# Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

manipulatives: what? Why? How?

MANIPULATIVES

WHAT? WHY? HOW?

OBJECTIVE

***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This ***** will explore the his*****rical perspective, the effects on educati*****, ***** supporting theories, and ***** research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits ***** using algebra tiles.

INTRODUCTION

One of ***** hottest topics among ***** educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas of instruction ***** mathematics ***** are so helpful with the special needs of students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even ***** are gaining new respect in today's challenging ***** increasingly diverse classroom.

WHAT ARE MATH MANIPULATIVES?

***** manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects ***** one ***** able to manipulative that assists the individual in completion of math operations such as add*****g, subtracting, multiplying, division, and ********** on to more complicated ***** such ***** Algebra. One ***** the first manipulatives utilized in the ma*****matics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is used in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and his*****rically were used by merchants for calculation purposes. The abacus preceded the inventions of numbers used for ***** ***** continually evolved in its appearance s*****ce ancient civilization. The ***** is pictured in ***** figure below labeled Figure 1 and is the copy of a cover of ***** manual that Lee Kai-chen published ***** 1958 and has 4 decks *****in its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both div*****ion and multiplication ***** this modified version ***** the abacus and that square roots of numbers and cubic ***** of ***** are much easier determined using this board.

Modified Version ***** Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** al***** include objects such as calcula*****rs, the slide-rule and compasses ***** in the Geometrical mathematics.

*****. 'WHY' USE MATH MANIPULATIVE?

The work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...***** of Ameri*****s loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through ***** twelfth grade in school they ***** "...do*****g poorer in mathematics as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner and Qu*****n, *****) For this reason, it is critical ***** the mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in mathematics instruction. Th***** is most particularly so in today's highly technological society for practical ***** and to develop more positive dispositions toward mathematics learn*****g. It is documented in the ***** of Bush, Lamb and Als*****a, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (*****)***** ***** Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior is profoundly or subtly affected ***** teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 1998)

Thompson (1984) states findings that the opinions ***** belief of ***** teacher impact their instructional practice and may be because of learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and ***** emp*****izes the need for *****s to re*****m education in promoting mathematics instruction

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