Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of the world, ***** attributions of men and women inside the family and in the society differ to the greatest extent. Accord*****g to the Laws of Manu, men have to respect the gods and various religious regulations. The women's main role however is ***** obey ***** male world: their fathers in the young age, their husbands once they are given into marriage and even their sons when ***** have reached an old age.

Thus, the basic principle that guides the division between the male and the female ***** is independence: in the Vedic world, ***** woman is not allowed to act independently. The text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated ***** any ***** of any age must obey her husband and the o*****r men around her. She ***** forbidden thus to act independently, not only in society but ***** her own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young wom*****n, or even by an aged one, *****hing must be done independently, even in her own *****."

148. In childhood a female must be subject to ***** father, in youth to her *****, when her lord is dead ***** ***** sons; a wom***** must never be independent." The ********** is made to ***** only, as long ***** she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him ***** whom her fat***** may give her, or her brot***** with the father's permission, she shall obey as long as he *****, and w*****n he is dead, she must not insult (his memory)." It ***** be noted ***** that the Laws of Manu were ***** as a guide on proper conduct *****nd the duties of every individual according to ***** social class ***** they belonged to. The idea of social hierarchy is therefore a central concept of Hinduism, and it pervades all the Vedic teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise that ***** women as well are inscribed in a certain social category ***** is considered to be inferior to that ***** men. The condition of the woman is obviously degrading in the ancient Indian society. Thus, she is ***** honored ***** any way for her own qualities or virtues, but only if ***** knows how ***** ***** ***** please her husband in all his wishes. Moreover, the wife must o*****y her husband ***** when ***** latter is neither virtuous, nor faithful to her and ***** children: "154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good *****, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife." ***** justification that the laws offer for this unjust position attributed to women is ***** the ***** are natur*****y inclined to ***** heartless and unfaithful ***** their *****: "15. Through their passion ***** men, through their mutable temper, through their natural heartlessness, they be***** disloyal towards their husbands, *****ever carefully ***** may be guarded in this (world)." The *****feriority


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