Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?


*****? WHY? HOW?


***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This work will explore the his*****rical perspective, the effects on educati*****, the supporting theories, and ***** research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits of using algebra tiles.


One of the hottest topics among ***** educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas of instruction ***** ma*****matics ***** are so helpful with the special needs of students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even ***** are ga*****ing new respect in today's challenging ***** increasingly diverse classroom.


Math manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects that one ***** able to manipulative ***** assists the individual in completion of math operations such as add*****g, subtracting, multiplying, division, and *****n on to more complicated ***** such as Algebra. One of the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is used in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and historically were used by merchants for calculation purposes. The ***** preceded the inventions of numbers used ***** counting and continually evolved in its appearance since ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in ***** figure below labeled Figure 1 and is the copy of a cover of ***** manual that Lee Kai-chen published ***** *****958 and ***** 4 decks *****in its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both div*****ion and multiplication using ***** modified version of the abacus ***** that square roots ***** numbers and cubic ***** of ***** are much easier determined ***** this board.

Modified Version of Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

Manipulatives also include objects ***** as calcula*****rs, the slide-rule and compasses ***** in the Geometrical mathematics.


The work of Burns (1998) documents the fact *****: "...***** of Americans loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through ***** twelfth grade in school they are "*****g po*****er in mathematics as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) For this reason, it is critical ***** the mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in ***** instruction. This is most particularly so in today's highly technological society for practical ***** and to develop more positive dispositions toward mathematics learn*****g. It is documented in the work of Bush, Lamb and Als*****a, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (1985); ***** Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior is profoundly or subtly affected by teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 1998)

Thompson (1984) states findings that the opinions and belief of ***** teacher impact their instructional practice and may be because ***** learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and again emphasizes the need for teachers to re*****m education in promoting ma*****matics instruction


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