Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

*****. Executive Summary

The development of Organic ***** Emitting *****s (OLEDs) is a m*****jor technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in provid*****g digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, ***** costs less to manufacture. ***** are now being used in consumer electronics such as cellular phones, personal digital organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, *****se ***** be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), ***** in military applications. The technology looks very promising, and may provide us a cheaper and better alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in displaying bright and crisp digital images.

*****. Introduction to *****pic

***** differ from traditional LCDs and LEDs mainly because they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (the part that emits light). The use of organic materials instead ***** ***** crystals is much cheaper. The fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substr*****te using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because ***** this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used for a wide r*****nge of products. O***** operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. Th***** involves the use ***** electric current on a material in order ***** stimulate electrons and produce *****. Like LCDs, ***** emissive material is still semiconductor but an org*****ic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over ***** ***** the absence of a backlight. LCDs require a const*****nt light source that is selectively blocked in ***** to produce images. OLEDs, on the other hand, do not ***** a back***** but instead selectively activates light ***** the emissive *****. This al*****s OLEDs ***** use less ***** (about 20% less ***** LCDs) and last longer on battery-powered devices such as cellular ph*****s and digital cameras. Also, ***** do not require diff*****rs and polarizers ***** are used ***** LCDs.

*****. History / Background

***** were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented in 1987. Through a *****nership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is manufactured through the condensation of organic ***** on a sheet inside a v*****cuum. This process is expensive ***** inflexible.

********** company ***** Cambridge ***** Technologies (CDT) used a*****her approach in 1996 and called their product LEP (Light ***** Polymer). Instead of creating ***** by ***** of molecules inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers ***** ***** same technology used ***** commercial inkjet *****. ***** process proved to be cheap and flexible. However, th***** me*****od is not yet mature as comp*****d to "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (Organic Light-Emitting Diode, **********). Because ***** the patents held by these companies, the commercial development and improvement of *****s is still slow ***** restricted due ***** licensing *****sues.

OLED ***** is very promising, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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