Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

I. Executive Summary

The development of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is a major technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in provid*****g digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, and costs less to manufacture. OLEDs are now being used in *****r electronics such as cellular phones, personal digital organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, these ***** be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), and ***** military applications. The technology looks very promising, and may provide us a cheaper and better alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in displaying bright and crisp digital images.

II. Introduction to topic

***** differ from traditional ***** and ***** mainly because they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (the part that emits light). The use of organic materials instead ***** liquid crystals is much cheaper. ***** fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substrate using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because of this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used ***** a wide range ***** products. OLEDs operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. This involves ***** use ***** electric current on a material in order ***** stimulate electr*****s and ***** *****. Like LCDs, The emissive material is still semiconductor but an organic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over LCDs is the absence ***** a b*****cklight. LCDs require a constant light source that ***** selectively blocked in order to produce images. OLEDs, on the other hand, do not ***** a back***** but ********** selectively activates light on the ***** *****. This allows OLEDs to use less ***** (about 20% less ***** LCDs) and last l*****ger on battery-powered devices ***** as cellular ph*****s ***** ***** cameras. Also, OLEDs ***** not require diff*****rs and polarizers that are ***** ***** LCDs.

III. History / Background

***** were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented in 1987. Through a *****nership with S*****nyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is manufactured through the condensation of organic ***** on a sheet inside a v*****cuum. Th***** process is expensive ***** in*****.

********** company called Cambridge Display Technologies (CDT) ***** another approach in 1996 and called their product LEP (Light ***** Polymer). Instead of creat*****g ***** ***** c*****densation of molecules inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers ***** the same technology used by commercial inkjet *****. *****is process proved to be cheap and flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as comp*****d to "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (***** Light-Emitting Diode, 2005). Because ***** the patents held by these companies, the ***** ***** and improvement of OLEDs is still slow and restricted due to licensing issues.

OLED ***** is very *****, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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