Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...


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Four Learning Theories

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Behavioral ***** Theory

Information processing theory

Social cognitive *****

Constructivist learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist ***** applies best to teaching for the construction trades

Conclusion

Bibliography

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This paper covers four learning theories and the descrip*****rs which are associated with each. The paper will discuss behavioral learning *****ory (operant conditioning), in*****mation processing theory, social cognitive *****, and constructivist learning theory. Each section will ***** the theory, identify its strengths ***** weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building trades teaching environment. After a review ***** the above *****, the ***** will advance the case that constructivist learning theory best fits the class and ***** author's personal teaching style.

***** Learning Theory

Behavioral learning theory originated with the work of BF Skinner and Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate ***** theory ***** ***** conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (***** behavioral therapy) and phobias, ***** improving ***** performance.

The theory advanced by Skinner is that one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due to learning from stimuli ***** occur in the *****. ***** found that reinforcing responses to behavior can result in learning, and a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of behavioral learning theory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear of flying. The first element in behavioral ***** ***** ***** analyze the rational side ***** the phobia—i.e. why is it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed ***** the lack of control of the *****'s fate? When faced with the rational explanation ***** "planes don't crash," ***** "you are safer in a plane than in an automobile," the ***** realizes on a rati*****al basis that the fear ***** ***** is ungrounded in reason.

The next phase is operant conditioning. In many cases, th***** takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an airplane (while on the ground) and have a pleasant discussi*****. This associates "pleasant" and "sitt*****g in an airpl*****e," and teaches the client that his/her fear is *****. Once the anxiety has been averted in this step, ***** client may then be asked ***** take a short flight and, during the *****, engage in a pleasant activity (talking, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the flight is met by a ***** response. This 'oper*****nt conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new p*****radigm to the client.

***** advantages ***** operant conditioning for learning ***** as follows:

1. It is goal-oriented. That is, the client is able to get ***** ***** heart of a problem very quickly, and to treat it in a focused manner.

2. It is rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therap*****t ***** get to the issue ***** the client fairly quickly.

3. It can be performed with people who ***** not have good reading or verbal skills, such ***** children. ***** is *****cause

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