Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...

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Learning and Memory

In the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical c*****ditioning or operant conditioning, the*****ies developed by Ivan Pavlov and BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by classical conditioning is posited to be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes event B) (Santrock, 2000:188). This definition also operates in operant conditioning, wherein an individual wherein "consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurrence" (195). Another school ***** thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a major role. In ***** psychology, learning occurs because of the presence and operation of "cognitive maps" within an *****. These 'cognitive maps' are defined ***** an "organism's mental representation ***** the structure of physical space" (208). This concept represents ***** as a rel*****tionship between the mind of the individual and his or her ***** environment. Learning takes place in his or her interaction with the environment, and through the cognitive maps, s/he was able ***** retain these events and recall them as ***** of his or her learning.

This, in effect, links learning to mem*****y. Memory is likened to the idea of cognitive maps, or at le*****t the way cognitive maps oper*****e in the mind ***** ***** individual. Memory is described as processing information ***** encoding (getting information and memory), storage (*****ing ***** over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). ***** processes ***** the individual goes through to create and retain memory is highly related to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: ***** conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory ***** an event) ***** needed to elicit a p*****rticular behavior from the individual; ***** conditioning described learning ***** the ***** in behavior of the person, ***** also ***** ***** ***** of an event ********** its consequences; and lastly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns ***** memories mapped ***** and ***** in his/her m*****d.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.


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