Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...


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Introduction

Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglobin is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell **********). After ***** molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red blood cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them ***** squeeze through small ***** vessels. As a result, they stack up and ***** blockages ***** deprive organs and tissues of oxygen-carrying blood.

Sickle cell anemia affects millions world wide (Genetic ***** pr*****ile: Sickle cell anemia). It is the most common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central *****); Saudi Arabia; India; and Med*****erranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy. In ***** Unites States, it affects around 72,000 people, most of whose ancestors come from Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births and one ***** every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American *****. About two million Americans, or one in twelve African Americans, carry the sickle cell tra*****.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromosome pairs with one of each pair *****herited ***** the father, and one from the mother (How does ***** cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a parent and child ***** only rarely. Most likely, sickle cell disease depends on inherited genes ***** parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired ***** otherwise *****nsmitted. ***** disease is caused by a ch*****nge in a single amino acid difference in the beta cha***** of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, ***** balancing selection).

Individuals with two copies ***** the sickle ***** of ***** gene have sickle ***** anemia (Malaria, sickle cell anemia and balancing selection). Heterozygotes -- individuals with one normal ***** one mutant copy of the sickle gene ***** appear ***** and do not manifest the disease except under very stressful conditions. However, these individuals are carriers of the sickle ***** trait. Approximately ten percent of African Americans are carriers. In Africa ***** India, the frequencies of the disease and carriers are even higher de ***** protection against malaria that occurred ***** ***** with ***** cell trait discussed later in this paper.

Beta glob***** is a m*****jor component of adult hemoglobin ***** its ***** is located on chromosome 11 ***** more than 475 allelic variants (*****hley-Koch, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of ***** variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible for sickle ***** disease. The most influential risk factor for disease severity is genotype (Sickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who ***** homozygous for ***** ***** ***** globin gene (b S) have sickle ***** anemia (SS disease). ***** with sickle *****eta thalassemia ***** a b S gene ********** a gene ***** beta *****. If no ***** globin is produced by the beta thalassemia *****, the individual has ********** o thalassemia (Sb o thal). ***** some normal beta globin ***** produced ***** the thalassemia gene, ***** ***** has Sb + thalassemia (Sb + thal). In the case ***** *****

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