Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?


*****? WHY? HOW?


The objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This ***** will explore the his*****rical perspective, the effects on educati*****, ***** supporting theories, and what research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits ***** using algebra tiles.


***** of the hottest topics among ***** educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas ***** instruction of mathematics ***** are so helpful with the special needs of students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even use are ga*****ing new respect in today's challenging and increasingly diverse classroom.


***** manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects that one ***** able to manipulative that assists the individual in completion ***** math operations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, division, ***** then on to more complicated ***** such as Algebra. One of the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is *****d in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and his*****rically were used by merchants for calculation purposes. The ***** preceded the inventions ***** ***** used for counting ***** continually evolved in its appearance s*****ce ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in the figure below labeled Figure 1 and ***** the copy of a cover of a manual ***** Lee Kai-chen published ***** 1958 and has 4 decks *****in its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both ***** and multiplication using this modified version ***** the abacus ***** that squ***** roots of numbers and cubic roots of numbers are much easier determined using this board.

Modified Version ***** Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** al***** include objects ***** as calculators, the slide-rule and compasses used in the Geometrical mathematics.

*****. 'WHY' USE ***** MANIPULATIVE?

***** work of Burns (1998) documents the fact *****: "...two-thirds of Americans loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through the twelfth grade in school they ***** "*****g poorer in ***** as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner and Quinn, 2001) For this re*****on, it is critical ***** the mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in ***** instruction. This is most particularly so in today's highly technological society for practical purposes and to develop more positive d*****positions toward mathematics learn*****g. It is documented in the work of Bush, Lamb and Als*****a, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (*****); ***** Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior ***** profoundly or subtly affected by teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 1998)

Thompson (1984) states findings that the opinions and belief of the teacher impact their *****al practice ***** may be because ***** learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and ***** emp*****izes the need for teachers to re*****m education in promoting ***** instruction


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