Essay - Introduction Sickle Cell Anemia is an Inherited Blood Disorder in...


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Introduction

Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which hemoglob***** is defective (Genetic disease profile: Sickle cell anemia). After ********** molecules give up their oxygen, some cluster together and form long, rod-like structures. These structures cause red ***** cells to become stiff and assume a sickle shape that makes it difficult for them ***** squeeze through small blood vessels. As a result, they stack up and ***** blockages ***** deprive organs ***** tissues of oxygen-carrying *****.

Sickle cell anemia affects millions world wide (Genetic ***** profile: Sickle ***** anemia). It is the most common among people whose ancestors come from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions (South America, Cuba, Central *****); Saudi Arabia; India; and Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, and *****aly. In the Unites States, it affects around 72,000 people, most of whose ***** come from Africa. The disease occurs in about one in every 500 African-American births and one ***** every 1000 to 1400 Hispanic-American births. About two million Americans, or one in twelve African Americans, carry the ***** cell tra*****.

Genotypic Expressions

People have twenty-two identical chromo***** pairs with one ***** each pair ********** from the father, and one from the mother (How does sickle cell cause disease?, 2002). Mutation involving gene alteration in the exchange between a parent ***** child ***** only rarely. Most likely, sickle cell ***** depends on ********** *****s ***** parents' the disease cannot be caught, acquired ***** o*****rwise *****nsmitted. The disease is caused by a change in a single amino acid difference in the beta cha***** of hemoglobin. (Malaria, sickle ***** anemia, and balancing selection).

*****dividuals with two copies of the sickle *****m of ***** gene have sickle cell anemia (Malaria, sickle ***** anemia and balancing selection). Heterozygotes -- individuals ***** one normal ***** one mutant copy of the sickle gene ***** appear ***** and do not manifest ***** ***** except under very stressful conditions. However, these individuals are carriers of the sickle cell trait. Approximately ten percent ***** ***** Americans are carriers. In Africa and India, the frequencies of the disease and carriers are even higher de ***** protection against malaria that occurred for people with sickle cell trait discussed later in this paper.

Beta glob***** is a major component of adult hemo*****in and its gene is located on chromosome 11 ***** more than 475 allelic variants (*****hley-Koch, Yang, and Olney, 2000). One of *****se variants, sickle hemoglobin (Hb S), is responsible ***** sickle cell disease. The most influential risk factor for ***** severity is ge*****ype (*****ickle cell anemia - description). Individuals who ***** homozygous ***** the sickle beta globin gene (b S) have ***** cell anemia (SS disease). ***** with sickle beta thalassemia have a b S gene ***** ***** gene for beta *****. If no ***** globin is produced by the beta thalassemia gene, the individual has ********** o thalassemia (Sb o thal). ***** some normal beta globin is produced ***** the ***** *****, ***** ***** has Sb + thalassemia (***** + thal). In the case ***** *****

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