Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...


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Gender

***** Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

Biological Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that ***** is a biological or inborn quality that people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people ***** born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting biological theories is ***** men and woman are different anatomically or physically and therefore exhibit different traits or tendencies that compr*****e gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create their identity based on physiological components in the body (Kimmel, 45).

Kimmel points out that biological ***** suggest that biology ***** mankind the "blocks" or foundation they need ***** build create and form their identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According to biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" into man's biology thus inborn or biological differences ex*****t in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

***** *****ories of *****

Psychological theories suggest ***** gender differences result from psychological or mental differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological theorists tend to ***** or argue that it is individual person's interpretations of life and one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine ***** feminine that *****s gender differences (*****, 2000).

Kimmel cites Freud as a leading ***** theorist suggesting that gender is something that people shape and ***** by "interacting" ***** their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). Psychological *****s would also ***** ***** people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter their associated gender *****.

Cross Cultural Perspective ***** Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective of gender ***** suggests that the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least ***** ***** what ***** suggests. Kimmel ***** Gilbert Herdt to prove this theory by describing rituals ***** various cultures showing how ***** can learn gender ********** such as homosexuality and then revert ***** another gender identity once they are grown adults (Kimmel, 62).

Kimmel further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural differences in customs and sexuality practices that can impact gender ***** more so than ***** or psychological constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, *****). The biological model is negated ***** Herdt shows ***** cultural rather than biological tendencies can influence ***** gender identity. ***** theories are not capable ***** adequately explaining how cognitive and other ***** interpretations differ across ***** boundaries, hence psychological theories are also negated (Kimmel, 2000).

***** Constructed Gender Theories and Gender as a Social Institution

***** supports the notion that ***** ***** a social institution, or something that is socially constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted differing cultures in New Guinea influenced tribal members interpretation of ********** role as ***** and ***** (Kimmel, 2000). Other the*****ists suggest ***** mankind can influence one ***** to behave in a gender specific manner ***** on socially constructed factors rather ***** biological or psychological imperatives. The ***** constructed ***** ***** that ***** is capable of creating their own gender identity and reality by identifying with certain cultural norms, values

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