Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

I. Executive Summary

The development of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is a major technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in providing digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, ***** costs less to manufacture. ***** are now being used in consumer electronics such as cellular phones, personal ***** organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, these ***** be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), and in military applications. The technology looks very promising, ***** may provide us a cheaper and better alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in displaying bright and crisp digital images.

*****. Introduction to *****pic

OLEDs differ from traditional LCDs ***** LEDs mainly beca*****e they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (***** part that emits light). ***** ***** of organic materials instead of liquid crystals is much cheaper. The fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substr*****te using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because ***** this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used ***** a wide range of products. O***** operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. This involves ***** use ***** electric current on a material in order ***** stimulate electr*****s and ***** *****. Like LCDs, ***** emissive material is still semiconductor but an organic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over ***** is the absence of a backlight. LCDs require a const*****nt light source that is selectively blocked in order to produce images. OLEDs, on the other h*****, do not use a backlight but instead ***** activates light ***** the ***** layer. This al*****s OLEDs to ***** less power (about 20% less ***** *****) and last longer on battery-*****ed devices such as cellular ph*****s ***** digital cameras. Also, OLEDs ***** not require diffusers and polarizers ***** are used by LCDs.

III. History / Background

***** were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented in 1987. Through a p*****rtnership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is manufactured through the condensation of organic ***** on a sheet inside a v*****cuum. ***** process is expensive and inflexible.

***** company called Cambridge ***** Technologies (CDT) ***** another approach in 1996 and called their product LEP (Light Emitting Polymer). Instead of creating *****s ***** condensation of ***** inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers ***** the same technology used by commercial inkjet printers. This process proved to be cheap ***** flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as comp*****d ***** "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (Organic Light-***** Diode, **********). Because of the patents held by ***** companies, the commercial development and improvement ***** OLEDs is still slow and restricted due to licensing **********.

OLED ***** is very *****, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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