Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...

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Four Learning Theories


Behavioral Learning Theory

***** processing theory

Social cognitive *****

***** learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist theory applies best to teaching for the construction trades




This paper covers four learning theories and the descriptors which are associated with each. The paper will discuss behavioral learning theory (operant conditioning), in*****mation processing theory, social cognitive *****, and constructivist ***** theory. Each section will discuss the theory, identify its strengths ***** weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building trades teaching environment. After a review of the above theories, the author will advance the case that constructivist learning ***** best fits the class and ***** author's personal teaching style.

***** ***** Theory

Behavioral ***** theory originated with the work of BF Skinner ***** Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate the theory ***** operant conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (cognitive behavioral therapy) and phobias, ***** improving learning performance.

***** theory advanced by ***** is ***** one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due to learning from stimuli which occur in the environment. Sk*****ner found that reinforcing responses to behavior can result in learning, and a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of ***** learning theory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear of flying. The first element in behavioral ***** is to analyze the rational side ***** the phobia—i.e. why is it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed about the lack of control of the ********** fate? When faced with the rational explanation that "planes don't crash," ***** "you are safer in a plane than ***** an automobile," the client realizes on a rational basis that the fear of flying is ungrounded in reason.

The next p*****e is operant *****. In many cases, this takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an airplane (while on the ground) and have a pleasant discussion. This associates "*****" and "sitting in an *****," *****d teaches the client ***** his/her ***** is *****. Once ***** anxiety has been averted in ***** step, the client may then be asked ***** take a short ***** *****nd, during the flight, engage in a pleasant activity (talking, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the flight is met by a ***** *****. This 'oper*****nt conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new paradigm to the client.

The advantages ***** operant conditioning for learning are as follows:

1. It is goal-oriented. That is, the client is able to get ***** ***** heart of a problem very quickly, and to treat it in a focused manner.

2. It is rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therapist can get to the issue with the client fairly quickly.

3. It can ***** performed with people who ***** not ***** good reading or verbal skills, such as children. ***** is because


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