Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?


*****? WHY? HOW?


***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This work will explore the his*****rical perspective, the effects on education, the supporting **********, and what research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this ***** will research the special benefits ***** using algebra tiles.


***** of ***** hottest topics among ***** educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas ***** instruction of mathematics ***** are so helpful with the special needs ***** students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even use are ga*****ing new respect in today's challenging and increasingly diverse classroom.


Math manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects that one is able to manipulative ***** ass*****ts the individual in completion of math operations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, division, ***** ********** on to more complicated operations such ***** Algebra. One ***** the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is ********** in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and historically were used by merchants for calculation purposes. The abacus preceded the inventions of ***** used for counting and continually evolved in its appearance s*****ce ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in the figure below labeled Figure 1 and ***** the copy of a cover of ***** manual that Lee Kai-chen published in *****958 and ***** 4 decks within its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both division and multiplication ***** this modified version ***** the abacus and ***** square roots of numbers and cubic roots of numbers are much easier determined using this board.

Modified Version ***** Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** al***** include objects such as calculators, the slide-rule and compasses used in the Geometrical mathematics.


***** work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...***** of Americans loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through the twelfth grade in school they are "...doing po*****er in ***** as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner and Quinn, 2001) For this re*****on, it is critical that ***** mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in mathematics instruction. This is most particularly so in ***** highly technological society for practical ***** and to develop more positive d*****positions toward mathematics learn*****g. It is documented in the work of Bush, Lamb ***** Als*****a, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (*****); and Thompson (1984) ***** "teaching behavior is profoundly or subtly affected by teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (***** and *****, 1998)

***** (1984) states findings that the opinions and belief of the teacher impact their *****al practice and may be because ***** learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and ***** emphasizes the need for teachers to reform education in promoting mathematics instruction


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