Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...


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Learning and Memory

***** the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical c*****ditioning or operant conditioning, theories developed by Ivan Pavlov and BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by ***** ***** is posited ***** be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes event B) (Santrock, 2000:188). Th***** definition also operates in operant conditioning, wherein an individual ***** "consequences of behavior produce changes in ***** probability of the ********** occurrence" (195). Another school of thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a m*****jor role. In ***** psychology, ***** occurs because of the presence and operation of "cognitive maps" within an *****. These 'cognitive ********** are defined ***** ***** "organism's mental representation ***** the structure of physical space" (208). This concept represents learning as a rel*****tionship between the mind of the individual and his or her ***** environment. ***** takes place in his ***** her interaction with the environment, and through the cognitive maps, s/he was able to retain these ***** and recall them as ***** of ***** or ***** learning.

This, in effect, l*****ks ***** to mem*****y. Memory is likened ***** the idea of cognitive maps, or at least ***** way cognitive ***** operate in the ***** ***** the individual. ***** is described as processing information through encoding (getting information and memory), storage (retaining ***** over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). ***** processes that the ***** goes through to create and retain ***** is highly ***** to the *****ories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the individual; ***** conditioning described learning as ***** consequences in behavior of the person, ***** also ***** the ***** of ***** event and its consequences; and l*****tly, ***** maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns ***** memories mapped out and retain in his/her mind.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.

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