Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...


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Learning and Memory

In the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical c*****ditioning or operant conditioning, the*****ies developed by Ivan Pavlov ***** BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by ***** conditioning is posited to be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes event B) (Santrock, 2000:188). Th***** definition also operates in operant conditioning, wherein an individual wherein "consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurrence" (195). Another school of thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a major role. In ***** psychology, learning occurs because of the presence and operation of "cognitive maps" within an individual. These 'cognitive maps' are defined ***** ***** "organism's mental representation ***** ***** structure of physical space" (208). This concept represents learning as a rel*****tionship between the mind of the individual ***** his or her physical environment. Learning takes place in his ***** her interaction with the environment, and through the cognitive maps, s/he was able ***** retain these ***** and recall them as part of ***** or ***** *****.

This, in effect, links learning to mem*****y. Memory is likened to the idea of cognitive maps, or at least the way cognitive maps operate in the mind ***** ***** individual. ***** is described as processing information ***** encoding (getting ***** and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). ***** processes ***** the individual goes through to create and retain ***** is highly ***** to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory ***** an event) is needed to elicit a p*****rticular behavior from the *****; oper*****t conditioning described learning as ***** consequences in ***** of the person, ***** also ***** ***** ***** of an event ********** its *****; and lastly, ***** maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped ***** and retain in h*****/her m*****d.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.

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