Essay - Phonological Rules in Language Phonology is Essentially the Linguistic Subfield...

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Phonological rules in language

Phonology is essentially the linguistic subfield in which examines and dissects ***** system of sound, including the semantic relationship between different sounds (Schramm, 2001). Phonological rules function in ***** acquisition to aid ***** the development of characteristics that are integral to correct pronunciation of words. The underst*****ing of phonological rules is ***** the utmost importance for language teachers because a gr*****sp of these rules results in pronunciations ***** are more native-like ***** nature (Schramm, *****). Phonological systems are complex and always involve more than one rule, ***** ***** are considered either to be transparent, or with a context that is v*****ible, or opaque, with a context that is not visible (Johnson).

There are four main types of phonological *****s in language. These categories are assimilation, dissimilation, insertion and deletion (Scramm, 2001). The ***** rule of assimilation refers to the process of a sound becoming more similar to a neighboring sound (*****, 2001). A key ex*****mple of this ***** is nasalization, in ***** a vowel preceding a n*****sal consonant assimilates, or becomes m*****e ***** by taking on a nasal-like quality. ***** ph*****ological rule ***** assimilation is prevalent in all languages (Scramm, *****).

On the other h*****, ***** is a phonologic*****l rule that functions opposite to assimilation. With dissimilation, two neighboring ***** beco***** less similar ***** each ***** (*****, 2001). Fricative dissimilation is an example of this phonological rule. This is where it is necessary to pronounce two fricatives next to each other, such in the numbers "fifth" *****d "sixth." Non-native speakers of Engl*****h often find it ch*****enging to master *****se types of sound sequences (Scramm, 2001). Language instructors may ease the ***** of *****se pronunciations by clearly outlining the processes involved in *****se dissimilar sounds.

Another type ***** ***** rule in language is *****sertion. ***** insertion, sounds ***** added to words that are not app*****nt in spelling or slow pronunciation (Scramm, 2001). This can provide confusion to learners of a new language since the way they are instructed ***** pronounce certain ***** do not correspond to how they perceive the words visually. A couple ***** examples of insertion in the English language ***** words like "hamster," which is usually pronounced "hamster," or "month," which is ***** pronounced with an exaggerated "t" sound - "mon**********-th" (Scramm, 2001).

***** final category of phonological rules ***** deletion. This type of rule deals with processes of pronunciation in which sounds are left out, or deleted (*****, 2001). With the process of deletion, confusion ***** arise when the pronunciation ***** a word diverges from the way it is spelled *****d becomes very similar to the pronunciation of another ***** with completely different meaning. An example of th***** is the word "police," which ***** often pronounced as "pleace," which is furthermore very similar to the ***** "ple*****e."

Phonological rules and ***** are involved not only in speech, but also in the process of reading. Traditionally, it was widely believed that lexical access from print always involved ***** processing, which occurred automatically (Ferguson, 2006).


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