Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?


*****? WHY? HOW?


***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This ***** will explore the his*****rical perspective, the effects on education, ***** supporting theories, and what research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits of using algebra tiles.


***** of ***** hottest topics among mathematics educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas ***** instruction of mathematics and are so helpful with the special needs of students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory ***** even use are ga*****ing new respect in today's challenging and increasingly diverse classroom.


Math manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects that one is able to manipulative that ass*****ts the individual in completion of math operations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, division, ***** ********** on ***** more complicated ***** such ***** Algebra. One of the first manipulatives utilized in the ma*****matics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is used in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and historically were ***** by merchants for calculation purposes. The ***** preceded the inventions of ***** used ***** counting ***** continually evolved in its appearance since ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in ***** figure below labeled Figure 1 and ***** the copy of a cover of ***** manual ***** Lee Kai-chen published in 1958 and has 4 decks within its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both division and multiplication using ***** modified version of the abacus and ***** square roots ***** numbers and cubic ***** of ***** are much easier determined using this board.

Modified Version ***** Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** also include objects ***** as calcula*****rs, the slide-rule and compasses used in the Geometrical mathematics.

*****. 'WHY' USE ***** MANIPULATIVE?

***** work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...***** of Ameri*****s loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through the twelfth grade in school they ***** "*****g poorer in ***** as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner ***** Quinn, *****) For this reason, it is critical that the mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base ***** draw upon in mathematics instruction. Th***** is most particularly so in today's highly technological society for practical purposes and to develop more positive d*****positions toward mathematics learn*****g. It is documented in the ***** of Bush, Lamb and Alsina, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (1985); and Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior is profoundly or subtly affected by teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (Furner and Quinn, 1998)

***** (1984) states findings ***** the opinions and belief of ***** teacher impact their *****al practice and may be because of learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and again emphasizes the need for teachers to re*****m education in promoting ***** instruction


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