Essay - Manipulatives: What? Why? How? Manipulatives What? Why? How? Objective the...

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manipulatives: what? Why? How?




***** objective of this work is to research hands-on manipulatives use in mathematics. This ***** will explore the historical perspective, the effects on educati*****, ***** supporting theories, and what research has been thus far conducted. Finally, this work will research the special benefits of using algebra tiles.


***** of ***** hottest topics among ***** educators and researchers is that of 'manipulatives'. Manipulatives serve in so many areas ***** *****struction of mathematics ***** are so helpful with the special needs of students that manipulatives, although being quite ancient in theory and even ***** are ga*****ing new respect in today's challenging and increasingly diverse classroom.


Math manipulatives are traditionally concrete objects that one ***** able to manipulative that assists the individual in completion of math operations such as add*****g, subtracting, multiplying, division, ***** then on ***** more complicated ***** such ***** Algebra. One ***** the first manipulatives utilized in the mathematics classroom instruction was the abacus. This instrument is used in counting in numbers larger than ten human fingers can represent and historically were ***** by merchants for calculation purposes. The ***** preceded the inventions of ***** used ***** counting and continually evolved in its appearance since ancient civilization. The abacus is pictured in the figure below labeled Figure 1 and is the copy ***** a cover of a manual that Lee Kai-chen publ*****hed ***** 1958 and has 4 decks *****in its design. Kai-chen claims that it is easier to perform both ***** and multiplication using ***** modified version of the abacus ***** that square roots ***** numbers and cubic roots of numbers are much easier determined ***** th***** board.

Modified Version ***** Abacus

Source: Bagley (2004)

***** also include objects such as calculators, the slide-rule and compasses ***** in the Geometrical mathematics.

*****. 'WHY' USE ***** MANIPULATIVE?

***** work of Burns (1998) documents the fact that: "...two-thirds of Ameri*****s loathe or hate mathematics." (Furner and Qu*****n, 2001) A TIMSS study stated findings that as American students travel from the fourth through ***** twelfth grade in school they are "...doing poorer in mathematics as compared to other students around the world (Schmidt, 1998)." (Furner and Quinn, *****) For this re*****on, it is critical ***** ***** mathematics teacher have a sound knowledge- education- and experience-base ***** draw upon in ***** instruction. This is most particularly so in ***** highly technological society for practical purposes and to develop more positive dispositions toward mathematics learn*****g. It is documented in the work of Bush, Lamb ***** Als*****a, (1990); Fullan (1983); Kessler (1985), McGalliard (1983); Silver (*****); and Thompson (1984) that "teaching behavior is profoundly or subtly affected by teachers beliefs concerning mathematics." (Furner and *****, 1998)

***** (1984) states findings that the opinions ***** belief of the teacher impact their *****al practice and may be because of learning teaching methods that are inappropriate (Ferrini-Mundy, 1986) Ongoing research again and again emphasizes the need for *****s to re*****m education in promoting ***** instruction


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