Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...

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The Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

***** Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that gender is a biological or inborn quality ***** people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people are born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting ***** theories ***** ***** men ***** woman are different anatomically or physically and therefore exhibit different traits or tendencies that comprise gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create their identity based on physiological ***** in the body (*****, 45).

Kimmel po*****ts out that biological theorists suggest that biology ***** mankind the "blocks" or foundation ********** need ***** build create ***** form their identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According to biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" ***** man's biology thus ***** or biological differences exist in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

Psychological Theories of *****

Psychological theories suggest ***** gender differences result from psychological or ********** differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological ***** tend to ***** or argue that it is individual person's interpretations of life ***** one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine or feminine that ********** ***** differences (Kimmel, 2000).

Kimmel cites Freud as a leading ***** theorist suggesting that gender is something that people shape and form by "interacting" with their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). ***** theorists would also argue that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter ***** *****sociated gender identity.

Cross Cultural Perspective and Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective of gender theory suggests ***** the psychological ***** biological theories are both defunct at least that is what ***** suggests. Kimmel cites Gilbert Herdt to prove this theory by describing rituals of various cultures showing how ***** can learn gender ***** such as homosexuality and then revert to another gender ***** once they are grown adults (*****, 62).

***** further suggests that much evidence ********** supporting cross cultural differences in customs ***** sexuality practices that can impact gender identity more so than ***** or ***** constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, 2000). The biological model is negated ***** Herdt shows ***** cultural ***** than ***** tendencies can influence one's gender identity. Psychological theories are not capable ***** adequately explaining how cognitive and other mental ***** differ across ***** boundaries, hence psychological theories ***** al***** negated (Kimmel, 2000).

Socially Constructed Gender Theories and Gender as a Social Institution

Kimmel supports the notion that gender is a social institution, or something ***** ***** *****ly constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted ********** cultures in New Gu*****ea *****d tribal members interpretation of *****ir role as ***** and feminine (Kimmel, 2000). Other the*****ists suggest that mankind can influence one ***** to behave in a gender specific manner b*****ed on socially constructed factors rather ***** biological or psychological imperatives. The socially constructed the*****y *****s that mankind is ***** of creating their own gender identity and reality ***** identifying with certain cultural norms, values


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