Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of the world, the attributions of men and women inside ***** family and in the society differ to the greatest extent. According ***** the Laws ***** Manu, men have to respect the gods and various religious regulations. The wo*****'s main role however is to obey ***** male world: their fathers in the young age, their husb*****s once they are given into marriage and even their sons when ***** have reached an old age.

*****, the basic principle that guides the division between ***** male and the female world is independence: in the Vedic world, ***** woman is not allowed to act independently. The text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated ***** any ***** ***** ***** age must obey her husband and ***** other men around her. She is forbidden thus to act independently, not only in society but in her own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an *****d one, *****hing must be d***** in*****ependently, ***** in her own *****."

148. In childhood a fem*****le must be subject to her fat*****, in youth to her *****, when her lord ***** dead ***** ***** ********** a ***** must never be **********." The woman is made to ***** only, as long ***** she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him ***** whom her father may give her, or her brot***** with the father's permission, she shall obey as long as he *****, and w*****n he is dead, ***** must not insult (his memory)." It ***** be noted ***** that the Laws of Manu were given as a guide on proper c*****duct ***** the duties of every individu*****l according to ***** social class that they belonged *****. The idea of ***** hierarchy is therefore a central concept ***** Hinduism, and it pervades all the ***** teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise that ***** women as well are inscribed in a certain social category that is considered to be inferior to that of men. ***** condition ***** the woman is obviously degrading in the ancient Indian society. Thus, she is never honored in any way for her own qualities or virtues, ***** only if ***** knows how ***** o*****y ***** please ***** husband ***** all his wishes. Moreover, the wife must obey her husband even when the latter is neither virtuous, nor faithful to her and her children: "154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good *****, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by ***** faithful wife." The justification that the laws offer for this unjust position attributed to ***** is ***** the women are natur*****y inclined to ***** heartless and unfaithful ***** their *****s: "15. Through their passion ***** men, through their mutable temper, through their natural heartlessness, they become disl*****al towards their husbands, *****ever carefully ***** ***** be guarded in this (world)." The inferiority


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