Essay - From Oral Tradition to Electronic: Accessing & Disseminating Information Introduction...


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From Oral Tradition to Electronic: Accessing & Disseminating Information

Introduction

In Forms of Media as Ways of Knowing, Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi (1995) identifies three specific his*****rical eras or periods in communication (43). The first and earliest period was one in which orality or the "oral tradition" was dominant. The second period emerged with the development of print, or "written communication." ***** third major historical period in communication was the result of ***** technological *****s creating electronic media, the "information age." ***** (1995) distinguishes between these three eras as follows: "In *****ity, speaking and listening are the central activities. Print requires writers ***** readers. Electronic media demand organized production and viewers" (43). In other words, in each historical era ***** *****, control of communication mechanisms has varied significantly. These controls moved from the *****dividual face-to-face encounter to the individual yet distant encounter of print to ***** ***** more distant, depersonalized, ***** passive role of ***** recipients in the electronic era. This analysis will discuss ***** evolution ***** ***** three eras of communication in order to provide a greater understanding of the role of ***** in society and people's lives.

Body

According to Richard Campbell (2003), an understanding of the ***** ***** the media in ***** lives - both today and in the past - required an "underst*****ing of ***** cultural context" in which the media operate (5). Oral communication is slow, moving from ***** person to an***** in a deliberate and time-consum*****g manner. Before the advent ***** communication technologies such as writing instruments and printing, oral tradition remained the primary means of passing knowledge from one generation ***** the next. ***** tradition represents the transmission ***** ***** from ***** individual to ano*****r and one generation to another through speaking, listening, and memorization. Originally, culture and cus*****ms were transferred from ***** individual to the ***** and one generation to the next in the form of stories, myths, rituals and ceremonies. Religion held a ***** place of importance in ***** *****, "Oral tradition is the spoken relation ***** preservation, from ***** generation to the next, of a people's ***** history and ancestry. It was traditionally used to transmit religious beliefs because it conveys cultural trad*****ion" (***** 2001, 1).

In Ancient Greece and Rome, orators played an import*****t role in disseminating such tradition to o*****rs. Oral ***** encompasses "first person narrative accounts of one's memories ***** an event or time of life" (Dillon 2002, *****). An imp*****tant aspect of all three eras of ***** is the transm*****sion or dissemination of knowledge. Native American groups heavily relied on oral traditi***** to ***** knowledge from one generation to the next pertaining to a variety of issues. One Cherokee ********** involves the character of a "Trickster," often a figure from nature such as a r*****bbit. Within the Cherokee oral tradition, the story of the Rabbit races ***** Turtle is one in which ***** ***** Rabbit is defeated not by the plodding nature of the ***** but by means of guile. In this ***** the Rabbit challenges Turtle to

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