Essay - Phonological Rules in Language Phonology is Essentially the Linguistic Subfield...

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Phonological rules in language

Phonology is essentially the linguistic subfield in which examines and dissects ***** system of sound, including the semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological ***** function in ***** acquisition to aid in the development ***** characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The underst*****ing of phonological rules is ***** ***** utmost importance for language teachers because a gr*****sp of these ***** results in pronunciations that are more native-like ***** nature (Schramm, 2001). Phonological systems are complex and always involve ***** than one rule, and rules ***** considered either to be transparent, or with a context ***** is v*****ible, or opaque, ***** a ***** that is not visible (Johnson).

There are four main types of phonological ***** in language. These categories are assimilation, dissimilation, insertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The phonological rule of assimilation refers to the process of a sound becoming more similar to a neighboring sound (Scr*****mm, 2001). A key example of this rule is nasalization, in which a vowel preceding a nasal consonant assimilates, or becomes more ***** by taking on a nasal-like quality. ***** phonological ***** of ***** is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, *****).

On the other h*****, dissimilation is a phonologic*****l rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring ***** become less similar ***** each other (*****, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological rule. This is where it is necessary to pronounce ***** fricatives next ***** each *****, such in the numbers "fifth" *****d "sixth." Non-native speakers ***** Engl*****h often find it ch*****enging to master these ***** of ***** sequences (Scramm, *****). Language instructors may ease the acquisition of these pronunciations by clearly outlining the processes involved in *****se dissimilar sounds.

Another type of phonological rule in language is *****sertion. With insertion, ***** ***** added to words that are not app*****nt in spelling or slow pronunciation (Scramm, 2001). ***** can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed to pronounce certain words do not correspond to how they perceive the words v*****ually. A couple of examples ***** insertion in the English language ***** ***** like "hamster," ***** is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is usually pronounced with an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon-*****-th" (Scramm, 2001).

The final category of phonological rules ***** deletion. This ***** of rule deals with processes of pronunciation in which sounds are left out, or deleted (Scramm, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion ***** arise when the ***** ***** a word diverges from the ***** it is spelled and becomes very similar to the pronunciation of another word with completely different meaning. An example of th***** is the word "police," which is often ***** as "pleace," which is furthermore ***** similar ***** the word "ple*****e."

***** rules and ***** ***** ***** not only in speech, but also in the process of reading. Traditionally, it was widely believed that lexical access from print always involved phonological processing, which occurred automatically (Ferguson, 2006).


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