Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...

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Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglobin is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell *****). After hemoglobin molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red blood cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them ***** squeeze through small ***** vessels. As a result, they stack up and ***** blockages that deprive organs ***** tissues of oxygen-carrying blood.

***** cell anemia affects millions world wide (Genetic ***** pr*****ile: Sickle ***** anemia). It is the most common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; and Med*****erranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and *****aly. In the Unites States, it affects around 72,000 *****, most of whose ***** come from Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births and one ***** every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American *****. About two million Americans, or one in twelve African Americans, carry the ***** cell trait.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromo***** pairs with one of each pair *****herited ***** the fa*****r, and one from the mother (How does sickle cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a parent ***** child ***** only rarely. Most likely, sickle ***** ***** depends on *****herited *****s from parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired or o*****rwise transmitted. The disease is caused by a change in a single amino acid difference in the beta cha***** of *****. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, and balancing selection).

Individuals with two copies of the sickle ***** of ***** gene have sickle ***** anemia (*****, sickle cell anemia ***** balancing selection). Heterozygotes -- individuals ***** one normal and one mutant copy of the sickle gene ***** appear ***** and do not manifest ***** disease except under very stressful conditions. However, these individuals are carriers of the sickle cell trait. Approximately ten percent of African Americans are carriers. In Africa and India, the frequencies of the disease and ***** are even higher de to protection against malaria that occurred for people with ***** cell trait discussed later in this paper.

Beta globin is a major component of adult hemoglobin and its gene is located on chromosome 11 ***** more than 475 allelic variants (Ashley-Koch, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of these variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible ***** sickle cell disease. The most influential risk fac*****r for disease severity is ge*****ype (*****ickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who are homozygous for the sickle beta globin ***** (b S) ***** ***** cell anemia (SS disease). ***** with sickle beta thalassemia have a b S gene ***** ***** gene ***** beta *****. If no ***** globin is produced by the beta thalassemia *****, the individual has ********** o thalassemia (Sb o thal). ***** some normal beta globin ***** produced ***** the thalassemia gene, the ***** has Sb + thalassemia (***** + thal). In the case of hemoglobin


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