Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...


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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

*****. Executive Summary

The development of Organic ***** Emitting *****s (OLEDs) is a major technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in providing digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, ***** costs less to manufacture. ***** are now being used in *****r electronics such as cellular phones, personal ***** organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, these ***** be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), ***** ***** military applications. The technology looks very promising, and may provide us a cheaper and ********** alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in ********** bright and crisp digital images.

II. Introduction to *****pic

OLEDs differ from traditional LCDs and LEDs mainly beca*****e they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (***** part that emits light). ***** ***** of organic materials instead ***** liquid crystals is much cheaper. The fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substrate using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because ***** this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used for a wide range of products. OLEDs operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. This involves the use ***** electric current on a material in order to stimulate electr*****s and ***** *****. Like LCDs, The emissive material is still semiconductor but an organic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over ***** ***** the absence ***** a b*****cklight. LCDs require a const*****nt light source that is selectively blocked in ***** to produce images. OLEDs, on the other hand, do not use a backlight but ********** ***** activates light on the ***** *****. This al*****s OLEDs to ***** less ***** (about 20% less ***** LCDs) and last l*****ger on battery-powered devices ***** as cellular ph*****s and ***** cameras. Also, ***** ***** not require diffusers and polarizers ***** are ***** ***** LCDs.

*****. History / Background

OLEDs were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented in 1987. Through a partnership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is manufactured through the condensation of organic materials on a sheet inside a v*****cuum. This process is expensive and inflexible.

Another company called Cambridge ***** Technologies (CDT) ***** another approach in 1996 and called their product LEP (Light ***** Polymer). Instead of creat*****g ***** ***** condensation of ***** inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers using ***** same technology used by commercial inkjet printers. Th***** process proved ***** be cheap ***** flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as compared to "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (***** Light-Emitting Diode, 2005). Because ***** the patents held by these companies, the ***** development and improvement of *****s ***** still slow ***** restricted due to licensing issues.

OLED ***** is very promising, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due

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