Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...

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The Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

Biological Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that gender is a biological or inborn quality ***** people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people are born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting biological *****ories is that men and woman ***** different anatomically or physically and therefore exhibit different traits or tendencies that compr*****e gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, ***** theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create ********** identity based on physiological ***** in the body (*****, 45).

Kimmel po*****ts out ***** biological ***** suggest that biology provides mankind the "blocks" or foundation *****y need ***** build create and f*****m their identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According to biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" into man's biology thus ***** or biological differences exist in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

***** Theories of Gender

Psychological theories suggest ***** gender differences result from psychological or mental differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological theorists tend to suggest or argue that it is individual person's interpretations of life ***** one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine ***** feminine that creates gender differences (Kimmel, 2000).

Kimmel cites Freud as a leading ***** theorist suggesting that gender is something that people shape and form by "interacting" ***** their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). Psychological *****s would also argue that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter their *****sociated gender identity.

Cross Cultural Perspective and Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective ***** gender theory suggests ***** the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least that is what ***** suggests. Kimmel cites Gilbert Herdt to prove th***** ***** by describing rituals of various cultures showing how ***** can learn gender tendencies such as homosexuality and *****en revert ***** another gender identity once they ***** grown adults (*****, 62).

Kimmel further suggests that much evidence ********** supporting cross cultural ***** in customs ***** sexuality practices that can impact gender identity more so than ***** or ***** constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, *****). The biological model is negated as Herdt shows ***** cultural ***** than ***** ***** can influence one's gender identity. Psychological theories are not capable of adequately explaining how cognitive and other mental ***** differ across cultural boundaries, hence psychological theories are also negated (Kimmel, 2000).

Socially Constructed Gender Theories ***** Gender as a Social Institution

***** supports the notion that gender is a social institution, or something ***** is *****ly constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted ********** cultures in New Guinea *****d tribal members interpretation of ********** role ***** masculine and ***** (Kimmel, 2000). Other the*****ists suggest that mankind can influence one ***** to behave in a gender specific manner ***** on socially constructed factors rather ***** biological or psychological imperatives. The ***** constructed theory ***** that ***** is ***** of creating their own gender identity ***** reality ***** identifying with certain cultural norms, values


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