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Malaysia: Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society

Political Science: Malaysia

The purpose of this paper is to explain the stability in ethnic relations in Malaysia since 1969. Political, economic, and cultural explanations are reviewed, with the most persuasive answer providing the explanation for Malaysia's stability (culture). The author postulates and discourses on how ***** explanations help account for *****day's peaceful ***** in ethnic *****, noting how political and economic influences were very small compared to the cultural ***** ********** for the current status of Malaysia per ***** many his*****rians that have reviewed the country's history and the fight for a common and representative culture. ***** author demonstrates how ***** tensions led to al***** all of the uprisings in ***** throughout history, and how settling these cultural differences and affairs has led to the creation ***** a collaborative nation-state, one interested in promot*****g diversity as do many other nations in today's global and diverse world.

Most researchers focusing on the period before 1969 (where riots broke out in Malaysia) and those after the riots note that cultural tensions ***** often the source of political ***** ***** unrest (Brunnel, 2004). The country's economic ***** has rema*****ed in fact, relatively unchanged dur*****g the last three decades (Brunnel, 2004). ***** cultural landscape has not changed much either, except for the introduction of the Islamic culture as ***** of society's "norms" (Brunnel, *****).

***** (2000) reviews changing ***** relations in Malaysia with regard to *****teractions between "state's policies ***** advance Malay ***** *****minance and reduce ethnic economic inequality" ***** ***** "aspirations and actions of the Chinese community" (p.1). With regard to political ***** state-related issues, Freedman (2000) suggests the question ***** whether ethnic members especially the elite pursue "separatist" or collab*****ative strategies. Hock ***** ***** ***** of ***** rival ethnic groups living in Malaysia are ***** equal to each other or unequal in stature (p. 2) is a core issue rel*****ted to the stability now enjoyed by many people ***** in *****.

Freedman (*****000) and Gomez (2004) note that ***** tensions in early Malaysian his*****ry centered primarily on cultural *****s, which Hock (2000) expands *****. Hock (2000) and Guan (2000) ***** the 1969 ***** revolved around ***** tensions ***** conflicts ended many of the problems ***** Malaysia, largely because many of ***** "rival" ethnic communities living in Malaysia *****d more of a unified front or similar ***** and goals. Although it took riots and ***** destructive ef*****ts to achieve common goals, the people of ***** *****, since that time, worked ***** to promote what ***** (*****) refers to as "amalgamative" strategies (p. 4). O*****rs including Mitchell (2000) ***** Kheng (2002) note ***** a blended state results *****rimarily not from political or economic factors, because ***** had little to do ***** the ethnic ***** Malaysia currently experiences, but instead ***** of collaboration ***** people of different *****ities living in *****. Wong (2001) and Yun (2000) comment that ***** fac*****rs had little to do with ***** ***** cultural upris*****gs, and that political uprisings occurring in Malaysia


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