Essay - Phonological Rules in Language Phonology is Essentially the Linguistic Subfield...

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Phonological rules in language

Phonology is essentially the linguistic subfield in which examines and dissects the system of sound, including the semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological rules function in language acquisition to aid in the development ***** characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The underst*****ing of phonological ***** is of ***** utmost importance for language teachers because a gr*****sp of these rules results in pronunciations that are more native-like in nature (Schramm, *****). Phonological systems are complex and always ********** ***** than one rule, and *****s ***** considered either to be transparent, or with a context ***** is v*****ible, or opaque, with a context that is not v*****ible (Johnson).

***** are four main types of phonological rules in language. These categories are assimilation, dissimilation, *****sertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The phonological rule of assimilation refers to the process of a sound becoming more similar to a neighboring sound (*****, 2001). A key example of this rule is nasalization, in which a vowel preceding a n*****sal consonant assimilates, or becomes m*****e ***** by taking on a nasal-like quality. The phonological ***** ***** ***** is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, 2001).

On the other hand, ***** is a phonological rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring sounds beco***** less similar to each other (Scramm, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological rule. This is where it is necessary to pronounce ***** fricatives next ***** each *****, such in the numbers "fifth" and "sixth." Non-native speakers ***** English often find it challenging to master *****se ***** of sound sequences (Scramm, *****). Language instructors may ease the acquisition of *****se pronunciations by clearly outlining the *****es involved in *****se dissimilar *****.

Another type of phonological rule in language is *****sertion. With insertion, sounds ***** added to words that are not apparent in spelling or slow pronunciation (*****, 2001). This can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed ***** pronounce certain words do not correspond to how they perceive the words visually. A couple of examples of insertion in the ***** language ***** words like "hamster," ***** is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is usually pronounced ***** an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon**********-th" (Scramm, 2001).

***** final category ***** phonological rules ***** deletion. ***** type of rule deals with processes of pronunciation in which sounds are left out, or deleted (*****, 2001). ***** the process of deletion, confusion ***** arise when ***** ***** ***** a word diverges from the ***** it is spelled and becomes very similar to the pronunciation of another ***** with completely different meaning. An example of th***** is the word "police," which is *****ten ***** as "pleace," which is furthermore ***** similar ***** the ***** "ple*****e."

***** rules and ***** are ***** not only in speech, but also in ***** process of reading. Traditionally, it was widely believed that lexical access from print always involved ***** processing, ***** occurred automatically (Ferguson, 2006).


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