Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...


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Police

How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust ***** Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional methods of monitoring likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. *****re are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance *****s the sustained ***** of suspects, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. Audio surveillance or wiretapping often requires a cooperative witness, a ***** undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, and/or a warrant to listen to the suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect ***** be unreliable and difficult ***** vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on ***** nature of the subject it can also be dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

Following the proper legal protocols when conducting these various *****ms of surveillance ***** essential for members ***** the force. This is particularly important when using those forms of surveillance involving technological assistance, ***** as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They have extensive legal limitations as they are regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy and they often involve the ***** home, where there is an expectation of privacy not assumed in an open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that tele***** ***** was technically a se*****rch and by 1972, ***** Court ***** rul*****g that every single phone ***** wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime has been or is about to be committed (O'Connor 2007). Computer surveillance often has even more onerous ***** specific legal restrictions.

***** meet the cost challenges of the future while still complying with ***** safety needs of the public and ***** financial needs of departments, police departments, ***** at smaller venues such as college campuses, are attempting to adapt the environment to ***** effective policing, even before crime occurs. These strategies ***** CPTED (Crime pr*****tion through environmental design) stress that rather than coping with the log*****tical difficulties of conventional *****, where a suspect ***** e*****sily 'shake' an officer on foot—provided ***** a likely criminal can be identified in the first place—police departments should shifting to a philosophy of environmental design-based surveillance (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED is a crime prevention str*****tegy ***** a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by features that maximize visibility ***** people, parking ********** and building entrances: doors and windows that look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets; front porches; adequate nighttime lighting" (Otterstatter 2008).

Creating a sense of barriers, a system ********** known as territorial reinforcement according to the principles of CPTED likewise does ***** require new training of *****s, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is dependant upon the psychological concept of ***** broken window, namely that ***** creating barriers that define private property lines, intruders are less likely ***** break in—in other

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