Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...


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Four Learning Theories

Introduction

Behavioral ***** Theory

***** processing theory

Social cognitive theory

Constructivist learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist ***** applies best to teaching for the construction trades

Conclusion

Bibliography

Introduction

This paper covers four learning theories and the descrip*****rs which are associated with each. The paper will discuss behavioral learning theory (operant conditioning), in*****mation processing theory, social ***** *****, and constructivist ***** theory. Each section will discuss the theory, identify its strengths and weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building trades teaching environment. After a review of the above *****, the author will advance the case that constructivist learning theory best fits the class and the author's personal teaching style.

Behavioral Learning Theory

Behavioral ***** theory originated with the work of BF Skinner ***** Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate the *****ory ***** operant conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (cognitive behavioral therapy) and phobias, to improving learning performance.

The theory advanced by Skinner is that one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due to ***** from stimuli ***** occur in the environment. Skinner found ***** reinforcing responses to ***** can result in learning, and a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of ***** learning *****ory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear of flying. The first element in behavioral learning is to analyze the rational side ***** the phobia—i.e. why ***** it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed about the lack of control ***** the plane's fate? When faced with the rational explanation that "planes don't crash," and "you are safer in a plane than in an automobile," the ***** realizes on a rati*****al basis ***** the fear of ***** is ungrounded ***** reason.

***** next phase is operant *****. In many cases, this takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an air***** (while on the ground) ***** have a pleasant discussi*****. This associates "pleasant" and "sitting in an *****pl*****e," and teaches the ***** that his/her ***** is *****. Once the anxiety has *****en averted in ***** step, ***** client may then be asked to take a short flight and, during the flight, engage in a pleasant activity (talking, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the flight is met by a ***** *****. ***** 'oper*****nt conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new p*****radigm to the client.

***** advantages of operant conditioning for learning ***** as follows:

1. It is goal-oriented. That is, the client is able to get to the heart ***** a problem very quickly, and to treat it in a focused manner.

*****. It ***** rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therapist ***** get to the issue ***** ***** client fairly quickly.

3. It can be performed with people who may not ***** good reading or verbal skills, such ***** children. That is *****cause

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