 2000). The ***** model is negated ***** Herdt shows ***** cultural ***** than biological tendencies can influence ***** gender identity. Psychological theories are not capable of adequately explaining how cognitive and other ***** ***** differ a***** cultural boundaries, hence psychological theories ***** al***** negated (Kimmel, *****).

Socially Constructed Gender Theories and ***** as a Social Institution

***** supports the notion that ***** ***** a social institution, or something that is socially constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted differing cultures in New Guinea influenced tribal members interpretation of ********** role ***** masculine and feminine (Kimmel, 2000). Other the*****ists suggest ***** mankind can influence one another to behave in a gender specific m*****nner ***** on socially constructed factors rather ***** biological or psychological imperatives. The socially constructed ***** ***** that ***** is capable of creating their own gender identity ***** reality ***** identifying with certain cultural norms, values


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