Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

*****. Executive Summary

The development of Organic ***** Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is a major technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in provid*****g digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, ***** costs less to manufacture. ***** are now being used in ********** electronics such as cellular phones, personal digital organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, these can be used in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), ***** in military applications. The technology looks very promising, and may provide us a cheaper and ********** alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in *****ing bright and crisp digital images.

II. Introduction to *****pic

OLEDs differ from traditional ***** and LEDs mainly beca*****e they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (the part that emits light). ***** ***** of organic materials instead ***** ***** crystals is much cheaper. The fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substrate using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because ***** this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used ***** a wide r*****nge of products. O***** operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. This involves the use ***** electric current on a material in order ***** stimulate electrons and ***** *****. Like LCDs, The emissive ***** is still semiconductor but an organic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over ***** is the absence ***** a backlight. LCDs require a constant light source that is selectively blocked in order to produce images. OLEDs, on the other h*****, do not use a back***** but instead ***** activates light ***** the emissive *****. This al*****s OLEDs to use less ***** (about 20% less ***** LCDs) and last longer on battery-powered devices ***** as ***** phones and ***** cameras. Also, ***** ***** not require diffusers ***** polarizers that are ***** ***** LCDs.

*****. History / Background

***** were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented ***** 1987. Through a *****nership with S*****nyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is m*****ufactured through the condensation of organic materials on a sheet inside a v*****cuum. This process is expensive and inflexible.

A*****her company called Cambridge ***** Technologies (CDT) used another approach in 1996 ***** ***** their product LEP (Light ***** Polymer). Instead of creat*****g *****s ***** c*****densation of ***** inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers ***** the same technology used by commercial inkjet *****. Th***** process proved to be cheap and flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as compared to "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (***** Light-Emitting Diode, *****05). Because ***** the patents held by these companies, the commercial ***** and improvement of OLEDs is still slow and restricted due ***** licensing *****sues.

OLED ***** is very promising, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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