Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...


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Learning and Memory

***** the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical c*****ditioning or operant conditioning, the*****ies developed by Ivan Pavlov ***** BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by ***** conditioning is posited to be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes *****t B) (Santrock, 2000:188). Th***** definition also operates in operant conditioning, wherein an individual wherein "consequences of behavior produce changes in ***** probability of the behavior's occurrence" (195). Another school of thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a major role. In ***** *****, learning occurs because of the presence and operation of "cognitive maps" within an *****. These 'cognitive *****' are defined as an "organism's mental representation of ***** structure ***** physical space" (208). This concept represents learning as a relationship between the mind of the individual and his or her physical environment. ***** takes place in his or her interaction with ***** environment, and through the cognitive maps, s/he was able ***** retain these events and recall them as part of ***** or ***** *****.

This, in effect, links learning to memory. Memory is likened ***** the idea ***** cognitive maps, or at least the way cognitive ***** oper*****e in ***** ***** of the individual. Memory is described as processing information through encoding (getting ***** and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). ***** processes ***** the individual goes through to create and retain ***** ***** highly related to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a p*****rticular behavior from the individual; ***** conditioning described learning as the consequences in behavior of the person, ***** also ***** the ***** of ***** event and its consequences; and lastly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped out and retain in h*****/her mind.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.

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