Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

I. Executive Summary

The development of Organic ***** Emitting *****s (OLEDs) is a m*****jor technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in providing digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, and costs less to manufacture. OLEDs are now being used in consumer electronics such as cellular phones, personal digital organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, *****se ***** be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), and ***** military applications. The technology looks very promising, and may provide us a cheaper and better alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in displaying bright and crisp digital images.

*****. Introduction ***** topic

***** differ from traditional LCDs and LEDs mainly beca*****e they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (the part that emits light). The use of organic materials instead of ***** crystals is much *****. The fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substr*****te using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because ***** this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used for a wide range of products. O***** operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. This involves ***** use of electric current on a material in order ***** stimulate electrons and produce *****. Like *****, The emissive material is still semiconductor but an organic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over LCDs ***** the absence of a backlight. LCDs require a constant light source that is selectively blocked in ***** to produce images. OLEDs, on the other hand, do not ***** a back***** but *****stead selectively activates light on the emissive layer. This al*****s OLEDs ***** use less power (about 20% less than LCDs) and last l*****ger on battery-*****ed devices such as cellular ph*****s ***** digital cameras. Also, OLEDs do not require diff*****rs and polarizers that are ***** by LCDs.

*****. History / Background

***** were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented in 1987. Through a partnership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is manufactured through the condensation of organic ***** on a sheet inside a vacuum. ***** process ***** expensive ***** inflexible.

********** company called Cambridge Display Technologies (CDT) used a*****her approach in 1996 and called their product LEP (Light Emitting Polymer). Instead of creating ***** by ***** of ***** inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers ***** ***** same technology used ***** commercial inkjet *****. This process proved ***** be cheap and flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as compared to "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (***** Light-Emitting Diode, **********). Because of the patents held by these companies, the ***** ***** and improvement of OLEDs is still slow ***** restricted due ***** licensing **********.

OLED technology is very *****, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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