Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...

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***** Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust ***** Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional methods of monitoring likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. *****re are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance *****s the sustained ***** of suspects, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. ***** surveillance or wiretapping *****ten requires a cooperative witness, a police undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, *****nd/or a warrant to listen to ***** suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect ***** be unreliable and difficult ***** vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on the nature of ***** subject it can also be dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

Following the proper ***** protocols when conducting these various forms of surveillance ***** essential for members ***** the **********. This is particularly important when using those forms of surveillance involving technological assistance, such as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They ***** extensive legal limitations as they are regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy and they often involve the ***** home, where ********** is an expectation of privacy not assumed in ***** open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that telephone surveillance was technically a search and by 1972, ***** Court ***** ruling that every single phone ***** wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime ***** been or is about to be committed (***** 2007). Computer surveillance ***** has even more onerous and specific legal restrictions.

***** meet the cost challenges ***** the future while still complying with ***** safety needs of the public ***** the financial ***** of departments, ***** departments, especially at smaller venues such as college campuses, are attempting ***** adapt the environment to more effective policing, even before ***** occurs. These strategies of CPTED (Crime prevention through environmental design) stress ***** rather than coping with the logistical difficulties of conventional surveillance, where a ***** c*****n easily 'shake' an *****ficer on foot—provided that a likely crimin*****l can be identified in the first place—police departments should shift*****g ***** a philosophy of environmental *****-based surveillance (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED is a crime prevention strategy and a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by features that maximize visibility ***** people, parking *****as ***** building entrances: doors and windows ***** look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and *****; fr*****t porches; adequate night***** lighting" (***** 2008).

Creating a sense of barriers, a system *****lso known as territorial reinforcement according to the principles ***** ***** likewise does ***** require new training of officers, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is depend*****t upon the psychological concept of the broken window, namely that by creating barriers that define private property lines, ***** are less likely to break in—in o*****r


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