Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

I. Executive Summary

The development of Organic ***** Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is a major technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in provid*****g digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, and costs less to manufacture. OLEDs are now being used in ********** electronics such as cellular phones, personal digital organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, ********** can be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), and ***** military applications. The technology looks very promising, and may provide us a cheaper and better alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in displaying bright and crisp digital images.

II. Introduction ***** topic

***** differ from traditional LCDs ***** LEDs mainly because they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (the part that emits light). The use of organic materials instead ***** ***** crystals is much cheaper. ***** fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substr*****te using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because ***** this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used ***** a wide r*****nge of products. O***** operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. This involves the use ***** electric current on a material in order to stimulate electrons and produce *****. Like LCDs, The emissive ***** is still semiconductor but an org*****ic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over LCDs ***** the absence of a b*****cklight. LCDs require a const*****nt light source that is selectively blocked in order to produce images. OLEDs, on the other h*****, do not ***** a backlight but instead ***** activates light ***** the ***** layer. This al*****s OLEDs to use less power (about 20% less ***** LCDs) and last longer on battery-powered devices ***** as cellular phones and digital cameras. Also, ***** ***** not require diffusers and polarizers ***** are ***** ***** LCDs.

III. History / Background

OLEDs were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented ***** 1987. Through a partnership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is manufactured through the condensation of organic ***** on a sheet inside a vacuum. ***** process ***** expensive and in*****.

A*****her company called Cambridge ***** Technologies (CDT) ***** another approach in 1996 and ***** their product LEP (Light Emitting Polymer). Instead of creating ***** ***** ***** of molecules inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers using ***** same technology used by commercial inkjet printers. This process proved to be cheap ***** flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as comp*****d ***** "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (Organic Light-Emitting Diode, *****05). Because of the patents held by these companies, the ***** ***** and improvement of OLEDs ***** still slow and restricted due to licensing issues.

OLED ***** is very *****, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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