Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...


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Introduction

Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglob***** is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell anemia). After *****in molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red blood cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them ***** squeeze through small blood vessels. As a result, they stack up and ***** blockages ***** deprive organs and tissues of oxygen-carrying *****.

***** cell ***** affects millions world wide (Genetic ***** profile: Sickle ***** anemia). It is the most common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; ***** Med*****erranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy. In ***** Unites States, it ***** around 72,000 people, most of whose ancestors come from Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births ***** one ***** every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American births. About two million Americans, or ***** in twelve African Americans, carry the sickle cell tra*****.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromosome pairs with one of each pair ********** from the father, and ***** from the mother (How does ***** cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a p*****rent and child ***** only rarely. Most likely, sickle cell disease depends on inherited genes ***** parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired or o*****rwise *****nsmitted. The disease is caused by a change in a single amino acid difference in the beta cha***** of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, ***** balancing selection).

Individuals with two copies of the sickle ***** of ***** gene ***** sickle ***** anemia (*****, sickle cell anemia and balancing *****). Heterozygotes -- individuals with one normal and one mutant copy of the sickle gene -- appear ***** and do not manifest ***** disease except under very stressful conditions. However, these individuals are carriers of the sickle ***** trait. Approximately ten percent ***** African Americans ***** carriers. In Africa and India, the frequencies of the disease and carriers are even higher de ***** protection against malaria that occurred for people with ***** cell trait discussed later in this paper.

Beta globin is a major component of adult hemoglobin and its ***** is located on chromosome 11 with more than 475 allelic variants (Ashley-Koch, Yang, ***** Olney, 2000). One of these variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible ***** sickle cell disease. The most influential risk factor for disease severity is ge*****ype (*****ickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who ***** homozygous ***** the sickle ***** globin gene (b S) have sickle ***** anemia (SS disease). Individuals ***** sickle *****eta thalassemia have a b S gene and a gene for beta *****. If no beta ***** is produced by the ***** thalassemia gene, the individual has *****b o thalassemia (Sb o thal). If s*****me normal beta globin ***** produced by the ***** *****, ***** ***** has Sb + thalassemia (Sb + thal). In the case of hemo*****

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