Essay - Four Learning Theories Introduction Behavioral Learning Theory Information Processing Theory...

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Four Learning Theories


Behavioral Learning Theory

***** processing theory

Social cognitive theory

Constructivist learning theory

Postulate: Constructivist ***** applies best to teaching for the construction trades




This paper covers four learning theories and the descriptors which are associated with each. The paper will discuss behavioral learning theory (operant conditioning), information processing theory, social cognitive *****, and constructivist learning theory. Each section will discuss the *****ory, identify its strengths ***** weaknesses, and give examples of how they are applied.

This author has chosen constructivist theory in a building tr*****des teaching environment. After a review ***** the ********** theories, the author will advance ***** case that constructivist learning ***** best fits the class and ***** author's personal teaching style.

Behavioral Learning Theory

Behavioral learning theory originated with the work of BF Skinner ***** Pavlov, who worked respectively with pigeons and dogs to demonstrate the theory ***** operant conditioning. The "stimulus-response" theory has proven helpful in everything from breaking bad habits (***** behavioral therapy) ***** phobias, to improving ***** performance.

***** theory advanced by Skinner is ***** one learns through changes in behavior. Behavior results due to learning from stimuli which occur in the environment. ***** found that re*****forcing responses to behavior can result in learn*****g, and a change in response (Skinner, 1938).

An example of the application of behavioral learning *****ory is the reduction in flight phobia—the client's fear ***** flying. The first element in behavioral learning ***** to analyze the rational side of the phobia—i.e. why is it that the client fears flying? Is he/she concerned about the plane crashing? Is he/she stressed ***** the lack ***** control of ***** plane's fate? When faced with the ***** explanation ***** "planes don't crash," and "you are safer in a plane than in an automobile," the ***** realizes on a rational basis that the fear ***** ***** is ungrounded ***** reason.

***** next phase is operant *****. In many cases, th***** takes place in steps. A client may be asked to sit in an airplane (while on *****e ground) and have a pleasant discussion. This associates "pleasant" and "sitt*****g in an airpl*****e," and teaches the client ***** his/her fear is ungrounded. Once the anxiety has been averted in this step, the client may *****n be asked to take a short ***** *****, during the flight, engage in a pleasant activity (talk*****g, playing cards, etc.). The stimulus of the flight is met by a ple*****sant *****. This 'operant conditioning' therefore demonstrates a new p*****radigm ***** the client.

The advantages ***** operant conditioning for learning are as follows:

1. It is goal-oriented. That *****, the client is able to get to the heart of a problem very quickly, and to treat it in a focused manner.

*****. It is rapid. Because it focuses on one delimited problem, the therapist ***** get to the issue with the client fairly quickly.

3. It can ***** performed with people who ***** not ***** good reading or verbal skills, such ***** children. ***** is because


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