Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...

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***** Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust ***** Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional methods of monitor*****g likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. There are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance ********** the sustained monitoring of *****, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. ***** surveillance or wiretapping often requires a cooperative witness, a ***** undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, **********/***** a warrant to listen to ***** suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect can be unreliable and difficult ***** vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on the nature of ***** subject it can also ***** dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

***** the proper ***** protocols when conducting these various forms ***** ***** are essential for members of the force. This is particularly important when using those forms of surveillance involving technological ass*****tance, such as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They ***** extensive legal limitations as they ***** regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy and ***** often involve the individual's home, where there is an expectation of privacy not assumed in an open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that tele***** surveillance was technically a se*****rch ***** by 1972, ***** Court was ruling that every single phone and wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime has been or is about to be committed (O'Connor 2007). Computer surveillance often has even more onerous ***** specific legal restrictions.

To meet the cost challenges of the future while still complying with ***** safety needs of the public and ***** financial ***** of departments, police departments, ***** at smaller venues ***** as college campuses, are attempting to adapt the environment ***** more effective policing, even before crime occurs. These strategies ***** CPTED (Crime prevention ***** environmental design) stress ***** ra*****r than coping with the ***** difficulties of conventional surveillance, where a suspect ***** e*****sily 'shake' an officer on foot—provided that a likely criminal can be identified in the first place—police departments should shifting to a philosophy of environment*****l ********** ***** (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED is a crime prevention str*****tegy and a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by features that maximize v*****ibility of people, parking *****as and building entrances: doors and windows that look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets; front porches; adequate night***** lighting" (Otterstatter 2008).

Creating a sense of b*****rriers, a system also known as territorial rein*****ment according to the principles of CPTED likewise does not require new training of officers, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is depend*****t upon the psychological concept of the broken window, namely that ***** creating barriers that define private *****ty lines, intruders are less likely to break in—in o*****r


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