Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

*****. Executive Summary

The development of Organic Light Emitting *****s (OLEDs) is a m*****jor technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in provid*****g digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, and costs less to manufacture. OLEDs are now being used in consumer electronics such as cellular phones, personal digital organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, these ***** be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), and ***** military applications. The technology looks very promising, ***** may provide us a cheaper and *****tter alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in displaying bright and crisp digital images.

II. Introduction ***** topic

***** differ from traditional LCDs ***** ***** mainly beca*****e they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (the part that emits light). The use of organic materials instead ***** liquid crystals is much *****. The fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substr*****te using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because ***** this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used ***** a wide r*****nge of products. OLEDs operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. Th***** involves ***** use of electric current on a material in order to stimulate electrons and produce *****. Like *****, The emissive material is still semiconductor but an org*****ic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over LCDs is the absence of a backlight. LCDs require a constant light source that ***** selectively blocked in ***** to produce images. OLEDs, on the other hand, do not use a back***** but instead selectively activates light ***** the emissive layer. This allows OLEDs to ***** less ***** (about 20% less than *****) and last longer on battery-powered devices such as cellular ph*****s ***** digital cameras. Also, ***** do not require diffusers and polarizers ***** are used by LCDs.

*****. History / Background

OLEDs were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented ***** 1987. Through a partnership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is m*****ufactured through the condensation of organic ***** on a sheet inside a v*****cuum. ***** process is expensive and inflexible.

An***** company ***** Cambridge ***** Technologies (CDT) ***** another approach in 1996 and called their product LEP (Light ***** Polymer). Instead of creating sheets by condensation of molecules inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers using the same technology used ***** commercial inkjet printers. This process proved ***** be cheap ***** flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as comp*****d to "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (***** Light-Emitting Diode, *****05). Because of the patents held by ***** companies, the commercial ***** and improvement ***** OLEDs ***** still slow ***** restricted due ***** licensing issues.

OLED ***** is very promising, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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