Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...


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Four Learning Theories

Introduction

Behavioral ***** Theory

***** processing theory

Social cognitive *****

***** learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist theory applies best to teaching for the construction trades

Conclusion

Bibliography

Introduction

This paper covers four learning theories and the descrip*****rs which are associated with each. The paper will discuss behavioral learning theory (operant conditioning), in*****mation processing theory, social ***** theory, and constructivist ***** theory. Each section will discuss the theory, identify its strengths ***** weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building trades t*****ing environment. After a review ***** the above theories, the ***** will advance the case that constructivist learning *****ory best fits the class and the author's personal teaching style.

***** Learning Theory

Behavioral learning theory originated with the work of BF Skinner and Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate the *****ory of operant conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (cognitive behavioral therapy) ***** phobias, to improving learning performance.

The theory advanced by Skinner is that one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due ***** learning from stimuli which occur in the environment. Sk*****ner found that reinforcing responses to ***** can result in learning, and a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of behavioral learning theory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear ***** flying. The first element in behavioral ***** is to analyze the rational side of the phobia—i.e. why ***** it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed ***** the lack of control of the plane's fate? When faced with the ***** explanation ***** "planes don't crash," ***** "you are safer in a plane than in an automobile," the client realizes on a rati*****al basis that the fear of ***** is ungrounded in reason.

The next p*****e is operant conditioning. In many cases, this takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an airplane (while on the ground) and have a pleasant discussion. This associates "*****" and "sitt*****g in an *****," ********** teaches the ***** that his/her fear is *****. Once ***** anxiety has been averted in this step, the client may then be asked ***** take a short flight and, during the flight, engage in a pleasant activity (talking, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the flight is met by a ple*****sant *****. ***** 'operant conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new p*****radigm to the client.

***** advantages of operant conditioning for learning ***** as follows:

*****. It is goal-oriented. That *****, the client is able to get to the heart ***** a problem very quickly, *****nd to treat it in a focused manner.

*****. It ***** rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therapist ***** get to the issue with ***** client fairly quickly.

3. It can be performed ***** people who may not ***** good read*****g or verbal skills, such as children. That is *****cause

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