Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...


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Four Learning Theories

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Behavioral Learning Theory

***** processing theory

Social cognitive theory

Constructivist learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist ***** applies best to teaching for the construction trades

Conclusion

Bibliography

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This paper covers four learning theories and the descrip*****rs which are associated with each. The paper will discuss behavioral learning *****ory (operant conditioning), information processing theory, social ***** *****, and constructivist learning theory. Each section will discuss the *****ory, identify its strengths ***** weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building trades t*****ing environment. After a review of the above *****, the ***** ***** advance the case that constructivist ***** ***** best fits the class and the author's personal teaching style.

***** Learning Theory

Behavioral learning theory originated with the work ***** BF Skinner and Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate ***** theory of operant conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (cognitive behavioral therapy) ***** phobias, to improving learning performance.

***** theory advanced by ***** is ***** one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due to learning from stimuli which occur in the environment. Skinner found that reinforcing responses ***** behavior can result in learning, and a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of behavioral learning theory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear of flying. The first element in behavioral learning is to analyze the rational side ***** the phobia—i.e. why ***** it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed about the lack of control ***** the *****'s fate? When faced ***** the ***** explanation that "planes don't crash," and "you are safer in a plane than ***** an automobile," the ***** realizes on a rati*****al basis ***** the fear of flying is ungrounded in reason.

***** next phase is operant conditioning. In many cases, this takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an airplane (while on the ground) ***** have a pleasant discussi*****. This associates "*****" and "sitting in an airplane," and teaches the ***** that his/her fear is *****. Once the anxiety has *****en averted in ***** step, ***** client may then be asked ***** take a short ***** *****, during the flight, eng*****ge in a pleasant activity (talk*****g, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the flight is met by a pleasant *****. This 'operant conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new paradigm to the client.

***** advantages of operant conditioning for learning are as follows:

1. It is goal-oriented. That is, the client is able to get ***** ***** heart ***** a problem very quickly, and to treat it in a focused manner.

2. It ***** rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therapist can get to the issue with ***** client fairly quickly.

3. It can ***** performed ***** people who may not have good reading or verbal skills, such as children. That is because

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