Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...

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***** Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust ***** Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional methods of monitoring likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. There are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance requires the sustained ***** of *****, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. ***** surveillance or wiretapping *****ten requires a cooperative witness, a ***** undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, and/or a warrant to listen to the suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect ***** be unreliable and difficult ***** vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on ***** nature of the subject it can also ***** dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

Following the proper ***** protocols when conducting these various forms ***** ***** ***** essential for members of the force. This is particularly important when using those forms of surveillance involving technological ass*****tance, ***** as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They ***** extensive legal limitations as they are regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy and they often involve the ***** home, where *****re is an expectation of privacy not assumed in ***** open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that tele***** surveillance was technically a se*****rch and by 1972, ***** Court was ruling that every single phone ***** wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime has been or is about to be committed (O'Connor 2007). Computer surveillance ***** has even more onerous and specific legal restrictions.

***** meet the cost challenges of ***** future while still complying with the safety needs of ***** public ***** the financial ***** of departments, police departments, especially at smaller venues such as college campuses, are attempting ***** adapt the environment to ***** effective policing, even before crime occurs. These strategies of CPTED (Crime pr*****tion ***** environmental design) stress ***** rather than coping with the log*****tical difficulties ***** conventional *****, where a ***** c*****n easily 'shake' an officer on foot—provided that a likely crimin*****l can be identified in the first place—police departments should shift*****g ***** a philosophy of environment*****l ********** surveillance (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED is a crime prevention str*****tegy and a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by fe*****ures that maximize v*****ibility ***** people, parking *****as ***** building entrances: doors and windows ***** look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets; front porches; adequate night***** lighting" (Otterstatter 2008).

Creating a sense of b*****rriers, a system also known as territorial reinforcement according to the principles ***** CPTED likewise does ***** require new training of officers, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is dependant upon the psychological concept of the broken window, namely that by creating barriers ***** define private property lines, ***** are less likely ***** break in—in o*****r


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