Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...

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How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust ***** Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional ***** of monitor*****g likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. *****re are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance requires the sustained monitoring of suspects, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. ***** surveillance or wiretapping ********** ***** a cooperative witness, a ***** undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, *****nd/or a warrant to listen to the suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect ***** be unreliable and difficult ***** vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on the nature of the subject it can also ***** dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

***** the proper legal protocols when conducting these various *****ms of surveillance ***** essential for members ***** the force. This is particularly important when using those forms of surveillance involving technological assistance, ***** as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They ***** extensive legal limitations as they are regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy and ***** often involve the individual's home, where there is an expectation of privacy not assumed in an open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that tele***** surveillance was technically a se*****rch ***** by 1972, the Court ***** rul*****g that every single phone and wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime has been or is about to be committed (***** 2007). Computer surveillance often has even more onerous ***** specific legal restrictions.

To meet the cost challenges of the future while still complying with ***** safety needs of the public and ***** financial needs of departments, police departments, ***** at smaller venues such as college campuses, are attempting to adapt the environment ***** ***** effective policing, even before crime occurs. These strategies ***** CPTED (Crime pr*****tion ***** environmental design) stress ***** rather than coping with the ***** difficulties of conventional *****, where a suspect can easily 'shake' an *****ficer on foot—provided that a likely crimin*****l ***** be identified in the first place—***** departments should shift*****g to a philosophy of environmental design-based surveillance (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED is a crime prevention strategy and a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by fe*****ures that maximize visibility ***** people, parking areas ***** building entrances: doors and windows ***** look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets; fr*****t porches; adequate night***** lighting" (Otterstatter 2008).

Creating a sense of barriers, a system also known as territorial reinforcement according to the principles ***** ***** likewise does ***** require new training of officers, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is dependant upon the psychological concept of the broken window, namely that by creating barriers that define private property lines, intruders are less likely to break in—in o*****r


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