Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of the world, the attributions of men and women inside the family and in the society differ to the greatest extent. Accord*****g to the Laws ***** Manu, men have to respect the gods and various religious regulations. The women's main role however is to obey ***** male world: their fathers in the young age, *****ir husbands once they are given in***** marri***** and even their sons when ***** have reached an old age.

Thus, the basic principle that guides the division between ***** male and the fe***** ***** is independence: in ***** Vedic world, the woman is not allowed to act independently. The text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated that any woman ***** any age must obey her husb***** and the o*****r men around her. She is forbidden thus to act *****, not only in ***** but in ***** own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young wom*****n, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, ***** in her own *****."

148. In childhood a fem*****le must be subject to ***** father, in youth to her husb*****d, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be *****dependent." The ***** ***** made to ***** only, as long as she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him ***** whom her father may give her, or ***** brother with the father's permission, she shall obey as long as he lives, and w*****n he is dead, ***** must not insult (his memory)." It must be noted thus that the Laws of Manu were given as a guide on proper c*****duct *****nd the duties of every individual according to the social class that they belonged *****. The idea of ***** hierarchy is therefore a central concept of Hinduism, and it pervades all the ***** teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise th*****t ***** wo***** as ***** are inscribed in a certain social category that is considered to be inferior to ***** of men. The condition ***** the ********** is obviously degrading in the ancient Indian society. *****, she is never honored ***** any way for her own qualities or virtues, but only if ***** knows how ***** ***** ***** please ***** husband in all his wishes. Moreover, the wife must o*****y her ***** even when the latter is nei*****r virtuous, nor faithful to her and ***** children: "154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good *****, (yet) a husband ***** be constantly worshipped as a god by ***** ***** wife." The justification that the laws offer for this unjust position attributed to women is that the women are naturally inclined to ***** heartless and unfaithful ***** their *****s: "15. Through ***** passion ***** men, through their mutable temper, ***** their natural heartlessness, they be***** disloyal towards their husbands, however carefully ***** ***** be guarded in this (world)." ***** inferiority


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