Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...


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Four Learning Theories

Introduction

Behavioral Learning Theory

***** processing theory

Social cognitive *****

***** learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist theory applies best to teaching for the construction trades

*****

Bibliography

Introduction

This paper covers four learning theories and the descriptors which are associated with each. The paper will discuss behavioral learning theory (operant conditioning), in*****mation processing theory, social cognitive *****, and constructivist ***** theory. Each section will discuss the theory, identify its strengths ***** weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building trades teaching environment. After a review of the above theories, the author will advance the case that constructivist learning ***** best fits the class and ***** author's personal teaching style.

***** ***** Theory

Behavioral ***** theory originated with the work of BF Skinner ***** Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate the theory ***** operant conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (cognitive behavioral therapy) and phobias, ***** improving learning performance.

***** theory advanced by ***** is ***** one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due to learning from stimuli which occur in the environment. Sk*****ner found that reinforcing responses to behavior can result in learning, and a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of ***** learning theory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear of flying. The first element in behavioral ***** is to analyze the rational side ***** the phobia—i.e. why is it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed about the lack of control of the ********** fate? When faced with the rational explanation that "planes don't crash," ***** "you are safer in a plane than ***** an automobile," the client realizes on a rational basis that the fear of flying is ungrounded in reason.

The next p*****e is operant *****. In many cases, this takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an airplane (while on the ground) and have a pleasant discussion. This associates "*****" and "sitting in an *****," *****d teaches the client ***** his/her ***** is *****. Once ***** anxiety has been averted in ***** step, the client may then be asked ***** take a short ***** *****nd, during the flight, engage in a pleasant activity (talking, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the flight is met by a ***** *****. This 'oper*****nt conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new paradigm to the client.

The advantages ***** operant conditioning for learning are as follows:

1. It is goal-oriented. That is, the client is able to get ***** ***** heart of a problem very quickly, and to treat it in a focused manner.

2. It is rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therapist can get to the issue with the client fairly quickly.

3. It can ***** performed with people who ***** not ***** good reading or verbal skills, such as children. ***** is because

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