Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?




***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This ***** will explore the historical perspective, the effects on education, the supporting *****ories, and ***** research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits ***** using algebra tiles.


***** of ***** hottest topics among mathematics educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas ***** instruction of ***** and are so helpful with the special needs ***** students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even ***** are gaining new respect in today's challenging and increasingly diverse classroom.


***** manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects ***** one is able to manipulative that ass*****ts the individual in completion of math operations such as add*****g, subtracting, multiplying, division, and ********** on ***** more complicated operations such ***** Algebra. One ***** the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is used in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and historically were used by merchants for calculation purposes. The abacus preceded the inventions of ***** used ***** ***** ***** continually evolved in its appearance since ancient civilization. The ***** is pictured in the figure below labeled Figure 1 and ***** the copy ***** a cover of ***** manual that Lee Kai-chen published in 1958 and has 4 decks *****in its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both ***** and multiplication ***** ***** modified version ***** the abacus and ***** squ***** roots of numbers and cubic roots of ***** are much easier determined using this board.

Modified Version ***** Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** al***** include objects such as calcula*****rs, the slide-rule and compasses used in the Geometrical mathematics.

*****. 'WHY' USE ***** MANIPULATIVE?

***** work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...***** of Americans loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through the twelfth grade in school they ***** "...doing po*****er in ***** as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner ***** Qu*****n, 2001) For this re*****on, it is critical ***** ***** mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in ***** instruction. This is most particularly so in today's highly technological society for practical purposes and to develop more positive d*****positions toward mathematics learn*****g. It is documented in the work of Bush, Lamb ***** Als*****a, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (*****); and Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior ***** profoundly or subtly affected ***** teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (***** and Quinn, 1998)

Thompson (1984) states findings that the opinions and belief of the teacher impact their *****al practice and may be because of learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and again emp*****izes the need for *****s to re*****m education in promoting ***** instruction


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