Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of the world, ***** attributions of men and women inside the family ***** in the society differ to the greatest extent. Accord*****g to the Laws ***** Manu, men have to respect ***** gods and various religious regulations. The women's main role however is to obey the male world: *****ir fathers in the young age, *****ir husbands once they are given into marri***** and even their sons when ***** have reached an old age.

*****, the basic principle that guides the division between the male and the female ***** is independence: in ***** Vedic world, the woman is not allowed to act independently. The text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated that any ***** ***** ***** age must obey her husband and ***** other men around her. She is forbidden thus to act independently, not only in society but ***** ***** own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young woman, or ***** by an aged one, *****hing must be d***** in*****ependently, even in her own house."

148. In childhood a female ***** be subject to her father, in youth to her *****, when her lord is dead to ***** sons; a ***** must never be **********." The woman ***** made to obey only, as long ***** she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him ***** whom her father may give her, or ***** brother with the father's permission, she shall ***** as long as he *****, and w*****n he is dead, ***** must not insult (his memory)." It must be noted thus that the Laws of Manu were ***** as a guide on proper conduct ***** the duties of every individual according to the social class that they be*****ed to. The idea of social hierarchy is therefore a central concept of Hinduism, and it pervades all the ***** teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise ***** the wo***** as ***** are inscribed in a cert*****in social category that is considered to be inferior to ***** of men. ***** condition of the ***** is obviously degrading in the ancient *****dian society. *****, she is ***** honored ***** any way for her own qualities or virtues, ***** only if she knows how to o*****y and please her husband in all his wishes. Moreover, the wife must obey her husband even when the latter is nei*****r virtuous, nor faithful to her and ***** children: "154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband must be constantly ********** as a god by ***** faithful wife." The justification that the laws offer for this unjust position attributed to women is ***** the ***** are naturally inclined to be heartless and unfaithful to their *****: "15. Through ***** passion ***** men, through their mutable temper, through their natural *****ness, they be***** disl*****al towards their husbands, ***** carefully they may be guarded in this (*****)." The *****feriority


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