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Malaysia: Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society

Political Science: Malaysia

The purpose of this paper is to explain the stability in ethnic relations in Malaysia since 1969. Political, economic, and cultural explanations are reviewed, with the most persuasive answer providing the explanation for *****'s stability (culture). The author postulates and discourses on how cultural explanations help account ***** *****day's peaceful ***** in ethnic *****, noting how political and ***** influences were very small comp*****d to ***** cultural explanations offered for the current status of Malaysia per ***** many his*****rians that have reviewed the country's history and the fight for a common and representative culture. ***** author demonstrates how cultural tensions led to al***** *****l of the uprisings in ***** throughout history, and how settling these cultural differences and affairs has led to the creation of a collaborative nation-state, one interested in promot*****g diversity as do many other nations in today's global and diverse world.

Most researchers focusing on the period before 1969 (where riots broke out in Malaysia) and those after the riots note that cultural tensions were often the source of ***** and economic unrest (Brunnel, 2004). The country's ***** status has remained in fact, relatively unchanged dur*****g the last three decades (*****, 2004). The cultural landscape ***** not changed much either, except for the introduction of the Islamic culture as one of society's "norms" (Brunnel, *****).

***** (2000) reviews changing ***** relations in Malaysia ***** regard to *****teractions between "state's policies ***** advance Malay ***** *****minance and reduce ethnic economic inequality" and the "aspirations and actions of ***** Chinese community" (p.1). With regard to political and state-related issues, Freedman (2000) suggests the question ***** whether ***** members especially the elite pursue "separatist" or ***** strategies. Hock ***** ***** question of whether rival ethnic groups living in Malaysia are relatively equal to each ***** or unequal in stature (p. 2) is a core issue rel*****ted ***** the stability now enjoyed by many people ***** in *****.

***** (*****000) and Gomez (2004) note ***** political ***** in early Malaysian ***** centered primarily on cultural issues, which Hock (2000) expands on. Hock (2000) and Guan (2000) note the 1969 ***** revolved around ***** tensions and conflicts ended many of the problems in Malaysia, largely because ***** of ***** "rival" ethnic communities liv*****g in Malaysia pursued more of a unified front or similar ***** and goals. Although it took riots and other destructive efforts to achieve common goals, the people of Malaysia have, since that time, worked largely to promote what ***** (2000) refers to as "amalgamative" strategies (p. 4). Others including Mitchell (2000) and Kheng (2002) note ***** a blended state results *****rimarily not from ***** or economic fac*****rs, because ***** had little to do with the ethnic ***** Malaysia currently experiences, but instead ***** ***** collaboration between people of different ********** living in Malaysia. Wong (2001) ***** Yun (2000) comment that economic factors had little to do with political and cultural uprisings, and that political uprisings occurring in Malaysia


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