Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...

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How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust ***** Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional ***** of monitor*****g likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. *****re are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance requires the sustained monitoring of suspects, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. ***** surveillance or wiretapping often ***** a cooper*****tive witness, a ***** undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, *****nd/or a warrant to listen to the suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect ***** be unreliable and difficult and vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on the nature of ***** subject it can also ***** dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

***** the proper legal protocols when conducting these various *****ms ***** surveillance ***** essential for members of the *****ce. This is particularly important when using those forms of surveillance involving technological assistance, ***** as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They have extensive legal limitations as they are regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy ***** they ***** involve the ***** home, where there is an expectation of privacy not assumed in an open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that tele***** ***** was technically a search and by 1972, the Court ***** ruling that every single phone and wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime has been or is about to be committed (***** 2007). Computer surveillance often has even more onerous ***** specific legal restrictions.

***** meet the cost challenges of the future while still complying with the safety needs of the public and the financial needs of departments, police departments, especially at smaller venues such as college campuses, are attempting to adapt the environment ***** ***** effective policing, even before ***** occurs. These strategies of CPTED (Crime prevention through environmental design) stress ***** rather than coping with the ***** difficulties of conventional *****, where a suspect ***** e*****sily 'shake' an ********** on foot—provided that a likely criminal can be identified in the first place—***** departments should shift*****g to a philosophy of environmental ********** surveillance (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED is a crime prevention str*****tegy and a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by features that maximize visibility of people, parking ********** and building entrances: doors and windows that look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets; front porches; adequate nighttime lighting" (Otterstatter 2008).

Creating a sense of b*****rriers, a system also known as territorial reinforcement according to the principles ***** ***** likewise does not require new training of officers, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is depend*****t upon the psychological concept of ***** broken window, namely that by creating barriers ***** define private *****ty lines, intruders are less likely to break in—in other


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