# Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

manipulatives: what? Why? How?

MANIPULATIVES

WHAT? WHY? HOW?

OBJECTIVE

***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This ***** will explore the his*****rical perspective, the effects on educati*****, the supporting *****ories, and what research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits ***** using algebra tiles.

INTRODUCTION

***** of ***** hottest topics among ***** educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas ***** instruction of mathematics and are so helpful with the special needs ***** students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even ***** are ga*****ing new respect in today's challenging and increasingly diverse classroom.

***** ARE MATH MANIPULATIVES?

Math manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects ***** one ***** able to manipulative that assists the individual in completion of math operations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, division, and ********** on to more complicated operations such ***** Algebra. One ***** the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is used in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and historically were ***** by merchants for calculation purposes. The abacus preceded the inventions of ***** used ***** ***** and continually evolved in its appearance since ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in ***** figure below labeled Figure 1 and ***** the copy of a cover of ***** manual that Lee Kai-chen published in *****958 and has 4 decks within its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both ***** and multiplication using ***** modified version ***** the abacus and that squ***** roots of numbers and cubic ***** of ***** are much easier determined using this board.

Modified Version of Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** al***** include objects such as calculators, the slide-rule and compasses ***** in the Geometrical mathematics.

*****. 'WHY' USE ***** MANIPULATIVE?

The work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...***** of Americans loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through ***** twelfth grade in school they are "...do*****g po*****er in ***** as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner ***** Qu*****n, 2001) For this re*****on, it is critical that the mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in ***** *****struction. Th***** is most particularly so in today's highly technological society for practical ***** and to develop more positive dispositions toward mathematics learn*****g. It is documented in the ***** of Bush, Lamb and Alsina, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (1985); ***** Thompson (1984) ***** "teaching behavior is profoundly or subtly affected by teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (***** and Quinn, 1998)

Thompson (1984) states findings that the opinions and belief of the teacher impact their instructional practice and may be because ***** learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and again emphasizes the need for *****s to re*****m education in promoting ma*****matics instruction

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