Essay - Phonological Rules in Language Phonology is Essentially the Linguistic Subfield...

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Phonological rules in language

Phonology is essentially the linguistic subfield in which examines and dissects the system of sound, including ***** semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological ***** function in ***** acquisition to aid ***** the development ***** characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The underst*****ing of phonological rules is of the utmost importance for language teachers because a grasp ***** these rules results in pronunciations ***** are more native-like in nature (Schramm, *****). Phonological systems are complex and always involve ***** than one rule, ***** ********** are considered either to be transparent, or with a context that is v*****ible, or opaque, ***** a ***** that is not v*****ible (Johnson).

*****re are four main types of phonological rules in language. These categ*****ies are assimilation, dissimilation, insertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The ***** rule of assimilation refers ***** the process of a sound becoming more simil*****r to a neighboring sound (Scr*****mm, 2001). A key example of this rule is nasalization, in which a vowel preceding a nasal consonant assimilates, or becomes more similar by taking on a nasal-like quality. ***** ph*****ological rule ***** assimilation is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, *****).

On the other h*****, ***** is a phonologic*****l rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring ***** become less similar ***** each ***** (Scramm, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological *****. This is where it is necessary to pronounce two fricatives next ***** each other, such in the numbers "fifth" and "sixth." Non-native speakers ***** Engl*****h often find it ch*****enging to master these types of sound sequences (Scramm, 2001). Language instructors may ease the acquisition of *****se pronunciations by clearly outlining the processes involved in *****se dissimilar *****s.

Another type of ***** rule in language is insertion. ***** insertion, sounds ***** added to words that are not apparent in spelling or slow pronunciation (Scramm, 2001). ***** can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed to pronounce certain words do not correspond to how they perceive the words visually. A couple of examples ***** insertion in the English language are ***** like "hamster," ***** is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is ***** pronounced with an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon**********-th" (*****, 2001).

The final category of phonological rules ***** deletion. This ***** of rule deals with processes of pronunciation in which sounds ***** left out, or deleted (Scramm, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion may arise when the ***** ***** a word diverges from the ***** it is spelled and becomes very similar to the pronunciation of another ***** with completely different meaning. *****n example of this is the word "police," ***** is often ***** as "pleace," which is furthermore ***** similar ***** the word "ple*****e."

***** rules and processes are ***** not only in speech, but also in the process of reading. Traditionally, it was widely believed that lexical access ***** print always involved phonological processing, ***** occurred automatically (Ferguson, 2006).


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