Essay - Phonological Rules in Language Phonology is Essentially the Linguistic Subfield...

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Phonological rules in language

Phonology is essentially the lingu*****tic subfield in which examines and dissects ***** system of sound, including the semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological rules function in language acquisition to aid ***** the development ***** characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The understanding ***** phonological ***** is of ***** utmost importance for language teachers because a gr*****sp of these rules results in pronunciations that are more native-like in nature (Schramm, *****). Phonological systems are complex and always involve more than one rule, ***** ********** ***** considered either to be transparent, or with a context ***** is v*****ible, or opaque, ***** a ***** that is not v*****ible (Johnson).

There are four main types ***** phonological rules in language. These categ*****ies are assimilation, dissimilation, *****sertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The ***** rule of assimilation refers to the process of a sound becoming more similar to a neighboring sound (*****, 2001). A key ex*****mple of this rule is nasalization, in ***** a vowel preceding a nasal consonant assimilates, or becomes m*****e similar by taking on a nasal-like quality. ***** phonological ***** ***** assimilation is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, *****).

On the other hand, dissimilation is a phonologic*****l rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring ***** beco***** less similar ***** each ***** (*****, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological rule. This is where it is necessary to pronounce two fricatives next ***** each other, such in the numbers "fifth" *****d "sixth." Non-native speakers ***** English often find it ch*****enging to master *****se ***** of ***** sequences (Scramm, 2001). Language instructors may ease the acquisition of *****se pronunciations ***** clearly outlining the processes ********** in these dissimilar sounds.

Another type ***** phonological rule in language is *****sertion. With insertion, ***** ***** added to words that are not app*****nt in spelling or slow pronunciation (Scramm, 2001). ***** can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed ***** pronounce certain words do not correspond to how they perceive the words visually. A couple of examples of insertion in the ***** language ***** words like "hamster," which is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," ***** is ***** pronounced with an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon**********-th" (*****, 2001).

The final category ***** ***** rules is deletion. This ***** of rule deals with processes ***** pronunciation in which sounds are left out, or deleted (Scramm, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion may arise when ***** pronunciation of a word diverges from the way it is spelled and becomes very similar to the pronunciation of another word with completely different meaning. *****n example of th***** is the word "police," which is often pronounced as "pleace," ***** is furthermore ***** similar to the ***** "ple*****e."

***** rules and ***** are involved not only in speech, but also in ***** process of reading. Traditionally, it was widely believed that lexical access from print al*****s involved phonological processing, which occurred automatically (Ferguson, 2006).


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