Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of ***** world, the attributions of men and women inside the family ***** in the society differ to the greatest extent. Accord*****g to the Laws of Manu, men have to respect ***** gods and various religious regulations. The women's main role however is ***** obey the male world: their fathers in the young age, *****ir husb*****s once they are given into marri***** and even their sons when ***** have reached an old age.

*****, the basic principle that guides the division between ***** male and the female ***** is independence: in ***** Vedic world, the woman is not allowed to act independently. The text ***** the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated that any woman ***** ***** age must obey her husband and ***** other men around her. She ***** forbidden thus to act *****, not only in ***** but ***** her own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young wom*****n, or even by an aged one, *****hing must be d***** in*****ependently, ***** in ***** own house."

148. In childhood a fem*****le must be subject to her fat*****, in youth to her *****, when her lord is dead ***** ***** ********** a wom***** ***** never be **********." The *****an is made to obey only, as long as she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him ***** whom her fat***** may give her, or ***** brother with the father's permission, she shall ***** as long as he *****, and w*****n he is dead, she must not insult (his memory)." It ***** be noted thus that the Laws of Manu were given as a guide on proper conduct and the duties of every individual according to the social class that they be*****ed to. The ***** of ***** hierarchy is therefore a central concept ***** Hinduism, and it pervades all the Vedic teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise that ***** women as well are inscribed in a cert*****in social category that is considered to be inferior to ***** of men. ***** condition of the woman is obviously degrading in the ancient Indian society. *****, she is ***** honored ***** any way for her own qualities or virtues, but only if she knows how to obey and please her husband in all his wi*****s. Moreover, the wife must obey her husband even when the latter is neit***** virtuous, nor faithful to her and her children: "154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsew*****e), or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband ***** be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife." The justification that the laws offer for th***** unjust position attributed to women is ***** the women are naturally inclined to ***** heartless and un***** ***** their *****s: "15. Through ***** passion for men, through their mutable temper, ***** their natural *****ness, they be***** disloyal towards their husbands, ***** carefully they ***** be guarded in this (*****)." The inferiority


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