Essay - Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership Introduction Effective Leaders Manage the...

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Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership


Effective leaders manage the majority of successful organizations or teams, athletic or o*****rwise. A leader may be an expert, a supervis*****, a respected person, someone who controls aversive power or someone that has the capacity to dispense rewards (Ryan, 1982). A leader ***** possess have one or more of ********** characteristics, depending on the individual.

In addition ***** *****hip characteristics, leaders may also differ in ********** leadership styles (p. 32). For example, a directive or ********** style of leadership means that the leader takes complete charge ***** ***** team, closely monitoring athlete behavior and performance. A permissive style of coach ***** leave much of the responsibility to the *****s ***** spend ***** time on the critical issues.

Chelladurai (1993) proposed a normative model ***** decisi***** ********** (autocratic, participative, and delegating) in coaching (Butler, 1996). ***** casual observer of the dynamics on a typic*****l competitive sport team would conclude that coaches make all decisions and take all ***** the blame for failure. Athletes on ***** other hand, like to concentrate on their responsibilities as players and prefer not to be involved in coaching.

The concept of leadership has gained a large amount of attention in recent years, as sports have ********** in popularity and researchers have placed an emphasis on determining the relationship between leaders, teams and performance.

***** ***** ***** ***** Leadership

According ***** the Multidimensional Model of Sport *****, optimal performance & satisfaction are achieved when leader's required, preferred & actual behaviors are consistent. The model holds that effective leadership varies ***** on the specific situation, leader ***** team (Chelladurai, 2001, p. 194-197)

***** model introduces three key terms:

Required ***** behavior-- behaviors demanded by the situation (goals, norms, values, etc.).

Preferred leader behavior-- ***** behaviors preferred ***** group, organization, *****.

Actual leader behavior-- behaviors the ***** exhibits.

***** a direct consequence of leadership, ***** things are affected:

Satisfaction—When coaching style and behaviors match the preferences ***** the athlete, greater ***** is the result.

Cohesion—A democratic *****, social support and positive feedback all result in greater cohesion.

Performance - Greater social ***** results in poorer performing teams.

Additional Research

As a result of Chelladurai's research, many studies have been conducted to try to develop or expand the knowledge of ***** *****pic.

One such study analyzed the *****ences between the *****fensive and defensive ********** of sports ***** in ***** leadership, perceived leadership, ***** satisfaction with leadership, as well as the relationships among preferred and perceived leadership, *****ir congruence, ***** ***** with ***** (Chelladurai, 1995). The results of this study showed that defensive players preferred more democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, and ***** support than offensive players.

***** addition, the similarity between preferred and perceived leadership ***** ***** measurement of social ***** was important in enhancing member satisfaction. On the other h*****, perceived ***** in training and instruction, in addition to positive feedback, were more important factors of satisfaction wit***** leadership than either the preferred leadership or the congruence ***** preferred and perceived leadership in these


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