Essay - Phonological Rules in Language Phonology is Essentially the Linguistic Subfield...

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Phonological rules in language

Phonology is essentially the linguistic subfield in which examines and dissects ***** system of sound, including the semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological rules function in ***** acquisition to aid in the development ***** characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The understanding ***** phonological ***** is of the utmost importance for language teachers because a gr*****sp ***** these rules results in pronunciations that are more native-like ***** nature (Schramm, *****). Phonological systems are complex and always involve ***** than one rule, and ***** are considered either to be transparent, or with a context that is v*****ible, or opaque, with a context that is not visible (Johnson).

There are four main types of phonological rules in language. These categ*****ies are assimilation, dissimilation, insertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The phonological rule of assimilation refers ***** the process of a sound becoming more similar to a neighboring sound (Scr*****mm, 2001). A key example of this rule is nasalization, in ***** a vowel preceding a nasal consonant assimilates, or becomes more ***** by taking on a nasal-like quality. The phonological rule of ***** is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, 2001).

On the other hand, ***** is a phonologic*****l rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring ***** become less similar ***** each other (*****, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological *****. This is where it is necessary to pronounce two fricatives next ***** each *****, such in the numbers "fifth" *****d "sixth." Non-native speakers ***** Engl*****h often find it challenging to master these ***** of ***** sequences (Scramm, *****). Language instructors may ease the acquisition of *****se pronunciations by clearly outlining the processes *****d in these dissimilar sounds.

Another type ***** phonological rule in language is *****sertion. ***** insertion, ***** ***** added to words that are not app*****nt in spelling or slow pronunciation (Scramm, 2001). This can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed to pronounce certain ***** do not correspond ***** how they perceive the words visually. A couple of examples ***** insertion in the English language ***** ***** like "hamster," which is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is usually pronounced ***** an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon**********-th" (Scramm, 2001).

The f*****al category of phonological rules ***** deletion. This ***** of rule deals with processes of pronunciation in which sounds are left out, or deleted (Scramm, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion may arise when the pronunciation of a word diverges from ***** ***** it is spelled and becomes very similar to the pronunciation ***** another ***** with completely different meaning. ********** example of th***** is the word "police," ***** ***** often ***** as "pleace," which is furthermore very similar ***** the ***** "ple*****e."

***** rules ***** ***** are involved not only in speech, but also in ***** process of reading. Traditionally, it was widely believed that lexical access ***** print always involved phonological processing, ***** occurred automatically (Ferguson, 2006).


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