Essay - Gender the Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology Biological Arguments Gender...

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The Gendered Society: Gender and Sociology

***** Arguments Gender

Biological arguments supporting gender suggest that gender is a biological or inborn quality ***** people are born with. Many groups including homosexuals support the idea that people are born into a particular gender. The primary argument supporting ***** theories is ***** men ***** woman ***** different anatomically or physically and therefore exhibit different traits or tendencies that compr*****e gender (Kimmel, 2000). Further, biological theorists argue that biology provides man the basic components or "materials" needed to create their identity based on physiological components in the body (Kimmel, 45).

Kimmel points out that biological theorists suggest that biology ***** mankind the "blocks" or foundation *****y need ***** build create and form ***** identity through experiences (Kimmel, 46). According to biological theory sex is "preprogrammed" ***** man's biology thus inborn or biological differences ex*****t in man's behavior and activity (Kimmel, 47).

Psychological *****ories of *****

Psychological theories suggest ***** gender differences result from psychological or ********** differences rather than ***** ones. Psychological theorists tend ***** suggest or argue that it is individual person's interpretations ***** life ***** one's concepts or interpretation of what makes someone masculine or feminine that creates gender differences (*****, 2000).

Kimmel c*****es Freud as a leading ***** theorist suggesting that gender is something ***** people shape and ***** by "interacting" with their environment and with other people (Kimmel, 67). Psychological theorists would also ***** that people undergo changes psychologically over time that can alter ***** associated gender *****.

Cross Cultural Perspective ***** Gender Identity

The cross-cultural perspective ***** gender ***** suggests that the psychological and biological theories are both defunct at least that is what ***** suggests. Kimmel cites Gilbert Herdt to prove this theory by describing rituals of various cultures showing how people can learn gender tendencies such as homosexuality and then revert to an***** gender identity once they ***** grown adults (Kimmel, 62).

***** further suggests that much evidence exists supporting cross cultural ***** in customs *****d sexuality practi***** that can impact gender identity more so than biological or ***** constructs of gender theory (Kimmel, 2000). The ***** model is negated ***** Herdt shows ***** cultural rather than biological tendencies can influence one's gender identity. Psychological theories are not capable of adequately explaining how cognitive and other mental ***** differ across ***** boundaries, hence psychological theories ***** al***** negated (Kimmel, *****).

***** Constructed Gender Theories ***** Gender as a Social Institution

***** supports the notion that gender is a social institution, or something ***** ***** socially constructed. He cites evidence from multiple researchers including Mead who noted differing cultures in New Gu*****ea influenced tribal members interpretation of their role ***** ***** and ***** (Kimmel, 2000). Other theorists suggest that mankind can influence one another to behave in a gender specific manner based on ***** constructed factors rather than biological or psychological imperatives. The socially constructed ***** *****s that ***** is capable of creating their own gender identity and reality by identifying with certain cultural n*****ms, values


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