Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

I. Executive Summary

The development of Organic ***** Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is a m*****jor technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in providing digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, and costs less to manufacture. ***** are now being used in consumer electronics such as cellular phones, personal digital organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, these ***** be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), and in military applications. The technology looks very promising, and may provide us a cheaper and *****tter alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in ********** bright and crisp digital images.

II. Introduction to topic

***** differ from traditional LCDs ***** LEDs mainly because they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (the part that emits light). ***** ***** of organic materials instead of liquid crystals is much cheaper. The fabrication ***** polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substr*****te using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because of this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used ***** a wide range ***** products. OLEDs operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. This involves the use of electric current on a material in order to stimulate electrons and ***** light. Like *****, The emissive material is still semiconductor but an organic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over LCDs ***** the absence ***** a back*****. LCDs require a const*****nt light source that is selectively blocked in order to produce images. OLEDs, on the other h*****, do not ***** a back***** but *****stead selectively activates light ***** the emissive layer. This al*****s OLEDs ***** use less power (about 20% less than LCDs) and last longer on battery-powered devices ***** as cellular phones ***** ***** cameras. Also, OLEDs ***** not require diffusers and polarizers that are ***** ***** LCDs.

III. History / Background

OLEDs were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented in 1987. Through a *****nership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is m*****ufactured through the condensation of organic ***** on a sheet inside a vacuum. Th***** process is expensive ***** in*****.

An***** company ***** Cambridge D*****play Technologies (CDT) ***** a*****her approach in 1996 and called their product LEP (Light Emitting Polymer). Instead of creating sheets by c*****densation of ***** inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers ***** ***** same technology used by commercial inkjet *****. *****is process proved ***** be cheap ***** flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as compared to "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (Organic Light-Emitting Diode, *****05). Because ***** the patents held by ***** companies, the ***** ***** and improvement of *****s is still slow and restricted due ***** licensing *****sues.

OLED technology is very *****, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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