Essay - Organic Light Emitting Diode (Oled) I. Executive Summary the Development...

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Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

I. Executive Summary

The development of Organic ***** Emitting *****s (OLEDs) is a m*****jor technological breakthrough since the invention of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in provid*****g digital lighting and display. These components can display brighter colors, produce faster refresh rates, consume less power, and costs less to manufacture. ***** are now being used in consumer electronics such as cellular phones, personal digital organizers (PDAs), and flat-screen televisions. In the future, *****se ***** be ***** in virtual reality, heads-up display (HUDs), and ***** military applications. The technology looks very promising, ***** may provide us a cheaper and better alternative than current LCDs and LEDs in ********** bright and crisp digital images.

*****. Introduction ***** topic

***** differ from traditional LCDs and LEDs mainly beca*****e they use organic molecules and polymers for the emissive layer (***** part that emits light). The use of organic materials instead ***** liquid crystals is much cheaper. ***** fabrication of polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), for example, only involves "printing" on a substrate using techniques currently provided by inkjet printers. Because ***** this low manufacturing cost, it is possible to create large and flexible OLED sheets that can be used for a wide range of products. OLEDs operate on the principle of organic electro-luminescence. This involves the use ***** electric current on a material in order to stimulate electrons and produce light. Like *****, The emissive ***** is still semiconductor but an organic one.

One important advantage of OLEDs over LCDs is the absence ***** a backlight. LCDs require a constant light source that is selectively blocked in order to produce images. OLEDs, on the other h*****, do not use a back***** but *****stead ***** activates light ***** the emissive *****. This al*****s OLEDs ***** ***** less power (about 20% less ***** *****) and last longer on battery-*****ed devices ***** as ***** ph*****s ***** digital cameras. Also, OLEDs do not require diffusers and polarizers ***** are used ***** LCDs.

III. History / Background

***** were first developed by Eastman-Kodak in 1979 and subsequently patented ***** 1987. Through a partnership with Sanyo called "SK Display," they were able to develop an active-matrix, full-color 2.4-inch display. Kodak used "small-molecule" OLED which is m*****ufactured through the condensation of organic materials on a sheet inside a vacuum. This process is expensive ***** in*****.

An***** company ***** Cambridge ***** Technologies (CDT) used a*****her approach in 1996 and called their product LEP (Light ***** Polymer). Instead of creat*****g sheets ***** ***** of molecules inside a vacuum, they just "printed" the layers using ***** same technology used by commercial inkjet printers. Th***** process proved to be cheap ***** flexible. However, this method is not yet mature as comp*****d ***** "small-molecule" technology by Kodak (Organic Light-Emitting Diode, *****05). Because ***** the patents held by these companies, the commercial development and improvement of *****s is still slow and restricted due to licensing **********.

OLED technology is very promising, and various industries expect that it will eventually replace LCD. This is due


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