Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of ***** world, the attributions of men and women inside ***** family and in the society differ to the greatest extent. Accord*****g ***** the Laws ***** Manu, men have to respect ***** gods and various religious regulations. The women's main role however is ***** obey the male world: *****ir fathers in the young age, *****ir husbands once they are given into marriage and even their sons when ***** have reached an old age.

*****, the basic principle that guides the division between ***** male and the female world is independence: in ***** Vedic world, the woman is not allowed to act independently. ***** text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated that any woman ***** ***** age must obey her husband and the o*****r men around her. She is forbidden thus to act *****, not only in society but ***** ***** own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young wom*****n, or ***** by an *****d one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house."

148. In childhood a fem*****le must be subject to her fat*****, in youth to her *****, when her lord is dead ***** her sons; a wom***** must never be *****dependent." The ********** is made to obey only, as long as she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him to whom her father may give her, or ***** brother with the father's permission, she shall ***** ***** long as he lives, and w*****n he is dead, ***** must not insult (his memory)." It must be noted thus that t***** Laws of Manu were ***** as a guide on proper c*****duct ***** the duties of every individual according ***** ***** social class that they be*****ed to. The idea of social hierarchy is therefore a central concept of Hinduism, and it pervades all the Vedic teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise that the wo***** as well are inscribed in a certain social category ***** is considered to be inferior to that ***** men. ***** condition of the woman is obviously degrading in the ancient *****dian society. Thus, she is never honored in any way for her own qualities or virtues, but only if ***** knows how ***** obey ***** please her husband ***** all his wishes. Moreover, the wife must obey her ***** even when the latter is neit***** virtuous, nor faithful to her and ***** children: "154. Though destitute ***** virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a ***** wife." The justification that the laws offer for this unjust position attributed to women is ***** the ***** are naturally inclined to ***** heartless and unfaithful ***** their husbands: "15. Through ***** passion ***** men, through their mutable temper, through their natural *****ness, they be***** disloyal towards their husbands, however carefully they may be guarded in this (world)." The inferiority


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