Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of ***** world, the attributions of men and women inside ***** family ***** in the society differ to the greatest extent. Accord*****g to the Laws ***** Manu, men have to respect the gods and various religious regulations. The wo*****'s main role however is ***** obey ***** male world: their fathers in the young age, *****ir husbands once they are given into marri***** and even their sons when they have reached an old age.

Thus, the basic principle that guides the division between the male and the fe***** world is independence: in ***** Vedic *****, the woman is not allowed to act independently. ***** text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated ***** any woman ***** ***** age must obey her husb***** and the other men around her. She ***** forbidden thus to act *****, not only in ***** but ***** ***** own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young wom*****n, or ***** by an *****d one, nothing must be d***** in*****ependently, even in her own house."

148. In childhood a fem*****le ***** be subject to her fat*****, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent." The ***** is made to ***** only, as long ***** she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him ***** whom her fat***** may give her, or ***** brother with the father's permission, she shall obey as long as he lives, and w*****n he is dead, s***** must not insult (his memory)." It ***** be noted ***** that the Laws of Manu were ***** as a guide on proper conduct and the duties of every individual according to the social class that they be*****ed *****. The idea ***** social hierarchy is therefore a central concept of Hinduism, and it pervades all the ***** teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise th*****t ***** wo***** as well are inscribed in a cert*****in social category that is considered to be inferior to that of men. ***** condition of the *****man is obviously degrading in the ancient Indian society. Thus, she is ***** honored in any way for her own qualities or virtues, but only if ***** knows how to ***** and please her ***** in all his wishes. Moreover, the wife must obey her husband ***** when the latter is neit***** virtuous, nor faithful to her and ***** children: "154. Though destitute ***** virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good *****, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife." The justification that the laws offer for th***** unjust position attributed to women is ***** the ***** are natur*****y inclined to ***** heartless and un***** ***** their *****: "15. Through their passion for men, through ***** mutable temper, through their natural *****ness, they become disloyal towards their *****s, ***** carefully they ***** be guarded in this (world)." ***** inferiority


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