Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...

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***** Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

Biological Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that gender is a biological or inborn quality that people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people are born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting biological theories ***** that men ***** woman ***** different anatomically or physically and therefore exhibit ***** traits or tendencies that comprise gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, ***** theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create their identity based on physiological ***** in the body (Kimmel, 45).

Kimmel po*****ts out ***** biological theorists suggest that biology provides mankind the "blocks" or foundation ********** need ***** build create and f*****m ***** identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According to biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" ***** man's biology thus inborn or biological differences exist in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

***** Theories of *****

Psychological theories suggest ***** gender differences result from psychological or ********** differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological theorists tend to ***** or argue that it is individual person's interpretations ***** life ***** one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine ***** feminine that creates gender differences (Kimmel, 2000).

Kimmel c*****es Freud as a leading psychological theorist suggesting that gender is something that people shape and form by "interacting" ***** their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). ***** *****s would also ***** ***** people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter their associated gender identity.

Cross Cultural Perspective and Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective ***** gender theory suggests ***** the psychological ***** biological theories are both defunct at least that ***** what Kimmel suggests. ***** cites Gilbert Herdt to prove this ***** by describing rituals of various cultures showing how ***** can learn gender ***** such as homosexuality and then revert ***** another gender ***** once they are grown adults (Kimmel, 62).

Kimmel further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural ***** in customs and sexuality practices that can impact gender identity more so than ***** or ***** constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, 2000). The biological model is negated as Herdt shows that cultural ***** than biological tendencies can influence ***** gender *****. Psychological theories are not capable of adequately explaining how cognitive and other mental interpretations differ a***** cultural boundaries, hence psychological theories ***** also negated (Kimmel, 2000).

Socially Constructed Gender Theories ***** ***** ***** a Social Institution

***** supports the notion that ***** ***** a social institution, or something that is socially constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted *****ing cultures in New Gu*****ea influenced tribal members interpretation of their role as masculine and feminine (Kimmel, 2000). Other theorists suggest that mankind can influence one another to behave in a gender specific m*****nner ***** on socially constructed factors rather ***** biological or psychological imperatives. The socially constructed theory ***** that ***** is capable of creating their own gender identity ***** reality by identifying with certain ***** norms, values


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