Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...


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Introduction

***** cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglobin is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell *****). After hemoglobin molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together *****d form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red blood cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them ***** squeeze through small ***** vessels. As a result, they stack up and ***** blockages ***** deprive organs and tissues of oxygen-carrying blood.

***** cell anemia affects millions world wide (Genetic disease pr*****ile: Sickle cell anemia). It is the most common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central *****); Saudi Arabia; India; ***** Med*****erranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and *****aly. In ***** Unites States, it affects around 72,000 people, most of whose ***** come ***** Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births and one ***** every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American *****. About two million Americans, or ***** in twelve African Americans, carry the ***** ***** tra*****.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromo***** pairs with one of each pair *****herited from the fa*****r, and ***** from the mother (How does sickle cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a parent ***** child ***** only rarely. Most likely, sickle ***** disease depends on ********** *****s from parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired ***** otherwise transmitted. ***** disease is caused by a ch*****nge in a single amino acid difference in the beta chain of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, and balancing selection).

*****dividuals with two copies of the sickle ***** of ***** gene ***** sickle cell anemia (*****, sickle ***** anemia ***** balancing selection). Heterozygotes -- individuals with one normal and one mutant copy of the sickle gene -- appear normal and do not manifest ***** ***** except under very stressful conditions. However, these individuals are carriers of the sickle cell trait. Approximately ten percent ***** African Americans are carriers. In Africa ***** India, the frequencies of the disease and carriers are even higher de ***** protection against malaria that occurred ***** people ***** sickle cell trait discussed later in this paper.

Beta globin is a major comp*****nt of adult hemoglobin and its gene is located on chromosome 11 with more than 475 allelic variants (**********, Yang, ***** Olney, 2000). One of ***** variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible for sickle ***** disease. The most influential risk factor for ***** severity is genotype (Sickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who are homozygous for ***** sickle beta globin ***** (b S) have ***** cell anemia (SS disease). ***** with sickle beta thalassemia have a b S gene ********** a gene ***** beta *****. If no ***** ***** is produced by the beta thalassemia *****, the individual has Sb o thalassemia (***** o thal). ***** some normal beta globin is produced ***** the ***** gene, the ***** has Sb + thalassemia (Sb + thal). In the case of *****

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