Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...

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The Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

***** Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that gender is a biological or inborn quality ***** people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people ***** born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting biological theories ***** ***** men ***** woman are different anatomically or physically and therefore exhibit ***** traits or tendencies that comprise gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create their identity based on physiological ***** in the body (*****, 45).

Kimmel points out that biological theorists suggest ***** biology ***** mankind the "blocks" or foundation ********** need to build create ***** f*****m ***** identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According ***** biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" into man's biology thus ***** or biological differences ex*****t in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

Psychological Theories of Gender

***** theories suggest that gender differences result from psychological or mental differences rather than biological ones. Psychological theorists tend to ***** or argue that it is individual person's interpretations of life and one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine ***** feminine that ********** gender differences (Kimmel, 2000).

Kimmel cites Freud as a leading ***** theorist suggesting that gender is something that people shape and form by "interacting" ***** their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). ***** *****s would also argue that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter their associated gender *****.

Cross Cultural Perspective ***** Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective ***** gender theory suggests that the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least ***** is what ***** suggests. Kimmel ***** Gilbert Herdt to prove this theory by describing rituals of various cultures showing how people can learn gender ***** such as homosexuality and then revert to an***** gender identity once they are grown adults (*****, 62).

***** further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural differences in customs *****d sexuality practices that can impact gender ***** more so than biological or psychological constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, 2000). The ***** model is negated ***** Herdt shows ***** cultural ***** than biological *****encies can influence ***** gender identity. Psychological theories are not capable ***** adequately explaining how cognitive and other ***** interpretations differ a***** cultural boundaries, hence ***** theories ***** also negated (Kimmel, 2000).

***** Constructed Gender Theories and ***** as a Social Institution

***** supports the notion that gender is a social institution, or something that is *****ly constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted ********** cultures in New Guinea influenced tribal members interpretation of their role as ***** ***** feminine (Kimmel, 2000). Other theorists suggest that mankind can influence one another to behave in a gender specific manner based on socially constructed factors rather than biological or psychological imperatives. The ***** constructed theory suggests that ***** is ***** of creating their own gender identity and reality ***** identifying with certain ***** norms, values


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