Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

I. Executive Summary

The development of Organic Light Emitting *****s (OLEDs) is a m*****jor technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in provid*****g digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, ***** costs less to manufacture. OLEDs are now being used in consumer electronics such as cellular phones, personal ***** organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, these can be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), and ***** military applications. The technology looks very promising, ***** may provide us a cheaper and better alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in ********** bright and crisp digital images.

*****. Introduction ***** topic

********** differ from traditional LCDs and LEDs mainly because they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (***** part that emits light). The use of organic materials instead ***** liquid crystals is much *****. The fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substr*****te using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because of this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used ***** a wide r*****nge ***** products. O***** operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. Th***** involves ***** use of electric current on a material in order to stimulate electrons and produce light. Like *****, ***** emissive material is still semiconductor but an org*****ic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over LCDs is the absence ***** a b*****ck*****. LCDs require a constant light source that ***** selectively blocked in ***** to produce images. OLEDs, on the other hand, do not use a back***** but *****stead ***** activates light ***** the ***** *****. This allows OLEDs ***** ***** less power (about 20% less ***** *****) and last longer on battery-*****ed devices such as cellular ph*****s and digital cameras. Also, ***** do not require diffusers ***** polarizers ***** are used by LCDs.

*****. History / Background

OLEDs were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented in 1987. Through a p*****rtnership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is manufactured through the condensation of organic materials on a sheet inside a vacuum. ***** process ***** expensive and in*****.

A*****her company ***** Cambridge Display Technologies (CDT) used another approach in 1996 ***** called their product LEP (Light ***** Polymer). Instead of creat*****g ***** ***** condensation of molecules inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers using ***** same technology used by commercial inkjet *****. This process proved to be cheap and flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as compared ***** "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (Organic Light-Emitting Diode, 2005). Because ***** the patents held by these companies, the ***** ***** and improvement of OLEDs is still slow and restricted due to licensing issues.

OLED ***** is very promising, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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