Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?




***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This ***** will explore the his*****rical perspective, the effects on education, the supporting **********, and ***** research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits of using algebra tiles.


***** of ***** hottest topics among ***** educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas of instruction ***** mathematics and are so helpful with the special needs of students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even use are ga*****ing new respect in today's challenging ***** increasingly diverse classroom.


***** manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects ***** one is able to manipulative that assists the individual in completion ***** math operations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, division, and then on to more complicated ***** such as Algebra. One of the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is used in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and his*****rically were ***** by merchants for calculation purposes. The ***** preceded the inventions of ***** used ***** ***** ***** continually evolved in its appearance s*****ce ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in ***** figure below labeled Figure 1 and ***** the copy of a cover of a manual that Lee Kai-chen published ***** 1958 and has 4 decks within its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both ***** and multiplication ***** ***** modified version ***** the abacus and that square roots of numbers and cubic ***** of numbers are much easier determined using th***** board.

Modified Version ***** Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** al***** include objects ***** as calcula*****rs, the slide-rule and compasses ***** in the Geometrical mathematics.


The work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...***** of Ameri*****s loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through the twelfth grade in school they ***** "...***** poorer in ***** as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner ***** Qu*****n, 2001) For this reason, it is critical ***** ***** mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in ***** instruction. Th***** is most particularly so in ***** highly technological society for practical ***** and to develop more positive d*****positions toward mathematics learning. It is documented in the work of Bush, Lamb ***** Als*****a, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (*****); and Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior ***** profoundly or subtly affected by teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 1998)

***** (1984) states findings ***** the opinions and belief of the teacher impact their *****al practice and may be because of learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and again emp*****izes the need for *****s to reform education in promoting ma*****matics instruction


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