Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of ***** world, the attributions of men and women inside the family ***** in the society differ to the greatest extent. According ***** the Laws of Manu, men have to respect the gods and various religious regulations. The women's main role however is to obey the male world: *****ir fathers in the young age, *****ir husbands once they are given in***** marriage and even their sons when ***** have reached an old age.

*****, the basic principle that guides the division between ***** male and the fe***** world is independence: in ***** Vedic *****, the woman is not allowed to act independently. The text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated ***** any woman ***** ***** age must obey her husband and the other men around her. She ***** forbidden thus to act independently, not only in ***** but ***** ***** own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, *****hing must be d***** in*****ependently, even in her own house."

148. In childhood a female must be subject to ***** father, in youth to her *****, when her lord is dead ***** her ********** a ***** must never be independent." The woman is made to ***** only, as long as she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him to whom her father may give her, or ***** brother with the father's permission, she shall obey ***** long as he lives, and when he is dead, ***** must not insult (his memory)." It must be noted thus that the Laws of Manu were given as a guide on proper c*****duct *****nd the duties of every individual according ***** ***** social class that they be*****ed to. The ***** ***** social hierarchy is therefore a central concept of Hinduism, and it pervades all the Vedic teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise ***** ***** women as ***** are inscribed in a certain social category that is considered to be inferior to that ***** men. The condition of the ***** is obviously degrading in the ancient *****dian society. *****, she is ***** honored ***** any way for her own qualities or virtues, ***** only if ***** knows how to ***** and please her husband in all his wishes. Moreover, the wife ***** o*****y her ***** ***** when ***** latter is neither virtuous, nor faithful to her and her children: "154. Though destitute ***** virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good *****, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by ***** ***** wife." The justification that the laws offer for this unjust position attributed to ***** is that the women are natur*****y inclined to ***** heartless and unfaithful ***** their *****: "15. Through their passion for men, through their mutable temper, ***** their natural heartlessness, they be***** disloyal towards their *****s, ***** carefully they may be guarded in this (world)." ***** *****feriority


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