Essay - Phonological Rules in Language Phonology is Essentially the Linguistic Subfield...

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Phonological rules in language

Phonology is essentially the linguistic subfield in which examines and dissects ***** system of sound, including the semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological rules function in language acquisition to aid in the development ***** characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The underst*****ing ***** phonological rules is of the utmost importance for language teachers because a grasp of these ***** results in pronunciations that are more native-like in nature (Schramm, 2001). Phonological systems are complex and always involve ***** than one rule, and ********** ***** considered either to be transparent, or with a context that is v*****ible, or opaque, with a ***** that is not visible (Johnson).

********** are four main types of phonological rules in language. These categ*****ies are assimilation, dissimilation, insertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The phonological rule of assimilation refers to the process of a sound becoming more simil*****r ***** a neighboring sound (*****, 2001). A key example of this rule is nasalization, in ***** a vowel preceding a nasal consonant assimilates, or becomes more similar by taking on a nasal-like quality. The phonological ***** of ***** is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, *****).

On the other hand, ***** is a phonologic*****l rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring sounds become less similar to each other (*****, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological rule. This is where it is necessary to pronounce ***** fricatives next to each *****, such in the numbers "fifth" *****d "sixth." Non-native speakers of Engl*****h often find it ch*****enging to master *****se ***** of sound sequences (Scramm, 2001). Language instructors may ease the acquisition of *****se pronunciations ***** clearly outlining the *****es *****d in *****se dissimilar *****.

Another type ***** ***** rule in language is *****sertion. ***** insertion, ********** are added to words that are not app*****nt in spelling or slow pronunciation (Scramm, 2001). Th***** can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed to pronounce certain words do not correspond ***** how they perceive the words visually. A couple ***** examples of insertion in the English language are ***** like "hamster," which is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is usually pronounced ***** an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon**********-th" (*****, 2001).

***** f*****al category of phonological rules ***** deletion. This ***** of rule deals with processes of pronunciation in which sounds ***** left out, or deleted (Scramm, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion may arise when the ***** ***** a word diverges from the way it is spelled ********** becomes very similar to the pronunciation of another word with completely different meaning. ********** example of this is the word "police," ***** ***** *****ten ***** as "pleace," which is further***** ***** similar ***** the ***** "ple*****e."

***** rules and processes are involved not only in speech, but also in ***** process of reading. Traditionally, it was widely believed that lexical access ***** print always involved ***** processing, ***** occurred automatically (Ferguson, 2006).


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