Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...


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Introduction

Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglob***** is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell **********). After ********** molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red ***** cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them to squeeze through small blood vessels. As a result, they stack up and cause blockages ***** deprive organs ***** tissues of oxygen-carrying blood.

***** cell anemia affects millions world wide (Genetic ***** profile: Sickle cell anemia). It is the most common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central *****); Saudi Arabia; India; and Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and *****aly. In the Unites States, it ***** around 72,000 people, most of whose ancestors come ***** Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births ***** one in every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American *****. About two million Americans, or ***** in twelve African Americans, carry the sickle ***** trait.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromo***** pairs with one of each pair inherited from the father, and one from the mother (How does sickle cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a parent and child occurs only rarely. Most likely, sickle cell ***** depends on inherited *****s from parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired ***** otherwise transmitted. The disease is caused by a ch*****nge in a single amino acid difference in the beta chain of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, ***** balancing selection).

Individuals with two copies ***** the sickle ***** of ***** gene have sickle ***** anemia (*****, sickle cell anemia and balancing selection). Heterozygotes -- individuals with one normal ***** one mutant copy of the sickle gene -- appear normal and do not manifest the disease except under very stressful conditions. However, these individuals are carriers of the sickle ***** trait. Approximately ten percent of African Americans ***** carriers. In Africa and India, the frequencies ***** the disease and ***** are even higher de ***** protection against malaria that occurred ***** ***** ***** ***** cell ***** discussed later in this paper.

Beta glob***** is a major component of adult hemo*****in and its gene is located on chromosome 11 with more than 475 allelic variants (**********, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of ***** variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible for sickle ***** disease. The most influential risk factor for ***** severity is ge*****ype (Sickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who are homozygous ***** the sickle ***** globin ***** (b S) have sickle ***** anemia (SS disease). ***** with sickle *****eta thalassemia ***** a b S gene *****nd a gene for beta *****. If no beta ***** is produced by the beta thalassemia gene, the individual has Sb o thalassemia (Sb o thal). ***** s*****me normal beta globin is produced ***** the ***** *****, the individual has Sb + thalassemia (Sb + thal). In the case ***** *****

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