Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...

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Learning and Memory

In the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical c*****ditioning or operant conditioning, the*****ies developed by Ivan Pavlov ***** BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by ***** conditioning is posited ***** be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes event B) (Santrock, 2000:188). This definition also operates in operant conditioning, wherein an ***** ***** "consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of the ********** occurrence" (195). Another school ***** thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a m*****jor role. In cognitive *****, ***** occurs because of the presence and operation of "cognitive maps" within an individual. These 'cognitive *****' are defined ***** an "organism's mental representation of ***** structure ***** physical space" (208). This concept represents learning as a rel*****tionship between the mind of the individual and his or her physical environment. Learning takes place in his ***** her interaction with the environment, and through the cognitive maps, s/he was able to retain these events and recall them as part of his or her *****.

This, in effect, l*****ks learning to mem*****y. Memory is likened ***** the idea of ***** maps, or at le*****t ***** way cognitive maps oper*****e in the ***** of ***** individual. Memory is described as processing information ***** encoding (getting ***** and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out ***** storage) (219). These processes ***** the individual goes through to create and retain ***** is highly ***** to the *****ories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory ***** an event) is needed to elicit a p*****rticular behavior from the *****; ***** conditioning described learning as ***** ***** in behavior of the person, ***** also ***** ***** ***** of an event ********** its consequences; and lastly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns ***** memories mapped out and ***** in his/her m*****d.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.


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