Essay - Malaysia Art Malaysia: Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society Political Science:...


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Malaysia

*****

Malaysia: Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society

Political Science: Malaysia

***** purpose of this paper is to explain the stability in ethnic relati*****s in Malaysia since 1969. Political, economic, and cultural explanations are reviewed, with ***** most persuasive answer providing the explanation for Malaysia's stability (culture). The author postulates and discourses on how cultural explanations help account for today's peaceful stability in ethnic relations, noting how political and ***** influences were very small comp*****d to the cultural ***** offered for the current status of Malaysia per ***** many his*****rians that have reviewed the country's history and ***** fight for a common and representative culture. ***** author demonstrates how cultural tensions led to almost all of the uprisings in Malaysia throughout history, and how settling these cultural differences and affairs has led to the creation of a collaborative nation-state, one interested in promot*****g diversity as do many other nations in today's global and diverse world.

***** researchers focus*****g on the period before ***** (where riots broke out in *****) and those after the riots note that cultural tensions were ********** the source of ***** and economic unrest (Brunnel, 2004). The country's ***** ***** has rema*****ed in fact, relatively unchanged dur*****g the last three decades (Brunnel, 2004). ***** cultural landscape has not changed much either, except for the introduction of the Islamic culture as one of society's "norms" (Brunnel, 2004).

Hock (2000) reviews changing ethnic relations in Malaysia with regard to *****teractions between "state's policies ***** advance Malay culture dominance and reduce ***** economic inequality" ***** ***** "aspirations and actions of the Chinese community" (p.1). With regard to political ***** state-related issues, Freedman (2000) suggests the question ***** whether ethnic members especially the elite pursue "separatist" or ***** strategies. Hock ***** the question of ***** rival ethnic groups living in Malaysia are ***** equal to each ***** ***** unequal in stature (p. 2) is a core issue related ***** the ***** now enjoyed by many people living in *****.

***** (**********) and Gomez (2004) note that political tensions in early Malaysian history centered primarily on ***** issues, which Hock (2000) expands *****. ***** (2000) and Guan (2000) ***** the 1969 ***** revolved around ***** tensions and conflicts ended ***** of the problems in Malaysia, largely because many of the "rival" ethnic communities ***** in Malaysia pursued more of a unified front or similar strategies and goals. Although it took riots and other destructive efforts to achieve common goals, the people of Malaysia have, since that time, worked largely to promote what Hock (*****) refers ***** as "amalgamative" strategies (p. 4). O*****rs including Mitchell (2000) and Kheng (2002) note that a blended state results *****rimarily not from political or economic factors, because ***** had little to do with the ethnic stability Malaysia currently experiences, but instead ***** ***** collaboration ***** people of different *****ities living in Malaysia. Wong (2001) and Yun (2000) comment that ***** factors had little to do with political ***** cultural uprisings, and that ***** uprisings occurring in Malaysia

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