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Malaysia: Cultural Influences on Ethnic Society

Political Science: Malaysia

The purpose of this paper is to explain the stability in ethnic relati*****s in Malaysia since 1969. Political, economic, and cultural explanations are reviewed, with the most persuasive answer providing the explanation for *****'s stability (culture). The author postulates and discourses on how ***** explanations help account for *****day's peaceful stability in ethnic relations, noting how political and economic influences were very small compared to ***** cultural explanations *****fered for the current status of Malaysia per ***** many historians that have reviewed the country's history and ***** fight for a common and representative culture. The author demonstrates how cultural tensions led to almost all of the uprisings in Malaysia throughout history, and how settling these cultural differences and affairs has led to the creation of a collaborative nation-state, one interested in promot*****g diversity as do many other nations in today's global and diverse world.

Most researchers focusing on the period be*****e ***** (where riots broke out in *****) and those after ***** riots note that cultural tensions were ********** the source of political and ***** unrest (Brunnel, 2004). ***** country's economic ***** has remained in fact, relatively unchanged dur*****g the last three decades (Brunnel, 2004). The cultural landscape has not changed much either, except for the introduction of the Islamic culture as ***** of society's "norms" (Brunnel, *****).

***** (2000) reviews changing ethnic relations in Malaysia ***** regard to *****teractions between "state's policies to advance Malay ***** *****minance and reduce ethnic ***** inequality" ***** the "aspirations and actions of ***** Chinese community" (p.1). With regard to political ***** state-related issues, Freedman (2000) suggests the question ***** whether ethnic members especially the elite pursue "separatist" or ***** strategies. Hock suggests the ***** of whether rival ethnic groups living in Malaysia are ***** equal to each other ***** unequal in stature (p. 2) is a core issue rel*****ted ***** the stability now enjoyed by many people ***** in Malaysia.

Freedman (2000) and Gomez (2004) note that ***** tensions in early Malaysian history centered primarily on ***** **********, which Hock (2000) expands on. Hock (2000) and Guan (2000) ***** the 1969 ***** revolved around ethnic tensions ***** conflicts ended ***** of ***** problems ***** Malaysia, largely because many of the "rival" ethnic communities living in Malaysia *****d more of a unified front or similar strategies and goals. Although it took riots ***** other destructive ef*****ts to achieve common goals, the people of ***** have, since that time, worked ***** to promote what Hock (2000) refers ***** as "amalgamative" strategies (p. 4). Others including Mitchell (2000) and Kheng (2002) note that a blended state results primarily not from political or economic factors, because these had little to do with the ethnic stability Malaysia currently experiences, but instead because of collaboration ***** people of different ethnicities ***** in Malaysia. Wong (2001) and Yun (2000) comment ***** economic factors had little to do with political and cultural uprisings, and that political uprisings occurring in Malaysia


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