Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...

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***** Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust ***** Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional methods of monitor*****g likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. *****re are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance ********** the sustained monitoring ***** *****, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. Audio surveillance or wiretapping often requires a cooperative witness, a police undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, and/or a warrant to listen to the suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect can be unreliable and difficult ***** vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on the nature of ***** subject it can also ***** dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

***** the proper legal protocols when conducting these various forms ***** ***** ***** essential for members of the **********. This is particularly important when using those forms of surveillance involving technological ass*****tance, such as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They ***** extensive legal limitations as they are regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy and ***** often involve the individual's home, where *****re is an expectation of privacy not assumed in ***** open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that tele***** ***** was technically a search ***** by 1972, the Court was rul*****g that every single phone and wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime has been or is about to be committed (O'Connor 2007). Computer surveillance ***** has even more onerous ***** specific legal restrictions.

To meet the cost challenges ***** the future while still complying with the safety needs of the public and the financial ***** of departments, ***** departments, especially at smaller venues such as college campuses, are attempting to adapt the environment to more effective policing, even before ***** occurs. These strategies ***** CPTED (Crime prevention ***** environmental design) stress that rather than coping with the logistical difficulties of conventional surveillance, where a ***** ***** easily 'shake' an *****ficer on foot—provided that a likely criminal can be identified in the first place—police departments should shift*****g ***** a philosophy of environment*****l design-based surveillance (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED is a crime prevention strategy and a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by fe*****ures that maximize v*****ibility ***** people, parking *****as ***** building entrances: doors and windows that look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and *****; fr*****t porches; adequate night***** lighting" (Otterstatter 2008).

Creating a sense of barriers, a system also known as territorial reinforcement according to the principles ***** CPTED likewise does not require new training of officers, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is dependant upon the psychological concept of ***** broken window, namely that ***** creating barriers that define private property lines, intruders are less likely ***** break in—in other


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