Essay - Malaysia Art Malaysia: Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society Political Science:...

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Malaysia: Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society

Political Science: Malaysia

***** purpose of this paper is to explain the stability in ethnic relati*****s in Malaysia since 1969. Political, economic, and cultural explanations are reviewed, with the most persuasive answer providing the explanation for Malaysia's stability (culture). The author postulates and discourses on how ***** explanations help account ***** today's peaceful stability in ethnic relations, noting ***** political and economic influences were very small comp*****d to the cultural explanations offered for the current status of Malaysia per the many his*****rians that have reviewed the country's history and ***** fight for a common and representative culture. The author demonstrates how cultural tensions led to al***** all of the uprisings in Malaysia throughout history, and how settling these cultural differences and affairs has ***** to the creation ***** a collaborative nation-state, one interested in promot*****g diversity as do many o*****r nations in today's global and diverse w*****ld.

Most researchers focus*****g on the period before 1969 (where riots broke out in *****) and those after the riots note that cultural tensions ***** often the source of political ***** ***** unrest (Brunnel, 2004). The country's economic ***** has rema*****ed in fact, relatively unchanged during the last three decades (Brunnel, 2004). ***** cultural landscape ***** not changed much either, except for the introduction of the Islamic culture as ***** of society's "norms" (Brunnel, *****).

Hock (2000) reviews changing ethnic relations in Malaysia with regard to interactions between "state's policies ***** advance Malay ***** *****minance and reduce ***** ***** inequality" and the "aspirations and actions of ***** Chinese community" (p.1). With regard to ***** ***** state-related issues, Freedman (2000) suggests the question ***** whether ethnic members especially the elite pursue "separatist" or ***** strategies. Hock suggests ***** ***** of ***** rival ethnic groups living in Malaysia are relatively equal to each other ***** unequal in stature (p. 2) is a core issue related ***** the stability now enjoyed by many people living in Malaysia.

***** (*****000) and Gomez (2004) note ***** political tensions in early Malaysian ***** centered primarily on cultural **********, which Hock (2000) expands on. Hock (2000) and Guan (2000) ***** the 1969 ***** revolved around ***** tensions and conflicts ended ***** of the problems in Malaysia, largely because many of the "rival" ethnic communities liv*****g in Malaysia *****d more of a unified front or simil*****r ***** and goals. Although it took riots ***** ***** destructive ef*****ts to achieve common goals, the people of ***** have, since that time, worked largely to promote what ***** (*****) refers to as "amalgamative" strategies (p. 4). O*****rs including Mitchell (2000) and Kheng (2002) note ***** a blended state results *****rimarily not from political or economic factors, because ***** had little to do ***** the ethnic stability Malaysia currently experiences, but instead because of collaboration ***** people of different ********** living in Malaysia. Wong (2001) and Yun (2000) comment that economic factors ***** little to do with ***** ***** cultural upris*****gs, and ***** political uprisings occurring in Malaysia


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