Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?




The objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This work will explore the historical perspective, the effects on education, the supporting *****ories, and ***** research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this ***** will research the special benefits of using algebra tiles.


One of the hottest topics among ***** educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas ***** instruction of mathematics ***** are so helpful with the special needs of students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even use are gaining new respect in today's challenging ***** increasingly diverse classroom.


Math manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects ***** one is able to manipulative that ass*****ts the individual in completion ***** math operations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, division, and *****n on to more complicated operations such as Algebra. One of the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is ********** in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and *****ly were used by merchants for calculation purposes. The abacus preceded the inventions ***** ***** used for ***** ***** continually evolved in its appearance since ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in ***** figure below labeled Figure 1 and is the copy of a cover of ***** manual that Lee Kai-chen publ*****hed in 1958 and has 4 decks within its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both div*****ion and multiplication ***** this modified version of the abacus and that square roots of numbers and cubic ***** of numbers are much easier determined using this board.

Modified Version of Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** also include objects ***** as calcula*****rs, the slide-rule and compasses used in the Geometrical mathematics.


***** work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...two-thirds of Ameri*****s loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through ***** twelfth grade in school they ***** "...***** poorer in ***** as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) For this re*****on, it is critical ***** ***** mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base ***** draw upon in mathematics **********. This is most particularly so in today's highly technological society for practical purposes and to develop more positive dispositions toward mathematics learning. It is documented in the work of Bush, Lamb ***** Alsina, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (*****); and Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior ***** profoundly or subtly affected ***** teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 1998)

***** (1984) states findings that the opinions ***** belief of the teacher impact their instructional practice and may be because of learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and ***** emphasizes the need for *****s to re*****m education in promoting mathematics instruction


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