Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...

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***** Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

Biological Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that ***** is a biological or inborn quality ***** people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people are born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting ***** *****ories is that men ***** woman are different anatomically or physically and theref*****e exhibit different traits or tendencies that comprise gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create *****ir identity based on physiological components in the body (Kimmel, 45).

Kimmel po*****ts out ***** biological ***** suggest that biology ***** mankind the "blocks" or foundation they need to build create ***** form their identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According ***** biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" into man's biology thus ***** or biological differences ex*****t in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

Psychological *****ories of *****

***** theories suggest that gender differences result from psychological or ********** differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological theorists tend to suggest or argue that it is individual person's interpretations of life and one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine ***** feminine that *****s ***** differences (*****, 2000).

Kimmel c*****es Freud as a leading psychological theorist suggesting that gender is something that people shape and form by "interacting" ***** their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). Psychological *****s would also ***** that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter ***** *****sociated gender *****.

Cross Cultural Perspective ***** Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective of gender ***** suggests that the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least ***** is what ***** suggests. Kimmel cites Gilbert Herdt to prove this theory by describing rituals of various cultures showing how ***** can learn gender ***** such as homosexuality and then revert ***** an***** gender identity once they are grown adults (Kimmel, 62).

Kimmel further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural ***** in customs ***** sexuality practi***** that c***** impact gender identity more so than ***** or psychological constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, *****). The biological model is negated as Herdt shows that cultural rather than biological tendencies can influence ***** gender *****. ***** theories are not capable of adequately explaining how cognitive and other mental interpretations differ a***** cultural boundaries, hence ***** theories ***** also negated (Kimmel, 2000).

***** Constructed Gender Theories and ***** as a Social Institution

Kimmel supports the notion that gender ***** a social institution, or something that is *****ly constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted *****ing cultures in New Guinea *****d tribal members interpretation of their role as m*****culine ***** feminine (Kimmel, 2000). Other the*****ists suggest ***** mankind can influence one another to behave in a gender specific m*****nner ***** on socially constructed factors rather ***** biological or psychological imperatives. The ***** constructed theory ***** that mankind is ***** of creating their own gender identity and reality ***** identifying with certain cultural norms, values


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