Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...


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Four Learning Theories

*****

Behavioral ***** Theory

Information processing theory

Social cognitive *****

***** learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist theory applies best to teaching for the construction trades

Conclusion

Bibliography

Introduction

This paper covers four learning theories and the descriptors which are associated with each. The paper will discuss behavioral learning theory (operant conditioning), in*****mation processing theory, social ***** theory, and constructivist learning theory. Each section will ***** the *****ory, identify its strengths and weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building tr*****des teaching environment. After a review of the above *****, the ***** will advance ***** case that constructivist learning ***** best fits the class and the author's personal teaching style.

***** Learning Theory

Behavioral learning theory originated with the work of BF Skinner and Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate ***** theory of ***** conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (cognitive behavioral therapy) and phobias, ***** improving learning performance.

The theory advanced by Skinner is ***** one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due to learning from stimuli ***** occur in the *****. ***** found that reinforcing responses to ***** can result in learning, ***** a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of ***** learning *****ory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear ***** flying. The first element in behavioral learning is ***** analyze the rational side of the phobia—i.e. why ***** it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed about the lack of control ***** ***** plane's fate? When faced with the rational explanation that "planes don't crash," and "you are safer in a plane than in an automobile," the ***** realizes on a ***** basis ***** the fear of fly*****g is ungrounded in reason.

***** next p*****e is operant conditioning. In many cases, this takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an airplane (while on the ground) and have a pleasant discussion. This associates "*****" and "sitt*****g in an *****," ********** teaches the ***** that his/her ***** is *****. Once ***** anxiety has *****en averted in ***** step, the client may then be asked ***** take a short ***** and, during the flight, engage in a pleasant activity (talking, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the ***** is met by a ***** response. This 'oper*****nt conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new paradigm to the client.

***** advantages of operant conditioning for learning ***** as follows:

*****. It is goal-oriented. That is, the client is able to get to ***** heart ***** a problem very quickly, ********** ***** treat it in a focused manner.

*****. It is rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therap*****t ***** get to the issue ***** ***** client fairly quickly.

3. It can be performed with people who may not have good reading or verbal skills, such ***** children. That is because

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