Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?


*****? WHY? HOW?


***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This ***** will explore the his*****rical perspective, the effects on educati*****, ***** supporting theories, and what research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits of using algebra tiles.


One of the hottest topics among ma*****matics educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas of *****struction of mathematics and are so helpful with the special needs ***** students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory ***** even ***** are ga*****ing new respect in today's challenging and increasingly diverse classroom.


Math manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects that one is able to manipulative that ass*****ts the individual in completion of math operations such as add*****g, subtracting, multiplying, division, and then on ***** more complicated ***** such ***** Algebra. One ***** the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is used in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and historically were used by merchants for calculation purposes. The ***** preceded the inventions of ***** used ***** ***** and continually evolved in its appearance s*****ce ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in the figure below labeled Figure 1 and is the copy ***** a cover of ***** manual ***** Lee Kai-chen published in 1958 and ***** 4 decks within its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both division and multiplication using ***** modified version of the abacus ***** ***** square roots ***** numbers and cubic ***** of ***** are much easier determined ***** this board.

Modified Version ***** Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** al***** include objects such as calculators, the slide-rule and compasses ***** in the Geometrical mathematics.


***** work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...two-thirds of Americans loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through ***** twelfth grade in school they are "...***** po*****er in ***** as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner and Quinn, 2001) For this re*****on, it is critical ***** the mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in mathematics *****struction. This is most particularly so in ***** highly technological society for practical ***** and to develop more positive dispositions toward mathematics learning. It is documented in the work of Bush, Lamb ***** Alsina, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (1985); and Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior is profoundly or subtly affected ***** teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (Furner and *****, 1998)

***** (1984) states findings ***** the opinions ***** belief of ***** teacher impact their instructional practice and may be because ***** ***** teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and again emphasizes the need for *****s to reform education in promoting ***** instruction


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