Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...


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Learning and Memory

In the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical c*****ditioning or operant conditioning, theories developed by Ivan Pavlov and BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by ***** ***** is posited ***** be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes event B) (Santrock, 2000:188). This definition also operates in operant conditioning, ***** an individual wherein "consequences of behavior produce changes in ***** probability of the behavior's occurrence" (195). Another school ***** thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a major role. In ***** *****, ***** occurs because of the presence ***** operation of "cognitive maps" within an individual. These 'cognitive *****' are defined ***** ***** "organism's mental representation ***** ***** structure of physical space" (208). This concept represents learning as a rel*****tionship between the mind of the individual and his or her ***** environment. ***** takes place in his ***** her interaction with the environment, ***** through the cognitive maps, s/he was able to retain these ***** and recall them as ***** of his or her learning.

This, in effect, l*****ks learning to mem*****y. Memory is likened ***** the idea of ***** maps, or at least ***** way cognitive ***** oper*****e in the ***** ***** the individual. Memory is described as processing information ***** encoding (getting ***** and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). ***** processes ***** the ***** goes through to create and retain memory ***** highly related to the *****ories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the individual; oper*****t conditioning described learning as ***** consequences in ***** of the person, ***** also ***** the ***** of an event *****d its *****; and l*****tly, ***** maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped ***** and ***** in h*****/her m*****d.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.

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