Essay - Hinduism Manusmriti in the Vedic Conception of the World, the...

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In the Vedic conception of the world, the attributions of men and women inside ***** family and in the society differ to the greatest extent. According to the Laws ***** Manu, men have to respect ***** gods and various religious regulations. The wo*****'s main role however is to obey the male world: *****ir fathers in the young age, *****ir husbands once they are given into marriage and even their sons when ***** have reached an old age.

Thus, the basic principle that guides the division between ***** male and the female ***** is independence: in the Vedic world, the woman is not allowed to act independently. The text of the Laws of Manu emphasizes this idea over and over. Thus, it is imperatively stated that any ***** ***** ***** age must obey her husb***** and ***** other men around her. She ***** forbidden thus ***** act independently, not only in ***** but in her own house as well: "147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an *****d one, nothing must be d***** in*****ependently, even in her own house."

148. In childhood a female ***** be subject to ***** father, in youth to her husb*****d, when her lord is dead ***** ***** sons; a woman must never be *****dependent." The ***** is made to ***** only, as long ***** she lives, according to the Vedic tradition: "151. Him ***** whom her father may give her, or ***** brother with the father's permission, she shall obey as long as he lives, and when he is dead, ***** must not insult (his memory)." It ***** be noted ***** that t***** Laws of Manu were given as a guide on proper conduct ***** the duties of every individual according to the social class ***** they belonged *****. The ***** of social hierarchy is therefore a central concept of Hinduism, and it pervades all the ***** teachings. As such, it does not come as a surprise th*****t ***** wo***** as ***** are inscribed in a certain social category that is considered to be inferior to ***** of men. The condition ***** the *****man is obviously degrading in the ancient *****dian society. Thus, she is never honored in any way for her own qualities or virtues, but only if she knows how to ***** and please her husband in all his wishes. Moreover, the wife must o*****y her husband ***** when the latter is neither virtuous, nor faithful to her and ***** children: "154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good *****, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a ***** wife." The justification that the laws offer for th***** unjust position attributed to women is that the ***** are naturally inclined to be heartless and unfaithful to their *****: "15. Through their passion ***** men, through their mutable temper, ***** their natural heartlessness, they be***** disloyal towards their husbands, ***** carefully they ***** be guarded in this (world)." ***** inferiority


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