Essay - Malaysia Art Malaysia: Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society Political Science:...


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Malaysia

*****

Malaysia: Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society

Political Science: Malaysia

The purpose of this paper is to explain the stability in ethnic relations ***** Malaysia since 1969. Political, economic, and cultural explanations are reviewed, with the most persuasive answer providing the explanation for *****'s stability (culture). The author postulates and discourses on how ***** explanations help account for today's peaceful ***** in ethnic *****, noting how political and ***** influences were very small comp*****d to the cultural explanations offered for the current status of Malaysia per the many his*****rians that have reviewed the country's history and ***** fight for a common and representative culture. ***** author demonstrates how cultural tensions led to almost all of the uprisings in Malaysia throughout *****, and how settling these ***** differences and affairs has led to the creation of a collaborative nation-state, one interested in promot*****g diversity as do many o*****r nations in ***** global and diverse w*****ld.

Most researchers focus*****g on the period be*****e ***** (where riots broke out in Malaysia) and those after the riots note that cultural tensions were often the source of ***** ***** economic unrest (Brunnel, 2004). The country's economic status has rema*****ed in fact, relatively unchanged during the last three decades (Brunnel, 2004). The cultural landscape has not changed much either, except for the introduction of the Islamic culture as ***** of society's "norms" (Brunnel, 2004).

Hock (2000) reviews changing ***** relations in Malaysia ***** regard to *****teractions between "state's policies ***** advance Malay ***** dominance and reduce ethnic ***** inequality" and ***** "aspirations and actions of the Chinese community" (p.1). With regard to political and state-related issues, Freedman (2000) suggests the question of whether ethnic members especially the elite pursue "separatist" or ***** strategies. Hock suggests the question of whether rival ethnic groups living in Malaysia are relatively equal to each other or unequal in stature (p. 2) is a core issue related ***** the stability now enjoyed by many people ***** in *****.

***** (2000) and Gomez (2004) note ***** ***** ***** in early Malaysian history centered primarily on ***** *****s, which Hock (*****) expands *****. Hock (2000) and Guan (2000) ***** the 1969 riots revolved around ethnic tensions ***** conflicts ended many of the problems in Malaysia, largely because many of the "rival" ethnic communities liv*****g in Malaysia pursued more of a unified front or simil*****r ***** and goals. Although it took ***** and other destructive ef*****ts to achieve common goals, the people of Malaysia *****, since that time, worked ***** ***** promote what Hock (*****) refers to as "amalgamative" strategies (p. 4). O*****rs including Mitchell (2000) and Kheng (2002) note that a blended state results primarily not from political or economic fac*****rs, because these had little to do with the ***** stability Malaysia currently experiences, but instead ***** ***** collaboration ***** people of different ethnicities living in Malaysia. Wong (2001) ***** Yun (2000) comment that ***** factors ***** little to do ***** political and cultural *****, and that political upris*****gs occurring in Malaysia

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