Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

*****. Executive Summary

The development of Organic ***** Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is a major technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in provid*****g digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, and costs less to manufacture. ***** are now being used in consumer electronics such as cellular phones, personal ***** organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, these can be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), ***** in military applications. The technology looks very promising, and may provide us a cheaper and better alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in displaying bright and crisp digital images.

*****. Introduction ***** topic

OLEDs differ from traditional ***** ***** LEDs mainly because they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (the part that emits light). The ***** of organic materials instead ***** ***** crystals is much *****. ***** fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substr*****te using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because of this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used for a wide range of products. O***** operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. This involves the use of electric current on a material in order ***** stimulate electrons and ***** light. Like LCDs, The emissive material is still semiconductor but an org*****ic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over LCDs ***** the absence ***** a back*****. LCDs require a const*****nt light source that is selectively blocked in order to produce images. OLEDs, on the other h*****, do not ***** a backlight but instead selectively activates light on the ***** layer. This al*****s OLEDs ***** use less ***** (about 20% less than *****) and last longer on battery-powered devices such as ***** ph*****s and digital cameras. Also, OLEDs do not require diffusers and polarizers ***** are ***** ***** LCDs.

III. History / Background

OLEDs were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented ***** 1987. Through a partnership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is m*****ufactured through the condensation of organic materials on a sheet inside a v*****cuum. ***** process ***** expensive ***** inflexible.

A*****her company ***** Cambridge Display Technologies (CDT) ***** another approach in 1996 and called their product LEP (Light ***** Polymer). Instead of creating *****s by ***** of ***** inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers using the same technology used ***** commercial inkjet *****. This process proved to be cheap ***** flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as compared to "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (Organic Light-Emitting Diode, 2005). Because ***** the patents held by ***** companies, the ***** development and improvement of *****s is still slow ***** restricted due ***** licensing *****sues.

OLED ***** is very promising, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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