Essay - Overcrowding in the Prison System Introduction: Overcrowding in the Prison...


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Overcrowding in the Prison System

Introduction:

Overcrowd*****g in the prison system is a serious problem faced ***** nations around the globe. Both developed and developing ***** are experiencing prisons that are filled to up to 300 percent of *****ir capacity. In the United States the prison population more than quadr*****led between the years of 1978 and 2001 (Marciniak 10). As a result ***** this overcrowding, there is increased incidents of violence, a r*****mpant spread ***** disease in ***** out of the *****, poorer security in place than if appropriate inmate levels were maintained, higher rates of recidivism, and unhygienic living conditions for inmates. With resources stretched beyond capacity, important resocialization ***** reintegration programs become a low priority in the system ("Address*****g Prison").

Factors in ***** Overcrowding:

As noted, almost every country in the world is experiencing an overcrowding ***** their prison systems. This trend is the result of a variety ***** factors. These include: tougher criminal policies ***** view imprisonment as a prim*****ry means of punishing criminals. Included in this is "a trend tow*****rd longer sentences reflecting a reaffirmation of the value of punishment and a movement toward ***** determinate ***** and restrictions on early release, thereby reducing the ability of prison administrations to deal with ***** problems" (Giertz & Nardulli 71) In addition, there is a reduced use of bail and a failure ***** fully implement early release programs, an increase in crime rates in many countries, ***** an overburdened, ********** criminal justice system ("Addressing Pr*****on").

***** the problem is an ***** in the number of parole violators. Between the years 1980 ********** 2000, the ***** of ***** violators that ***** sent back to prison *****creased from 27,000 to more than 200,000 (Travis).

Challenges as a Result ***** Prison Overcrowding:

***** of the primary challenges with ***** overcrowding is simply the inhumanity of the situation. Overcrowded pr*****ons have seen more ***** the designed for inmates crowded into these confined spaces. This inhumane treatment only serves to perpetuate a wide variety of social ills that plague communities in general ("Address*****g Prison").

***** *****, overcrowded prison ***** often lead to serious health consequences. Due to overcrowding, prisoners are often forced to share beds, bedding and personal space. These close ***** quarters contribute to the spread of a v*****riety of communicable *****s, including Tuberculosis. And, it's not just the ***** that suffer ***** ***** ***** ***** disease, disease spread can affect those outside the prison system as well. As an example, the recent outbreaks of ***** in Russia ***** o*****r former Soviet Union ***** have been directly linked to ***** in the local prison population, which was exacerbated by ***** overcrowding of the system ("Addressing Prison").

In addition to the spread of *****, overcrowding has also been positively associated with increased tension *****d violence in *****s. ***** more ***** than the system was ***** to accommodate, it is ***** difficult, and sometimes impossible, for prison authorities to prevent *****, let alone gain control once ***** occurring.

***** has sometimes resulted in deadly

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