# Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

manipulatives: what? Why? How?

MANIPULATIVES

*****? WHY? HOW?

OBJECTIVE

***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This work will explore the historical perspective, the effects on educati*****, ***** supporting theories, and ***** research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this ***** will research the special benefits of using algebra tiles.

INTRODUCTION

One of ***** hottest topics among ***** educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas of *****struction ***** mathematics and are so helpful with the special needs of students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even ***** are ga*****ing new respect in today's challenging and increasingly diverse classroom.

***** ARE MATH MANIPULATIVES?

Math manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects that one ***** able to manipulative that assists the individual in completion ***** math operations such as add*****g, subtracting, multiplying, division, and then on to more complicated operations such ***** Algebra. One of the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is used in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and historically were ***** by merchants for calculation purposes. The ***** preceded the inventions ***** numbers used for counting ***** continually evolved in its appearance since ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in the figure below labeled Figure 1 and is the copy of a cover of a manual that Lee Kai-chen publ*****hed in *****958 and has 4 decks within its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both div*****ion and multiplication ***** this modified version ***** the abacus ***** ***** square roots of numbers and cubic roots of ***** are much easier determined using this board.

Modified Version of Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** al***** include objects such as calculators, the slide-rule and compasses ***** in the Geometrical mathematics.

*****. 'WHY' USE ***** MANIPULATIVE?

The work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...two-thirds of Ameri*****s loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through the twelfth grade in school they ***** "...doing po*****er in mathematics as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner and Quinn, *****) For this re*****on, it is critical ***** ***** mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base to draw upon in mathematics instruction. Th***** is most particularly so in ***** highly technological society for practical purposes and to develop more positive dispositions toward mathematics learning. It is documented in the work of Bush, Lamb ***** Als*****a, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (1985); and Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior ***** profoundly or subtly affected ***** teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (Furner and *****, 1998)

Thompson (1984) states findings ***** the opinions and belief of ***** teacher impact their *****al practice ***** may be because ***** learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and again emp*****izes the need for teachers to reform education in promoting mathematics instruction

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