Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...


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Learning and Memory

In the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical c*****ditioning or operant conditioning, the*****ies developed by Ivan Pavlov and BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by ***** ***** is posited ***** be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes *****t B) (Santrock, 2000:188). Th***** definition also operates in operant conditioning, ***** an individual wherein "consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of ***** ********** occurrence" (195). Another school of thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a m*****jor role. In ***** psychology, learning occurs because of the presence and operation of "cognitive maps" within an individual. These 'cognitive *****' are defined as an "org*****ism's mental representation of ***** structure of physical space" (208). This concept represents ***** as a rel*****tionship between the mind of the individual ***** his or her ***** environment. ***** takes place in his ***** her interaction with ***** environment, and through the cognitive maps, s/he was able to retain these ***** and recall them as part of ***** or ***** learning.

This, in effect, l*****ks ***** to mem*****y. Memory is likened to the idea ***** cognitive maps, or at least ***** way cognitive maps oper*****e in the ***** of the individual. ***** is described as processing information ***** encoding (getting ***** and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). ***** processes that the individual goes through to create and retain memory ***** highly related to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: cl*****sical conditioning posits ***** stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the individual; operant conditioning described learning as ***** consequences in behavior of the person, linked also ***** ***** ***** of an event and its ********** ***** lastly, ***** maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns ***** memories mapped ***** and ***** in h*****/her m*****d.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.

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