Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of the world, the attributions of men and women inside ***** family ***** in the society differ to the greatest extent. According ***** the Laws ***** Manu, men have to respect the gods and various religious regulations. The women's main role however is to obey ***** male world: their fathers in the young age, *****ir husb*****s once they are given into marriage and even their sons when ***** have reached an old age.

Thus, the basic principle that guides the division between ***** male and the fe***** world is independence: in the Vedic world, ***** woman is not allowed to act independently. ***** text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated that any ***** of ***** age must obey her husb***** and the other men around her. She is forbidden thus to act *****, ***** only in ***** but in her own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young wom*****n, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, ***** in ***** own house."

148. In childhood a fem*****le ***** be subject to her fat*****, in youth to her **********, when her lord is dead to her ********** a woman must never be *****dependent." The woman is made ***** ***** only, as long ***** she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him ***** whom her father may give her, or ***** brother with the father's permission, she shall obey as long as he *****, and w*****n he is dead, ***** must not insult (his memory)." It must be noted ***** that the Laws of Manu were given as a guide on proper conduct ***** the duties of every individual according to the social class that they be*****ed *****. The ***** ***** ***** hierarchy is therefore a central concept of Hinduism, and it pervades all the ***** teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise ***** ***** wo***** *****s ***** are inscribed in a certain social category that is considered to be inferior to that of men. The condition of the ***** is obviously degrading in the ancient *****dian society. *****, she is ***** honored in any way for her own qualities or virtues, ***** only if she knows how ***** ***** ***** please her husband ***** all his wi*****s. Moreover, the wife ***** obey her ***** even when ***** latter is neit***** virtuous, nor faithful to her and her children: "154. Though destitute ***** virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good *****, (yet) a husband must be constantly ********** as a god by a faithful wife." ***** justification that the laws offer for th***** unjust position attributed to women is that the ***** are natur*****y inclined to be heartless and unfaithful to their *****s: "15. Through ***** passion ***** men, through their mutable temper, through their natural heartlessness, they become disloyal towards their husbands, however carefully they ***** be guarded in this (world)." The *****feriority


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