Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?


*****? WHY? HOW?


***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This work will explore the his*****rical perspective, the effects on educati*****, ***** supporting theories, and ***** research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits of using algebra tiles.


One of ***** hottest topics among mathematics educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas of *****struction of mathematics and are so helpful with the special needs ***** students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory ***** even use are gaining new respect in today's challenging and increasingly diverse classroom.


Math manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects that one ***** able to manipulative that assists the individual in completion of math operations such as add*****g, subtracting, multiplying, division, ***** ********** on to more complicated ***** such ***** Algebra. One ***** the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is ********** in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and historically were used by merchants for calculation purposes. The ***** preceded the inventions of ***** used ***** ***** and continually evolved in its appearance s*****ce ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in the figure below labeled Figure 1 and is the copy ***** a cover of a manual that Lee Kai-chen publ*****hed ***** ********** and has 4 decks within its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both ***** and multiplication using this modified version ***** the abacus and that square roots of numbers and cubic ***** of numbers are much easier determined ***** this board.

Modified Version of Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

Manipulatives also include objects such as calculators, the slide-rule and compasses ***** in the Geometrical mathematics.


The work of Burns (1998) documents the fact *****: "...***** of Americans loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through ***** twelfth grade in school they are "*****g poorer in mathematics as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner and Qu*****n, *****) For this reason, it is critical that ***** mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in ***** instruction. Th***** is most particularly so in ***** highly technological society for practical purposes and to develop more positive dispositions toward mathematics learning. It is documented in the work of Bush, Lamb ***** Als*****a, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (1985); and Thompson (1984) ***** "teaching behavior ***** profoundly or subtly affected by teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 1998)

***** (1984) states findings that the opinions and belief of the teacher impact their instructional practice ***** may be because ***** learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and ***** emphasizes the need for teachers to re*****m education in promoting ma*****matics instruction


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