Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...


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Four Learning Theories

*****

Behavioral Learning Theory

***** processing theory

Social cognitive theory

***** learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist theory applies best to teaching for the construction trades

Conclusion

Bibliography

Introduction

This paper covers four learning theories and the descriptors which are associated with each. The paper will discuss behavioral learning theory (operant conditioning), in*****mation processing theory, social ***** theory, and constructivist learning theory. Each section will discuss the *****ory, identify its strengths ***** weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building trades teaching environment. After a review ***** the above theories, the ***** will advance the case that constructivist ***** theory best fits the class and the author's personal teaching style.

Behavioral Learning Theory

Behavioral learning theory originated with the work of BF Skinner ***** Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate ***** theory ***** operant conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (cognitive behavioral therapy) and phobias, to improving learning performance.

The theory advanced by ***** is that one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due ***** learning from stimuli which occur in the environment. Sk*****ner found ***** reinforcing responses to behavior can result in learning, ***** a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of ***** learning theory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear of flying. The first element in behavioral learning is to analyze the rational side of the phobia—i.e. why is it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed ***** the lack ***** control of ***** ********** fate? When faced with the ***** explanation that "planes don't crash," and "you are safer in a plane than ***** an automobile," the client realizes on a rational basis ***** the fear ***** ***** is ungrounded in reason.

The next phase is operant *****. In many cases, th***** takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an airplane (while on the ground) and have a pleasant discussi*****. This associates "pleasant" and "sitting in an airpl*****e," and teaches the ***** that his/her fear is ungrounded. Once the anxiety has *****en averted in this step, the client may *****n be asked to take a short flight *****, during the *****, eng*****ge in a pleasant activity (talking, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the flight is met by a pleasant *****. ***** 'operant conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new paradigm ***** the client.

***** advantages ***** operant conditioning for learning ***** as follows:

*****. It is goal-oriented. That *****, ***** client is able to get to the heart of a problem very quickly, and to treat it in a focused manner.

*****. It ***** rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therapist ***** get to the issue ***** ***** client fairly quickly.

3. It can be performed with people who may not ***** good reading or verbal skills, such as children. That is *****cause

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