Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

*****. Executive Summary

The development of Organic Light Emitting *****s (OLEDs) is a major technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in providing digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, and costs less to manufacture. ***** are now being used in *****r electronics such as cellular phones, personal digital organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, these ***** be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), and ***** military applications. The technology looks very promising, ***** may provide us a cheaper and better alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in displaying bright and crisp digital images.

II. Introduction to *****pic

********** differ from traditional ***** and LEDs mainly beca*****e they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (***** part that emits light). The ***** of organic materials instead ***** ***** crystals is much cheaper. ***** fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substr*****te using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because of this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used for a wide r*****nge ***** products. O***** operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. Th***** involves the use ***** electric current on a material in order ***** stimulate electrons and ***** light. Like LCDs, The emissive material is still semiconductor but an organic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over ***** ***** the absence of a back*****. LCDs require a const*****nt light source that is selectively blocked in ***** to produce images. OLEDs, on the other h*****, do not ***** a backlight but instead selectively activates light ***** the emissive *****. This allows OLEDs to use less ***** (about 20% less than *****) and last longer on battery-powered devices such as ***** phones ***** digital cameras. Also, OLEDs do not require diff*****rs and polarizers that are ***** ***** LCDs.

III. History / Background

***** were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented ***** 1987. Through a *****nership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is manufactured through the condensation of organic materials on a sheet inside a vacuum. ***** process is expensive and in*****.

An***** company ***** Cambridge ***** Technologies (CDT) ***** a*****her approach in 1996 ***** called their product LEP (Light ***** Polymer). Instead of creat*****g sheets ***** c*****densation of ***** inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers ***** ***** same technology used by commercial inkjet printers. This process proved to be cheap and flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as comp*****d to "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (***** Light-Emitting Diode, 2005). Because of the patents held by these companies, the commercial ***** and improvement ***** OLEDs is still slow ***** restricted due to licensing issues.

OLED ***** is very *****, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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