Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...


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Introduction

***** cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglob***** is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell anemia). After ********** molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red blood cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them ***** squeeze through small ***** vessels. As a result, they stack up and ***** blockages ***** deprive organs and tissues of oxygen-carrying blood.

Sickle cell ***** affects millions world wide (Genetic ***** profile: Sickle cell anemia). It is the most common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; and Med*****erranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy. In ***** Unites States, it ***** around 72,000 people, most of whose ancestors come ***** Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births and one ***** every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American births. About two million Americans, or ***** in twelve African Americans, carry the sickle ***** trait.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromosome pairs with one ***** each pair inherited from the father, and ***** from the mother (How does ***** cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a p*****rent ***** child ***** only rarely. Most likely, sickle cell ***** depends on inherited genes from parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired or otherwise transmitted. The disease is caused by a ch*****nge in a single amino acid difference in the beta chain of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, and balancing selection).

Individuals with two copies ***** the sickle ***** of ***** gene ***** sickle ***** anemia (Malaria, sickle cell anemia ***** balancing selection). Heterozygotes -- individuals ***** one n*****mal and one mutant copy of the sickle gene ***** appear normal and do not manifest the disease except under very stressful conditions. However, *****se individuals are carriers of the sickle cell trait. Approximately ten percent ***** ***** Americans are carriers. In Africa and India, the frequencies of the disease and carriers are even higher de to protection against malaria that occurred ***** ***** with sickle cell ***** discussed later in this paper.

Beta glob***** is a major comp*****nt of adult hemo*****in ***** its gene is located on chromosome 11 with more than 475 allelic variants (Ashley-Koch, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of these variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible for sickle cell disease. The most influential risk fac*****r for disease severity is genotype (Sickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who ***** homozygous for the ***** ***** globin ***** (b S) have sickle cell anemia (SS disease). ***** ***** sickle *****eta thalassemia ***** a b S gene ***** ***** gene ***** beta thalassemia. If no ***** globin is produced by the beta thalassemia *****, the individual has Sb o thalassemia (***** o thal). If some normal ***** globin ***** produced by the ***** gene, ***** ***** has Sb + thalassemia (Sb + thal). In the case ***** *****

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