Essay - Poetry African-american Poetry Studies: the Expression of Racial Tension in...


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POETRY

AFRICAN-AMERICAN POETRY STUDIES: THE EXPRESSION OF RACIAL TENSION IN THE WORK OF HUGHS, MCCAY, CULLEN AND BROWN

OBJECTIVE

***** objective of this work is the review the ***** ***** four authors, specifically those of:

*****) Langston Hughs - "Democracy";

2) Claude McKay - "If We Must Die";

3) Countee Cullen - "Uncle Jim"; and 4) Sterling Brown - "Bitter Fruit of the Tree" and to then discuss how each of these authors expresses within their written work the subject of racism.

*****TRODUCTION

Many feelings and emotions are expressed through the art of poetry ***** this is particularly true of the *****s of *****, McKay, Cullen and ***** in ***** expressions of ***** in the poems studies ***** this research work.

MCKAY: IF WE MUST DIE (1919)

In 1919 Claude McCay responded to mass riots in which whites assaulted black neighborhoods in approximately '...a dozen..' cities across America. McCay's poem "If ***** Must Die" states:

***** we must die, let it not be like hogs

Hunted and penned ***** an inglorious spot,

While round us bark the mad *****d hungry dogs,

Making their mock at our accursed lot.

If we ***** die, O ***** us nobly *****..."

***** is clear that McCay is urging the black community to fight back... or indeed ***** die for something other than for merely being a member of the black minority race in ***** as he states:

***** men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack,

Pressed to ***** wall, dying, but fighting back!"

*****: DEMOCRACY

In the ***** entitled: "Democracy" the author Langston Hughs states:

***** will not come

*****, this year

Nor ever

Through compromise and fear." (Langston Hughs)

As the poem continues Hughs relates that ***** individual has the same 'right' as one a*****her in terms of independence and the rights to own their own land. Hughs ***** that he grows weary of ***** who abdicate ***** own rights and encourage ot*****rs to do so by 'letting things "take their own course" or go ***** they may stating:

do not need my freedom when I'm dead.

A cannot live on tomorrow's bread." (Langst***** Hughs)

The poem of ***** ends by expressing that freedom comes to be needed by those who are deprived the most of freedom.

*****: UNCLE JIM

***** the work of Cullen entitled "Uncle Jim" the entirety of understanding this ***** is in the first line which states:

White folks ***** white," says Uncle Jim" (Countree Cullen)

In just the first line of this poem it is expressed how all the *****s were not ready at the time of this poem for feeling or accepting th***** they were, just as the ***** people, Americans.

*****: "BITTER FRUIT OF THE TREE"

Many of Sterling Browns first works have ********** called "...lighthearted narratives...' to be followed ***** "B*****ter Fruit ***** the *****" which ***** been termed to be a "...***** vendetta..." in which he speaks of t***** suffer*****g of his family, specifically his grandmother and grandfather and his father. Brown speaks of

. . . . [END OF DISSERTATION PREVIEW]

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