Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...

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***** Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

Biological Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that ***** is a biological or inborn quality that people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea ***** people are born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting biological *****ories ***** that men ***** woman are different anatomically or physically and therefore exhibit ***** traits or tendencies that comprise gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create their identity based on physiological ***** in the body (*****, 45).

Kimmel points out ***** biological ***** suggest that biology provides mankind the "blocks" or foundation they need ***** build create ***** form ***** identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According to biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" into man's biology thus ***** or biological differences exist in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

Psychological Theories of Gender

***** theories suggest that gender differences result from psychological or mental differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological theorists tend to ***** or argue that it is individual person's interpretations ***** life ***** one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine or feminine that *****s gender differences (Kimmel, 2000).

Kimmel c*****es Freud as a leading psychological theorist suggesting that gender is something ***** people shape and ***** by "interacting" with their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). ***** theorists would also argue that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter ***** associated gender identity.

Cross Cultural Perspective and Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective ***** gender ***** suggests ***** the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least that is what Kimmel suggests. ***** cites Gilbert Herdt to prove this theory by describing rituals of various cultures showing how ***** can learn gender ***** such as homosexuality and then revert ***** another gender identity once ***** are grown adults (Kimmel, 62).

***** further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural ***** in customs and sexuality practices that can impact gender ***** more so than ***** or ***** constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, *****). The biological model is negated as Herdt shows that cultural rather than biological ********** can influence one's gender identity. Psychological theories are not capable of adequately explaining how cognitive and other mental ***** differ a***** ***** boundaries, hence psychological theories are al***** negated (Kimmel, 2000).

***** Constructed Gender Theories and ***** ***** a Social Institution

Kimmel supports the notion that gender ***** a social institution, or something ***** is *****ly constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted differing cultures in New Gu*****ea *****d tribal members interpretation of ********** role as m*****culine ***** feminine (Kimmel, 2000). Other the*****ists suggest that mankind can influence one another to behave in a gender specific m*****nner ***** on socially constructed factors rather ***** biological or psychological imperatives. The ***** constructed the*****y ***** that mankind is capable of creating their own gender identity and reality by identifying with certain cultural norms, values


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