Essay - Learning and Memory in the Field of Psychology, Theories on...


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Learning and Memory

In the field of psychology, theories on learning have been closely linked to either classical c*****ditioning or operant conditioning, the*****ies developed by Ivan Pavlov ***** BF Skinner, respectively. Learning as determined by ***** conditioning is posited ***** be part of associative learning, wherein an individual learns that two events are related or linked (at the most, even A causes *****t B) (Santrock, 2000:188). Th***** definition also operates in operant conditioning, ***** an ***** wherein "consequences of behavior produce changes in ***** probability of the behavior's occurrence" (195). Another school of thought about learning places cognitive development as playing a major role. In ***** *****, learning occurs because of the presence and operation of "cognitive maps" within an individual. These 'cognitive maps' are defined ***** ***** "organism's mental representation ***** ***** structure of physical space" (208). This concept represents ***** as a rel*****tionship between the mind of the individual and his or her ***** environment. ***** takes place in his or her interaction with ***** environment, ***** through the cognitive maps, s/he was able to retain these ***** and recall them as part of his or ***** learning.

This, in effect, l*****ks learning to memory. Memory is likened ***** the idea ***** cognitive maps, or at least ***** way cognitive ***** operate in the ***** of the individual. ***** is described as processing information ***** encoding (getting ***** and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out ***** storage) (219). ***** processes ***** the ***** goes through to create ***** retain memory is highly related to the *****ories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the individual; ***** conditioning described learning as ***** ***** in behavior of the person, ***** also to ***** memory of an event and its consequences; ***** l*****tly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns ***** memories mapped ***** and ***** in h*****/her mind.

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology.

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