Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of ***** world, the attributions of men and women inside ***** family ***** in the society differ to the greatest extent. Accord*****g to the Laws of Manu, men have to respect ***** gods and various religious regulations. The wo*****'s main role however is to obey the male world: *****ir fathers in the young age, *****ir husbands once they are given in***** marriage and even their sons when they have reached an old age.

Thus, the basic principle that guides the division between ***** male and the fe***** world is independence: in ***** Vedic *****, the woman is not allowed to act independently. ***** text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated that any ***** ***** any age must obey her husband and ***** other men around her. She ***** forbidden thus to act *****, not only in society but in ***** own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young woman, or ***** by an aged one, *****hing must be d***** in*****ependently, even in her own *****."

148. In childhood a female must be subject to her fat*****, in youth to her husb*****d, when her lord is dead ***** her sons; a woman must never be **********." The ***** is made to ***** only, as long as she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him to whom her father may give her, or ***** brother with the father's permission, she shall obey ***** long as he *****, and w*****n he is dead, s***** must not insult (his memory)." It ***** be noted thus that the Laws of Manu were given as a guide on proper c*****duct ***** the duties of every individual according to the social class that ***** belonged to. The ***** of ***** hierarchy is therefore a central concept ***** Hinduism, and it pervades all the Vedic teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise that ***** women as well are inscribed in a certain social category ***** is considered to be inferior to that of men. The condition ***** the woman is obviously degrading in the ancient Indian society. Thus, she is never honored ***** any way for her own qualities or virtues, but only if ***** knows how to obey ***** please ***** husband in all his wishes. Moreover, the wife must obey her ***** even when ***** latter is neither virtuous, nor faithful to her and ***** children: "154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband ***** be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife." ***** justification that the laws offer for th***** unjust position attributed to ***** is that the women are naturally inclined to ***** heartless and un***** to their *****: "15. Through their passion for men, through their mutable temper, ***** their natural *****ness, they be***** disloyal towards their husbands, ***** carefully ***** ***** be guarded in this (world)." The inferiority


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