Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...

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The Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

Biological Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that gender is a biological or inborn quality ***** people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people ***** born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting biological theories is ***** men and woman are different anatomically or physically and theref*****e exhibit ***** traits or tendencies that comprise gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create *****ir identity based on physiological components in the body (*****, 45).

Kimmel po*****ts out ***** biological theorists suggest that biology ***** mankind the "blocks" or foundation they need ***** build create ***** form their identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According to biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" ***** man's biology thus ***** or biological differences exist in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

Psychological Theories of Gender

***** theories suggest that gender differences result from psychological or *****tal differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological ***** tend ***** suggest or argue that it is individual person's interpretations ***** life ***** one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine ***** feminine that *****s gender differences (*****, 2000).

Kimmel c*****es Freud as a leading psychological theorist *****ing that gender is something ***** people shape and ***** by "interacting" with their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). Psychological theorists would also ***** that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter their associated gender identity.

Cross Cultural Perspective ***** Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective of gender ***** suggests that the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least that is what Kimmel suggests. Kimmel cites Gilbert Herdt to prove this theory by describing rituals ***** various cultures showing how people can learn gender ***** such as homosexuality and then revert to an***** gender identity once ***** are grown adults (*****, 62).

***** further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural ***** in customs *****d sexuality practices that can impact gender ***** more so than ***** or psychological constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, *****). The biological model is negated ***** Herdt shows that cultural rather than ***** ********** can influence one's gender identity. Psychological theories are not capable ***** adequately explaining how cognitive and other mental interpretations differ a***** cultural boundaries, hence ***** theories are al***** negated (Kimmel, 2000).

Socially Constructed Gender Theories and ***** as a Social Institution

***** supports the notion that ***** is a social institution, or something ***** ***** socially constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted *****ing cultures in New Gu*****ea influenced tribal members interpretation of their role as masculine and feminine (Kimmel, 2000). Other the*****ists suggest that mankind can influence one another to behave in a gender specific m*****nner based on ***** constructed factors rather ***** biological or psychological imperatives. The socially constructed the*****y *****s that mankind is capable of creating their own gender identity ***** reality by identifying with certain cultural norms, values


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