Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...

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Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglob***** is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell *****). After ********** molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together *****d form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red ***** cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them to squeeze through small blood vessels. As a result, they stack up and ***** blockages that deprive organs ***** tissues of oxygen-carrying blood.

***** cell anemia affects millions world wide (Genetic disease pr*****ile: Sickle cell anemia). It is the most common among people whose ances*****rs come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; and Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy. In the Unites States, it affects around 72,000 people, most of whose ancestors come from Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births ***** one in every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American births. About two million Americans, or ***** in twelve African Americans, carry the sickle cell tra*****.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromosome pairs with one ***** each pair inherited from the fa*****r, and one from the mother (How does ***** cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a parent ***** child occurs only rarely. Most likely, sickle ***** ***** depends on ***** genes from parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired ***** o*****rwise *****nsmitted. ***** disease is caused by a change ***** a single amino acid difference in the beta chain of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, and balancing selection).

*****dividuals with two copies of the sickle form of the gene ***** sickle ***** anemia (Malaria, sickle cell anemia and balancing *****). Heterozygotes -- individuals with one normal and one mutant copy of ***** sickle gene -- appear normal and do not manifest the ***** except under very stressful conditions. However, ********** individuals are carriers of the sickle ***** trait. Approximately ten percent of African Americans ***** carriers. In Africa ***** India, the frequencies ***** the disease and ***** are even higher de to protection against malaria that occurred for ***** ***** ***** cell ***** discussed later in this paper.

Beta glob***** is a m*****jor comp*****nt of adult hemo*****in and its ***** is located on chromosome 11 with more than 475 allelic variants (Ashley-Koch, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of these variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible for sickle cell disease. The most influential risk fac*****r for disease severity is genotype (*****ickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who ***** homozygous ***** the sickle beta globin gene (b S) have ***** ***** anemia (SS disease). Individuals ***** sickle *****eta thalassemia have a b S gene ***** a gene for beta *****. If no ***** globin is produced by the beta thalassemia gene, the individual has Sb o thalassemia (***** o thal). If some normal beta globin ***** produced by the ***** *****, ***** individual has Sb + thalassemia (***** + thal). In the case of *****


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