Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...

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How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional ***** of moni*****ring likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. *****re are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance ********** the sustained monitoring ***** suspects, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. Audio surveillance or wiretapping often requires a cooper*****tive witness, a ***** undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, *****nd/***** a warrant to listen to ***** suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect ***** be unreliable and difficult and vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on the nature of ***** subject it can also be dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

Following the proper legal protocols when conducting these various forms ***** ***** ***** essential for mem*****rs of the *****ce. This is particularly important when using those forms of surveillance involving technological assistance, such as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They ***** extensive legal limitations as they are regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy and they often involve the individual's home, where there is an expectation of privacy not assumed in ***** open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that tele***** surveillance was technically a search and by 1972, the Court was rul*****g that every single phone and wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime ***** been or is about to be committed (***** 2007). Computer surveillance *****ten has even more onerous and specific legal restrictions.

***** meet the cost challenges of the future while still complying with the safety needs of the public ***** the financial needs of departments, police departments, especially at smaller venues such as college campuses, are attempting to adapt the environment to more effective policing, even before crime occurs. These strategies of CPTED (Crime pr*****tion through environmental design) stress that rather than coping with the ***** difficulties of conventional *****, where a suspect ***** e*****sily 'shake' an *****ficer on foot—provided that a likely crimin*****l can be identified in the first place—police departments should shift*****g to a philosophy of environmental ********** surveillance (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED is a ***** prevention strategy and a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by features that maximize visibility ***** people, parking *****as and building entrances: doors and windows that look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and *****; fr*****t porches; adequate nighttime lighting" (***** 2008).

Creating a sense of barriers, a system *****lso known as territorial reinforcement according to the principles of ***** likewise does not require new training of officers, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is dependant upon the psychological concept of ***** broken window, namely that ***** creating barriers ***** define private *****ty lines, intruders are less likely to break in—in other


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