Essay - Poetry African-american Poetry Studies: the Expression of Racial Tension in...


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POETRY

AFRICAN-AMERICAN POETRY STUDIES: THE EXPRESSION OF RACIAL TENSION IN THE WORK OF HUGHS, MCCAY, CULLEN AND BROWN

OBJECTIVE

***** objective of this work is the review ***** work of four authors, specifically those of:

1) Langston Hughs - "Democracy";

2) Claude McKay - "If We Must Die";

3) Countee Cullen ***** "Uncle Jim"; and 4) Sterling Brown - "Bitter Fruit of the Tree" and to then discuss how each ***** these authors expresses within their written work the subject of racism.

INTRODUCTION

***** feelings and emotions are expressed through the art of poetry ***** this is particularly true of the *****s of *****, McKay, Cullen and Brown in ***** expressions of racism in the poems studies in this research work.

MCKAY: IF WE MUST DIE (1919)

***** 1919 Claude McCay responded to mass riots ***** which whites assaulted black neighborhoods in approximately '...a dozen..' cities across America. McCay's poem "If We Must Die" states:

***** we must die, let it not be like hogs

***** and penned ***** an inglorious spot,

While round us bark the mad *****d hungry dogs,

***** their mock at our accursed lot.

If we ***** die, O let us nobly *****..."

***** is clear that McCay is urging the black community to fight back... or indeed ***** die for something other than for merely being a member of the bl*****ck minority race in America as he states:

***** men *****'ll face t***** murderous, cowardly pack,

***** *****o the wall, dying, but fighting back!"

*****: DEMOCRACY

In ***** ***** entitled: "Democracy" the author Langston Hughs states:

Democracy will ***** come

*****, this year

Nor ever

Through compromise and fear." (Langston *****)

As the poem continues Hughs relates that ***** individual has ***** same 'right' as one another in terms of independence and the rights to own their own land. Hughs ***** that he grows weary of ***** who abdicate ***** own rights and encourage others to do so by '*****ting things "take their own course" or go as they may stating:

***** not need my freedom when I'm dead.

A cannot live on tomorrow's bread." (Langston Hughs)

The poem of Hughs ends ***** expressing that freedom comes to be needed by those who ***** deprived the most of freedom.

CULLEN: UNCLE JIM

In the work of ***** entitled "Uncle Jim" the entirety of underst*****ing this ***** is in ***** first line which states:

White folks ***** white," says Uncle Jim" (Countree Cullen)

In just the first ***** ***** ***** poem it is expressed how all the blacks were not ready at the time of this poem for feeling or accepting th***** they were, just as the ***** people, Americans.

*****: "BITTER FRUIT OF THE TREE"

Many of Sterling *****s first works have been called "...***** narratives...' to be followed by "B*****ter Fruit of the *****" which ***** ***** termed to be a "...***** vendetta..." in which he speaks of the suffering of his family, specifically his grandmother and grandfather and his father. Brown speaks of

. . . . [END OF ESSAY PREVIEW]

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