Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...


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Four Learning Theories

Introduction

Behavioral ***** Theory

Information processing theory

Social cognitive *****

***** learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist theory applies best to teaching for the construction trades

Conclusion

Bibliography

Introduction

This paper covers four learning theories and the descrip*****rs which are associated with each. The ***** will discuss behavioral learning *****ory (operant conditioning), information processing theory, social ***** *****, and constructivist learning theory. Each section will discuss the *****ory, identify its strengths ***** weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building trades t*****ing environment. After a review ***** the ********** *****, the author ***** advance ***** case that constructivist ***** ***** best fits the class and ***** author's personal teaching style.

***** Learning Theory

Behavioral learning theory originated with the work of BF Skinner and Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate the theory ***** operant conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (cognitive behavioral therapy) ***** phobias, to improving ***** performance.

The theory advanced by Skinner is ***** one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due to learning from stimuli ***** occur in the environment. ***** found that reinforcing responses ***** ***** can result in learn*****g, and a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of ***** learning theory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear of flying. The first element in behavioral learning ***** to analyze the rational side of the phobia—i.e. why is it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed about the lack of control of ***** ********** fate? When faced ***** the rational explanation that "planes don't crash," ***** "you are safer in a plane than in an automobile," the ***** realizes on a rational basis ***** the fear of ***** is ungrounded ***** reason.

***** next phase is operant conditioning. In many cases, this takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an airplane (while on the ground) and have a pleasant discussi*****. This associates "*****" and "sitting in an airplane," and teaches the client that his/her ***** is *****. Once ***** anxiety has been averted in ***** step, the client may *****n be asked to take a short flight *****, during the *****, eng*****ge in a pleasant activity (talk*****g, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the flight is met by a ***** response. ***** 'operant conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new p*****radigm ***** the client.

***** advantages ***** operant conditioning for learning are as follows:

1. It is goal-oriented. That *****, the client is able to get ***** ***** heart of a problem very quickly, ********** to treat it in a focused manner.

*****. It ***** rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therapist can get to the issue with the client fairly quickly.

3. It can ***** performed ***** people who ***** not have good reading or verbal skills, such ***** children. ***** is because

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