Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...

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***** Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

Biological Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that ***** is a biological or inborn quality ***** people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people ***** born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting ***** *****ories ***** that men and woman are different anatomically or physically and theref*****e exhibit ***** traits or tendencies that comprise gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create *****ir identity based on physiological components in the body (*****, 45).

Kimmel points out ***** biological ***** suggest that biology provides mankind the "blocks" or foundation *****y need to build create ***** f*****m their identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According ***** biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" into man's biology thus inborn or biological differences exist in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

Psychological *****ories of Gender

***** theories suggest that gender differences result from psychological or *****tal differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological theorists tend to suggest or argue that it is individual person's interpretations ***** life and one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine ***** feminine that creates gender differences (Kimmel, 2000).

Kimmel cites Freud as a leading ***** theorist suggesting that gender is something that people shape and form by "interacting" ***** their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). ***** *****s would also argue that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter their associated gender *****.

Cross Cultural Perspective and Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective ***** gender ***** suggests that the psychological ***** biological theories are both defunct at least ***** ***** what Kimmel suggests. Kimmel cites Gilbert Herdt to prove this theory by describing rituals of various cultures showing how people can learn gender ********** such as homosexuality and then revert to an***** gender identity once they are grown adults (*****, 62).

***** further suggests that much evidence ********** supporting cross cultural ***** in customs ***** sexuality practices that can impact gender ***** more so than biological or psychological constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, *****). The ***** model is negated as Herdt shows that cultural ***** than biological tendencies can influence one's gender identity. Psychological theories are not capable of adequately explaining how cognitive and other mental interpretations differ a***** ***** boundaries, hence psychological theories are also negated (Kimmel, 2000).

Socially Constructed Gender Theories ***** Gender as a Social Institution

***** supports the notion that gender ***** a social institution, or something ***** is socially constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted differing cultures in New Guinea influenced tribal members interpretation of ********** role as ***** and ***** (Kimmel, 2000). Other theorists suggest that mankind can influence one another to behave in a gender specific m*****nner based on socially constructed factors rather ***** biological or psychological imperatives. The ***** constructed the*****y *****s that mankind is capable of creating their own gender identity and reality by identifying with certain cultural norms, values


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