Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...

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***** cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglobin is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell anemia). After hemoglobin molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red blood cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them to squeeze through small blood vessels. As a result, they stack up and cause blockages that deprive organs ***** tissues of oxygen-carrying blood.

Sickle cell anemia affects millions world wide (Genetic ***** pr*****ile: Sickle cell anemia). It is the most common among people whose ances*****rs come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central *****); Saudi Arabia; India; and Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy. In the Unites States, it ***** around 72,000 *****, most of whose ancestors come ***** Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births ***** one in every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American *****. About two million Americans, or one in twelve African Americans, carry the ***** cell trait.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromo***** pairs with one ***** each pair ********** from the father, and one from the mother (How does sickle cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a p*****rent and child ***** only rarely. Most likely, sickle ***** ***** depends on inherited genes ***** parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired or otherwise transmitted. ***** disease is caused by a ch*****nge in a s*****gle amino acid difference in the beta cha***** of *****. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, and balancing selection).

Individuals with two copies ***** the sickle ***** of ***** gene ***** sickle ***** anemia (*****, sickle cell anemia ***** balancing selection). Heterozygotes -- individuals with one n*****mal and one mutant copy of the sickle gene -- appear normal and do not manifest the disease except under very stressful conditions. However, ********** individuals are carriers of the sickle cell trait. Approximately ten percent ***** ***** Americans are carriers. In Africa and India, the frequencies of the disease and carriers are even higher de to protection against malaria that occurred for people with sickle cell ***** discussed later in this paper.

Beta glob***** is a major comp*****nt of adult hemo*****in ***** its ***** is located on chromosome 11 with more than 475 allelic variants (**********, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of these variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible for sickle ***** disease. The most influential risk factor for disease severity is ge*****ype (Sickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who are homozygous ***** the ***** ***** globin gene (b S) have sickle cell anemia (SS disease). ***** with sickle beta thalassemia have a b S gene ***** a gene for beta *****. If no beta ***** is produced by the beta thalassemia gene, the individual has *****b o thalassemia (Sb o thal). If s*****me normal ***** globin is produced ***** the thalassemia gene, the individual has Sb + thalassemia (***** + thal). In the case ***** *****


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