Essay - Overcrowding in the Prison System Introduction: Overcrowding in the Prison...


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Overcrowding in the Prison System

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Overcrowding in the prison system is a serious problem faced ***** nations around the globe. Both developed and developing ***** are experiencing pr*****ons that are filled to up to 300 percent of *****ir capacity. In the United States ***** prison population more than quadr*****led between the years of 1978 and 2001 (Marciniak 10). As a result ***** this overcrowding, there is increased incidents of violence, a r*****mpant spread of disease in ***** out of the prison, poorer security in place than if appropriate inmate levels were maintained, higher rates ***** recidivism, and unhygienic living conditions for inmates. With resources stretched beyond capacity, important resocialization ***** reintegration programs become a low priority in the system ("Addressing *****").

Factors in Prison Overcrowd*****g:

As noted, almost every country in the world is ***** an overcrowding of their prison systems. This trend is the ***** of a variety of factors. These include: tougher criminal policies ***** view imprisonment as a prim*****ry means of punishing criminals. Included in ***** is "a trend toward longer sentences reflecting a re*****ffirmation of the value of punishment and a movement toward more determinate ***** and restrictions on early release, thereby reducing the ability of prison administrations to deal with ***** problems" (Giertz & Nardulli 71) In addition, there is a reduced use of bail and a failure ***** fully implement early release programs, an increase in crime rates in many countries, and an overburdened, *****efficient criminal justice system ("Addressing Pr*****on").

***** the problem is an ***** in the number ***** parole violators. Between the years 1980 and 2000, the number of ***** violators that ***** sent back to ***** ***** from 27,000 to more than 200,000 (Travis).

Challenges as a Result ***** Prison Overcrowd*****g:

***** of ***** primary challenges with prison overcrowding is simply the inhumanity of ***** situation. Overcrowded *****s have seen more than the designed ***** inmates crowded in***** these confined spaces. This inhumane treatment only serves to perpetuate a wide ***** ***** social ills that plague communities in general ("***** *****").

***** addition, overcrowded prison systems often lead to ***** health consequences. Due to overcrowd*****g, prisoners are often forced ***** share beds, bedding and personal space. These close living quarters contribute to the spread of a variety of communicable dise*****es, including Tuberculosis. And, it's not just the inmates that suffer ***** this ***** of disease, disease spread can affect those outside the prison system as well. As an example, ***** recent outbreaks ***** Tuberculosis in Russia ***** other former Soviet Union countries have been directly linked to outbreaks in the local prison population, which was exacerbated by ***** overcrowding of the ***** ("Addressing Prison").

In addition to the spread ***** *****, overcrowding has also ***** positively associated with increased tension *****d violence in prisons. ***** more prisoners ***** ***** system was designed to accommodate, it is ***** difficult, and sometimes impossible, for prison authorities to prevent violence, let alone gain control once ***** occurring.

This has sometimes resulted in deadly

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