Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...

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Learning and Memory

In the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical c*****ditioning or operant conditioning, the*****ies developed by Ivan Pavlov ***** BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by ***** ***** is posited ***** be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes *****t B) (Santrock, 2000:188). This definition also operates in operant conditioning, ***** an ***** wherein "consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of ***** behavior's occurrence" (195). Another school ***** thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a m*****jor role. In cognitive psychology, ***** occurs because of the presence and operation of "***** maps" within an individual. These 'cognitive *****' are defined ***** ***** "organism's mental representation of ***** structure of physical space" (208). This concept represents learning as a relationship between the mind of the individual ***** his or her physical environment. ***** takes place in his ***** her interaction with the environment, and through the cognitive maps, s/he was able to retain these events and recall them as part of ***** or her *****.

This, in effect, links learning to mem*****y. Memory is likened to the idea ***** ***** maps, or at le*****t ***** way cognitive maps oper*****e in the mind of the individual. ***** is described as processing information through encoding (getting information and memory), storage (*****ing ***** over time), and retrieval (taking information out ***** storage) (219). ***** processes that the ***** goes through to create and retain memory ***** highly related to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a p*****rticular behavior from the individual; ***** conditioning described learning as ***** ***** in ***** of the person, linked also to the memory of an event and its consequences; ***** l*****tly, ***** maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped ***** and retain in h*****/her mind.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.


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