Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...


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Introduction

***** cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglobin is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell *****). After ***** molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together *****d form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red ***** cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them ***** squeeze through small blood vessels. As a result, they stack up and cause blockages ***** deprive organs ***** tissues of oxygen-carrying *****.

***** cell anemia affects millions world wide (Genetic disease pr*****ile: Sickle cell anemia). It is the most common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; and Med*****erranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy. In the Unites States, it affects around 72,000 people, most of whose ancestors come ***** Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births and one in every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American *****. About two million Americans, or ***** in twelve African Americans, carry the sickle ***** trait.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromo***** pairs with one of each pair *****herited from the father, and ***** from the mother (How does sickle cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a p*****rent and child occurs only rarely. Most likely, sickle cell ***** depends on inherited *****s ***** parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired or otherwise transmitted. ***** disease is caused by a change in a s*****gle amino acid difference in the beta chain of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle ***** anemia, ***** balancing selection).

Individuals with two copies ***** the sickle ***** of the gene have sickle cell anemia (*****, sickle cell anemia and balancing selection). Heterozygotes -- individuals with one n*****mal ***** one mutant copy of ***** sickle gene ***** appear normal and do not manifest the ***** except under very stressful conditions. However, these individuals are carriers of the sickle cell *****. Approximately ten percent ***** ***** Americans ***** carriers. In Africa ***** India, the frequencies of the disease and carriers are even higher de ***** protection against malaria that occurred ***** people ***** ***** cell trait discussed later in this paper.

Beta glob***** is a m*****jor component of adult hemoglobin ***** its ***** is located on chromosome 11 with more than 475 allelic variants (*****hley-Koch, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of ***** variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible for sickle ***** disease. The most influential risk factor for ***** severity is ge*****ype (Sickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who are homozygous for ***** ***** ***** globin gene (b S) ***** sickle cell anemia (SS disease). ***** with sickle beta thalassemia have a b S gene ***** ***** gene ***** beta thalassemia. If no ***** globin is produced by the beta thalassemia gene, the individual has Sb o thalassemia (***** o thal). ***** some normal ***** globin ***** produced by the ***** gene, ***** individual has Sb + thalassemia (Sb + thal). In the case ***** hemoglobin

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