Essay - Pancreatitis Definition of the Topic Pancreatitis is an Inflammation of...


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Pancreatitis

Definition of the topic

Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the p*****creas. There are two primary forms of the disease, acute and chronic. Acute pancreatitis is a sudden unflammation ***** the pancreas that is almost always accompanied by abdominal pain and discomfort. The chronic form of pancreatitis continues to recur, and is usually the result of poor diet and/or alcohol abuse.

***** Pancreas is a gland that produces digestive enzymes. It is positioned behind ***** stomach. The pancreas functions by secreting digestive enzymes into the duodenum (upper part of the small intestine) through a small tube called, apporpriately enough, the pancreatic duct. The enzymes of ***** ***** aid in the digestion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. In addition, ***** pancreas ***** responsible for releasing the hormones insulin and glucagon, both of which aid the body in us*****g the glucose in foods.

***** Pancreatitis, ***** enzymes with***** the ***** become active ***** begin to digest the pancreas itself. These enzymes normally do not become active until they reach the small intestine.

The acute from of ***** disease manifests quickly and then resolves itself. The***** from is similar, but does ***** resolve ***** and slowly destroys the pancreas the longer the condition persists. In either case, there can be serious complications, iincluding bleeding, tissue damage and infection. Fluid ***** ***** debris can accumulate and form ***** pseudocysts ********** the organ. It is possible for the enzymes and digestive fluids to enter the bloodstream and begin to damage o*****r *****gans, such as the heart, lungs and kidneys.

Incidence/epidemiology

The following statistics have been provided by the National Institute of Healththrough the National Institute ***** National ***** of Diabetes and Digestive ***** Kidney Diseases (http:/*****.niddk.nih.gov/*****/statistics.htm).The incidence ***** ***** pancreatitis is 17 new *****s per 100,000 people, according ***** figures ranging ***** 1976-1988.

As of 2002, ********** had been 3532 total deaths due to acute pancreatit*****. Also in 2002, there was 333,000 hospitalizations due to the ***** *****m ***** the *****, as opposed to 86,000 for chronic pancreatitis. In 1987 alone, there was also more than a million physician office visits ascribed to pancreatitis, with roughly ninety *****cent of all visits being cases ***** acute pancreatitis.

Pancreatitis is considered severe if it is accompanied by organ failure in one or ***** *****as, if pseudocysts appear, or in the case of pancreatic necrosis. One fifth of all cases of acute pancreatitis are necrotiz*****g, meaning that some areas of nonviable parenchyma exist in the patient's pancreas, as well as in peripancreatic fat are***** (Aronson 1999). However most patients have interstitial pancreatitis as ***** to necrotizing, which is milder.

Pathophysiology/signs and symptoms with rationale for each

The ***** obvious symptom is pain in the abdomen. Cases ***** ***** ***** usually begins with pain in the upper abdomen which will persist for a few days.

The pa***** may remain centralized on the abdomen, or could spread to other *****as (such as the back). Chr*****ic ***** do not ***** result in intense or constant pain, so the chronic form of

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