Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of ***** world, the attributions of men and women inside the family and in the society differ to the greatest extent. Accord*****g ***** the Laws of Manu, men have to respect the gods and various religious regulations. The women's main role however is ***** obey ***** male world: their fathers in the young age, their husbands once they are given into marri***** and even their sons when they have reached an old age.

Thus, the basic principle that guides the division between the male and the female world is independence: in ***** Vedic world, the woman is not allowed to act independently. The text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated ***** any ***** ***** any age must obey her husb***** and ***** other men around her. She is forbidden thus to act independently, not only in ***** but ***** her own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young wom*****n, or ***** by an aged one, *****hing must be done independently, even in her own house."

148. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her *****and, when her lord ***** dead to ***** sons; a woman must never be independent." The ***** is made to ***** only, as long ***** she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him to whom her fat***** may give her, or ***** brother with the father's permission, she shall obey as long as he *****, and when he is dead, ***** must not insult (his memory)." It ***** be noted ***** that the Laws of Manu were given as a guide on proper c*****duct and the duties of every individual according to the social class ***** they belonged *****. The ***** of social hierarchy is therefore a central concept ***** Hinduism, and it pervades all the ***** teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise that the women as ***** are inscribed in a certain social category ***** is considered to be inferior to that of men. ***** condition of the woman is obviously degrading in the ancient *****dian society. *****, she is ***** honored in any way for her own qualities or virtues, ***** only if she knows how to ***** ***** please her husband in all his wi*****s. Moreover, the wife must obey her husband ***** when the latter is neit***** virtuous, nor faithful to her and her children: "154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsew*****e), or devoid of good *****, (yet) a husband ***** be constantly worshipped as a god by ***** faithful wife." The justification that the laws offer for this unjust position attributed to ***** is ***** the women are natur*****y inclined to ***** heartless and unfaithful to their *****s: "15. Through their passion ***** men, through ***** mutable temper, through their natural *****ness, they be***** disloyal towards their husbands, ***** carefully they may be guarded in this (*****)." ***** *****feriority


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