Essay - Overcrowding in the Prison System Introduction: Overcrowding in the Prison...


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Overcrowding in the Prison System

Introduction:

Overcrowding in the prison system is a serious problem faced in nations around the globe. Both developed and developing ***** are experiencing *****s that are filled to up to 300 percent of *****ir capacity. In the United States the pr*****on population more than quadrupled between the years ***** 1978 ***** 2001 (Marciniak 10). As a result of this overcrowding, there is increased incidents of violence, a r*****mpant spread of disease in and out of the prison, poorer security in place than if appropriate inmate levels were maintained, higher rates ***** recidivism, ***** unhygienic living conditions for *****s. With resources stretched beyond capacity, important resocialization and reintegration programs become a low priority in the system ("Address*****g *****").

Factors in Prison Overcrowd*****g:

As noted, almost every country in the world is ***** an overcrowding of their ***** **********. This trend is the result of a variety ***** factors. These include: tougher criminal policies that view imprisonment as a primary means of punishing *****s. Included in ***** is "a ***** toward longer sentences reflecting a re*****ffirmation of the value ***** punishment and a movement ***** more determinate ***** and restrictions on early release, *****by reducing the ability of pris***** administrations to deal with overcrowding problems" (Giertz & Nardulli 71) In addition, there is a reduced use of bail ***** a failure ***** fully implement early ***** programs, an increase in crime rates in many countries, and an overburdened, inefficient criminal justice system ("Addressing Pr*****on").

***** the problem is an increase in the number of parole violators. Between the years 1980 ********** 2000, the ***** of parole violators that were sent back to ********** ***** from 27,000 to more than 200,000 (Travis).

Challenges as a Result ***** Prison Overcrowd*****g:

***** of the primary challenges ***** prison overcrowding is simply ***** inhumanity of the situation. Overcrowded prisons have seen more ***** the designed ***** inmates crowded into these confined spaces. This inhumane treatment only serves to perpetuate a wide variety ***** social ills that plague communities in general ("***** *****").

***** addition, overcrowded prison systems often lead to ***** health consequences. Due to overcrowd*****g, prisoners are often forced to share beds, bedding and personal space. These close ***** quarters contribute to the ***** of a variety of communicable diseases, including Tuberculosis. And, it's not just the ***** that suffer from this spread of disease, disease spread can affect those outside the prison system as well. As an example, ***** recent outbreaks ***** Tuberculosis in Russia and other former Soviet Union countries have been directly linked ***** ***** in the local prison population, which was exacerbated by the overcrowding of the ***** ("Addressing Prison").

In addition to the spread of disease, overcrowding has also ***** positively associated with increased tension and violence in *****s. With more prisoners than the system was designed to accommodate, it is ***** difficult, and sometimes impossible, for pr*****on authorities to prevent *****, let alone gain control once ***** occurring.

This has ***** resulted in deadly

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