Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...


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Learning and Memory

In the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical c*****ditioning or operant conditioning, theories developed by Ivan Pavlov ***** BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by ***** conditioning is posited to be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes *****t B) (Santrock, 2000:188). This definition also operates in operant conditioning, wherein an ***** ***** "consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of ***** ********** occurrence" (195). Another school of thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a major role. In ***** psychology, ***** occurs because of the presence and operation of "cognitive maps" within an individual. These 'cognitive maps' are defined ***** an "org*****ism's mental representation of ***** structure of physical space" (208). This concept represents learning as a rel*****tionship between the mind of the individual ***** his or her ***** environment. ***** takes place in his ***** her interaction with the environment, and through the cognitive maps, s/he was able ***** retain these ***** and recall them as ***** of his or her *****.

This, in effect, links learning to mem*****y. Memory is likened to the idea ***** cognitive maps, or at le*****t the way cognitive maps oper*****e in ***** mind of the individual. ***** is described as processing information through encoding (getting information and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out ***** storage) (219). ***** processes that the individual goes through to create and retain memory is highly ***** to the *****ories of learning enumerated earlier: cl*****sical conditioning posits ***** stimuli (a memory ***** an event) ***** needed to elicit a particular behavior from the *****; ***** conditioning described learning as ***** ***** in behavior of the person, ***** also to ***** ***** of an event ********** its consequences; and l*****tly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped ***** and ***** in his/her m*****d.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.

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