Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...

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Four Learning Theories


Behavioral ***** Theory

Information processing theory

Social cognitive *****

***** learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist ***** applies best to teaching for the construction trades




This paper covers four learning theories and the descriptors which are associated with each. The ***** will discuss behavioral learning theory (operant conditioning), information processing theory, social cognitive theory, and constructivist ***** theory. Each section will discuss the *****ory, identify its strengths and weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building tr*****des teaching environment. After a review of the above theories, the ***** ***** advance ***** case that constructivist learning ***** best fits the class and ***** author's personal teaching style.

Behavioral Learning Theory

Behavioral ***** theory originated with the work of BF Skinner ***** Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate ***** theory ***** operant conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (***** behavioral therapy) ***** phobias, to improving learning performance.

The theory advanced by Skinner is ***** one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due ***** ***** from stimuli which occur in the *****. Sk*****ner found that reinforcing responses to behavior can result in learn*****g, and a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of ***** learning theory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear ***** flying. The first element in behavioral learning is to analyze the rational side of the phobia—i.e. why ***** it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed ***** the lack of control of the plane's fate? When faced ***** the ***** explanation ***** "planes don't crash," and "you are safer in a plane than ***** an automobile," the ***** realizes on a rational basis that the fear ***** flying is ungrounded in reason.

The next phase is operant *****. In many cases, th***** takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an air***** (while on *****e ground) ***** have a pleasant discussi*****. This associates "pleasant" and "sitt*****g in an *****pl*****e," and teaches the ***** ***** his/her ***** is *****. Once the anxiety has been averted in this step, ***** client may then be asked ***** take a short ***** *****nd, during the flight, engage in a pleasant activity (talk*****g, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the ***** is met by a ***** *****. This 'operant conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new p*****radigm to the client.

The advantages of operant conditioning for learning ***** as follows:

*****. It is goal-oriented. That *****, ***** client is able to get to the heart of a problem very quickly, and to treat it in a focused manner.

2. It ***** rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therapist can get to the issue with ***** client fairly quickly.

3. It can be performed ***** people who ***** not ***** good read*****g or verbal skills, such as children. That is *****cause


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