Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...


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Four Learning Theories

Introduction

Behavioral Learning Theory

Information processing theory

Social cognitive theory

Constructivist learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist ***** applies best to teaching for the construction trades

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Bibliography

Introduction

This paper covers four learning theories and the descriptors which are associated with each. The paper will discuss behavioral learning *****ory (operant conditioning), information processing theory, social ***** theory, and constructivist learning theory. Each section will ***** the theory, identify its strengths ***** weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building tr*****des t*****ing environment. After a review ***** the *****bove *****, the ***** ***** advance the case that constructivist learning ***** best fits the class and the author's personal teaching style.

***** ***** Theory

Behavioral learning theory originated with the work of BF Skinner ***** Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate the theory of ***** conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (cognitive behavioral therapy) and phobias, to improving learning performance.

The theory advanced by Skinner is ***** one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due ***** learning from stimuli ***** occur in the *****. Sk*****ner found that reinforcing responses to ***** can result in learn*****g, and a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of ***** learning theory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear of flying. The first element in behavioral ***** is ***** analyze the rational side ***** the phobia—i.e. why ***** it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed about the lack of control ***** the plane's fate? When faced ***** the ***** explanation that "planes don't crash," ***** "you are safer in a plane than in an automobile," the ***** realizes on a rati*****al basis that the fear of ***** is ungrounded ***** reason.

The next phase is operant conditioning. In many cases, this takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an airplane (while on the ground) and have a pleasant discussi*****. This associates "pleasant" and "sitting in an *****," ********** teaches the client ***** his/her fear is ungrounded. Once the anxiety has been averted in this step, ***** client may then be asked to take a short flight *****nd, during the *****, engage in a pleasant activity (talk*****g, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the flight is met by a ple*****sant *****. ***** 'operant *****' therefore demonstrates a new paradigm to the client.

***** advantages ***** operant conditioning for learning are as follows:

1. It is goal-oriented. That is, ***** client is able to get ***** the heart of a problem very quickly, and to treat it in a focused manner.

2. It ***** rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therapist ***** get to the issue with the client fairly quickly.

3. It can be performed with people who ***** not have good reading or verbal skills, such ***** children. ***** is because

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