Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...


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Police

***** Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust ***** Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional ***** of monitor*****g likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. *****re are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance *****s the sustained monitoring of suspects, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. ***** surveillance or wiretapping often requires a cooperative witness, a ***** undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, *****nd/or a warrant to listen to ***** suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect ***** be unreliable and difficult ***** vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on the nature of the subject it can also be dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

Following the proper legal protocols when conducting these various *****ms of ***** ***** essential for members ***** the **********. This is particularly important when using those forms of surveillance involving technological assistance, such as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They have extensive legal limitations as they are regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy and they often involve the ***** home, where there is an expectation of privacy not assumed in ***** open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that tele***** surveillance was technically a search and by 1972, the Court was rul*****g that every single phone and wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime has been or is about to be committed (***** 2007). Computer surveillance ***** has even more onerous ***** specific legal restrictions.

***** meet the cost challenges ***** the future while still complying with ***** safety needs of the public and ***** financial needs of departments, police departments, especially at smaller venues ***** as college campuses, are attempting to adapt the environment ***** more effective policing, even before crime occurs. These strategies of CPTED (Crime pr*****tion through environmental design) stress ***** ra*****r than coping with the log*****tical difficulties ***** conventional *****, where a suspect c*****n easily 'shake' an officer on foot—provided that a likely crimin*****l can be identified in the first place—police departments should shift*****g to a philosophy of environment*****l design-based surveillance (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED is a crime prevention strategy and a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by features that maximize visibility ***** people, parking ********** and building entrances: doors and windows that look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets; front porches; adequate nighttime lighting" (Otterstatter 2008).

Creating a sense of barriers, a system *****lso known as territorial reinforcement according to the principles of CPTED likewise does not require new training of **********, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is dependant upon the psychological concept of ***** broken window, namely that ***** creating barriers ***** define private *****ty lines, intruders are less likely to break in—in other

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