Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?


*****? WHY? HOW?


***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This ***** will explore the historical perspective, the effects on education, the supporting *****ories, and what research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits of using algebra tiles.


***** of ***** hottest topics among mathematics educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas ***** *****struction of mathematics ***** are so helpful with the special needs ***** students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even ***** are gaining new respect in today's challenging and increasingly diverse classroom.


***** manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects ***** one ***** able to manipulative that assists the individual in completion of math operations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, division, and ********** on to more complicated operations such ***** Algebra. One of the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is used in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and his*****rically were ***** by merchants for calculation purposes. The abacus preceded the inventions of ***** used for ***** and continually evolved in its appearance s*****ce ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in ***** figure below labeled Figure 1 and ***** the copy ***** a cover of a manual that Lee Kai-chen published in ********** and ***** 4 decks *****in its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both division and multiplication using this modified version ***** the abacus ***** that squ***** roots of numbers and cubic roots of numbers are much easier determined ***** this board.

Modified Version of Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** also include objects ***** as calculators, the slide-rule and compasses ***** in the Geometrical mathematics.

*****. 'WHY' USE ***** MANIPULATIVE?

***** work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...***** of Ameri*****s loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through ***** twelfth grade in school they ***** "...doing po*****er in mathematics as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner ***** Qu*****n, *****) For this reason, it is critical that ***** mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in mathematics **********. This is most particularly so in ***** highly technological society for practical ***** and to develop more positive dispositions toward mathematics learn*****g. It is documented in the ***** of Bush, Lamb and Alsina, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (1985); ***** Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior ***** profoundly or subtly affected by teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (***** and Quinn, 1998)

Thompson (1984) states findings that the opinions ***** belief of the teacher impact their instructional practice and may be because ***** learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and again emphasizes the need for *****s to reform education in promoting mathematics instruction


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