Essay - Phonological Rules in Language Phonology is Essentially the Linguistic Subfield...


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Phonological rules in language

Phonology is essentially the lingu*****tic subfield in which examines and dissects the system of sound, including ***** semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological rules function in ***** acquisition to aid ***** the development of characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The understanding of phonological ***** is of the utmost importance for language teachers because a grasp ***** these rules results in pronunciations ***** are more native-like in nature (Schramm, 2001). Phonological systems are complex and always *****volve more than one rule, and ********** ***** considered either to be transparent, or with a context that is visible, or opaque, with a ***** that is not visible (Johnson).

*****re are four main types of phonological rules in language. These categories are assimilation, dissimilation, insertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The ***** rule of assimilation refers ***** the process of a sound becoming more similar to a neighboring sound (*****, 2001). A key example of this ***** is nasalization, in ***** a vowel preceding a nasal consonant assimilates, or becomes m*****e similar by taking on a nasal-like quality. ***** ph*****ological rule of ***** is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, *****).

***** the other hand, ***** is a phonologic*****l rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring ***** beco***** less similar to each other (*****, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological *****. This is where it is necessary ***** pronounce two fricatives next to each other, such in the numbers "fifth" *****d "sixth." Non-native speakers of English often find it ch*****enging to master *****se types of ***** sequences (Scramm, *****). Language instructors may ease the ***** of these pronunciations by clearly outlining the processes involved in these dissimilar sounds.

Another type of phonological rule in language is *****sertion. ***** insertion, sounds ***** added to words that are not app*****nt in spelling or slow pronunciation (*****, 2001). ***** can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed ***** pronounce certain ***** do not correspond to how they perceive the words visually. A couple of examples of insertion in the English language ***** words like "hamster," which is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is ***** pronounced ***** an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon-*****-th" (Scramm, 2001).

The final category of phonological rules is deletion. Th***** ***** of rule deals with processes of pronunciation in which ***** are left out, or deleted (Scramm, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion ***** arise when ***** ***** ***** a word diverges from the way it is spelled *****d becomes very similar to the pronunciation of another word with completely different meaning. ********** example of th***** is the word "police," which is *****ten ***** as "pleace," which is furthermore ***** similar ***** the word "ple*****e."

***** rules and processes are involved not only in speech, but also in ***** process of reading. Traditionally, it was widely believed that lexical access from print al*****s involved ***** processing, ***** occurred automatically (Ferguson, 2006).

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