Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...


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Gender

The Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

***** Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that gender is a biological or inborn quality ***** people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people ***** born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting biological theories ***** that men and woman are different anatomically or physically and theref*****e exhibit ***** traits or tendencies that comprise gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create ********** identity based on physiological ***** in the body (*****, 45).

Kimmel po*****ts out that biological ***** suggest ***** biology ***** mankind the "blocks" or foundation they need ***** build create ***** form their identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According to biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" ***** man's biology thus inborn or biological differences exist in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

Psychological Theories of Gender

***** theories suggest that gender differences result from psychological or mental differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological theorists tend to ***** or argue that it is individual person's interpretations ***** life and one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine or feminine that creates gender differences (*****, 2000).

Kimmel cites Freud as a leading ***** theorist suggesting that gender is something ***** people shape and form by "interacting" with their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). ***** theor*****ts would also ***** that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter ***** associated gender identity.

Cross Cultural Perspective ***** Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective ***** gender ***** suggests that the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least ***** is what Kimmel suggests. Kimmel ***** Gilbert Herdt to prove th***** *****eory by describing rituals of various cultures showing how ***** can learn gender ***** such as homosexuality and then revert to another gender identity once ***** ***** grown adults (Kimmel, 62).

Kimmel further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural ***** in customs and sexuality practices that can impact gender ***** more so than ***** or psychological constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, 2000). The biological model is negated ***** Herdt shows ***** cultural ***** than biological tendencies can influence ***** gender identity. Psychological theories are not capable ***** adequately explaining how cognitive and other ***** ***** differ across cultural boundaries, hence psychological theories are also negated (Kimmel, 2000).

Socially Constructed Gender Theories and ***** as a Social Institution

***** supports the notion that gender ***** a social institution, or something that is socially constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted *****ing cultures in New Gu*****ea influenced tribal members interpretation of their role as ***** ***** feminine (Kimmel, 2000). Other theorists suggest ***** mankind can influence one another to behave in a gender specific m*****nner b*****ed on socially constructed factors rather ***** biological or psychological imperatives. The socially constructed theory ***** that mankind is capable of creating ***** own gender identity and reality by identifying with certain ***** norms, values

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