Essay - Phonological Rules in Language Phonology is Essentially the Linguistic Subfield...


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Phonological rules in language

Phonology is essentially the lingu*****tic subfield in which examines and dissects ***** system of sound, including the semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological ***** function in ***** acquisition to aid in the development ***** characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The understanding ***** phonological rules is of the utmost importance for language teachers because a gr*****sp of these rules results in pronunciations that are more native-like in nature (Schramm, *****). Phonological systems are complex and always involve more than one rule, ***** ********** ***** considered either to be transparent, or with a context ***** is v*****ible, or opaque, with a ***** that is not visible (Johnson).

There are four main types of phonological rules in language. These categories are assimilation, dissimilation, *****sertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The phonological rule of assimilation refers ***** the process of a sound becoming more simil*****r to a neighboring sound (*****, 2001). A key example of this ***** is nasalization, in which a vowel preceding a nasal consonant assimilates, or becomes m*****e similar by taking on a nasal-like quality. The phonological rule of ***** is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, *****).

On the other hand, ***** is a phonologic*****l rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring ***** beco***** less similar to each other (*****, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological rule. This is where it is necessary to pronounce two fricatives next to each *****, such in the numbers "fifth" *****d "sixth." Non-native speakers ***** English often find it challenging to master these ***** of ***** sequences (Scramm, *****). Language instructors may ease the ***** of these pronunciations ***** clearly outlining the *****es *****d in these dissimilar sounds.

Another type of phonological rule in language is insertion. With insertion, sounds ***** added to words that are not app*****nt in spelling or slow pronunciation (*****, 2001). ***** can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed to pronounce certain words do not correspond to how they perceive the words visually. A couple of examples ***** insertion in the English language ***** words like "hamster," which is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is usually pronounced ***** an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon**********-th" (Scramm, 2001).

***** final category of phonological rules is deletion. This ***** of rule deals with processes ***** pronunciation in which sounds are left out, or deleted (Scramm, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion may arise when ***** ***** of a word diverges from the ***** it is spelled and becomes very similar to the pronunciation ***** another ***** with completely different meaning. *****n example of th***** is the word "police," ***** is often pronounced as "pleace," which is furthermore ***** similar ***** the ***** "ple*****e."

***** rules ***** processes are involved not only in speech, but also in the process of reading. Traditionally, it was widely believed that lexical access ***** print always involved phonological processing, which occurred automatically (Ferguson, 2006).

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