Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...


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Introduction

***** cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglob***** is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell anemia). After *****in molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red blood cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them to squeeze through small ***** vessels. As a result, they stack up and ***** blockages that deprive organs and tissues of oxygen-carrying blood.

***** cell ***** affects millions world wide (Genetic disease pr*****ile: Sickle ***** anemia). It is the most common among people whose ances*****rs come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; and Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy. In ***** Unites States, it affects around 72,000 *****, most of whose ancestors come ***** Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births ***** one in every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American *****. About two million Americans, or one in twelve African Americans, carry the sickle cell trait.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromo***** pairs with one ***** each pair ********** from the father, and one from the mother (How does sickle cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a p*****rent and child ***** only rarely. Most likely, sickle ***** disease depends on ********** genes from parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired ***** otherwise transmitted. The disease is caused by a ch*****nge in a single amino acid difference in the beta cha***** of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, and balancing selection).

*****dividuals with two copies ***** the sickle ***** of the gene ***** sickle ***** anemia (*****, sickle cell anemia ***** balancing *****). Heterozygotes -- individuals with one normal and one mutant copy of the sickle gene -- appear normal and do not manifest the disease except under very stressful conditions. However, *****se individuals are carriers of the sickle cell trait. Approximately ten percent ***** ***** Americans ***** carriers. In Africa and India, the frequencies of the disease and ***** are even higher de to protection against malaria that occurred ***** people with sickle cell trait discussed later in this paper.

Beta glob***** is a major component of adult hemo*****in ***** its ***** is located on chromosome 11 with more than 475 allelic variants (Ashley-Koch, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of these variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible for sickle ***** disease. The most influential risk factor for ***** severity is genotype (*****ickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who are homozygous ***** the sickle ***** globin gene (b S) have sickle ***** anemia (SS disease). ***** ***** sickle beta thalassemia ***** a b S gene ***** ***** gene for beta *****. If no beta ***** is produced by the ***** thalassemia gene, the individual has Sb o thalassemia (Sb o thal). ***** s*****me normal beta globin ***** produced by the ***** *****, ***** individual has Sb + thalassemia (Sb + thal). In the case ***** *****

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