Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...


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Learning and Memory

In the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical conditioning or operant conditioning, the*****ies developed by Ivan Pavlov ***** BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by ***** ***** is posited ***** be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes event B) (Santrock, 2000:188). This definition also operates in operant conditioning, wherein an ***** ***** "consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of ***** behavior's occurrence" (195). Another school ***** thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a m*****jor role. In ***** psychology, learning occurs because of the presence and operation of "cognitive maps" within an individual. These 'cognitive ********** are defined ***** ***** "organism's mental representation ***** ***** structure of physical space" (208). This concept represents learning as a rel*****tionship between the mind of the individual and his or her ***** environment. ***** takes place in his ***** her interaction with ***** environment, ***** through the cognitive maps, s/he was able to retain these events and recall them as ***** of his or her *****.

This, in effect, links learning to memory. Memory is likened to the idea of ***** maps, or at le*****t ***** way cognitive ***** oper*****e in the ***** ***** the individual. ***** is described as processing information ***** encoding (getting ***** and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). These processes that the individual goes through to create and retain ***** ***** highly ***** to the *****ories of learning enumerated earlier: cl*****sical conditioning posits ***** stimuli (a memory ***** an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the *****; ***** conditioning described learning as ***** ***** in behavior of the person, linked also ***** ***** memory of ***** event and its consequences; and l*****tly, ***** maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns ***** memories mapped ***** and ***** in his/her mind.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.

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