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Malaysia: Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society

Political Science: Malaysia

***** purpose of this paper is to explain the stability in ethnic relati*****s in Malaysia since 1969. Political, economic, and cultural explanations are reviewed, with the most persuasive answer providing the explanation for Malaysia's stability (culture). The author postulates and discourses on how ***** explanations help account for today's peaceful stability in ethnic relations, noting how political and ***** influences were very small compared to ***** cultural ***** offered for the current status of Malaysia per the many historians that have reviewed ***** country's history and the fight for a common and representative culture. ***** author demonstrates how cultural tensions led to al***** *****l of ***** uprisings in ***** throughout *****, and how settling these cultural differences and affairs has ***** to the creation of a collaborative nation-state, one interested in promoting diversity as do many other nations in today's global and diverse world.

Most researchers focus*****g on the period be*****e ***** (where riots broke out in Malaysia) and those after ***** riots note that cultural tensions were often the source of political and economic unrest (Brunnel, 2004). The country's ***** ***** has remained in fact, relatively unchanged during the last three decades (*****, 2004). The cultural landscape ***** not changed much either, except for the introduction of the Islamic culture as one of society's "norms" (Brunnel, *****).

Hock (2000) reviews changing ***** relations in Malaysia ***** regard to interactions between "state's policies to advance Malay ***** *****minance and reduce ethnic economic inequality" and the "aspirations and actions of the Chinese community" (p.1). With regard to ***** ***** state-related issues, Freedman (2000) suggests the question of whether ***** members especially the elite pursue "separatist" or ***** strategies. Hock suggests ***** ***** of whether rival ethnic groups living in Malaysia are ***** equal to each ***** or unequal in stature (p. 2) is a core issue rel*****ted to the stability now enjoyed by many people living in *****.

***** (2000) and Gomez (2004) note ***** political ***** in early Malaysian his*****ry centered primarily on cultural *****s, which Hock (*****) expands *****. Hock (2000) and Guan (2000) note the 1969 riots revolved around ***** tensions ***** conflicts ended ***** of ***** problems ***** Malaysia, largely because many of the "rival" ethnic communities ***** in Malaysia pursued more of a unified front or simil*****r ***** and goals. Although it took ***** and other destructive efforts to achieve common goals, the people of ***** *****, since that time, worked ***** to promote what Hock (*****) refers to as "amalgamative" strategies (p. 4). O*****rs including Mitchell (2000) ***** Kheng (2002) note that a blended state results primarily not from ***** or economic factors, because ***** had little to do with the ethnic ***** Malaysia currently experiences, but instead because ***** collaboration between people of different ethnicities living in *****. Wong (2001) and Yun (2000) comment ***** ***** fac*****rs ***** little to do with political ***** cultural *****, and that ***** uprisings occurring in Malaysia


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