Essay - Police How Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust to...

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***** Would You Shape Police Departments to Adjust ***** Visual, Audio and Locational Changes in the Future?

Traditional methods of police surveillance have often proved costly, for both logistical as well as legal reasons. The traditional ***** of monitor*****g likely suspects usually require considerable manpower and time. *****re are four general types of surveillance: visual surveillance, audio surveillance, 'moving,' and contact surveillance. Visual surveillance requires the sustained monitoring of *****, such as through a stakeout, and almost always involves a hidden camera. Audio surveillance or wiretapping *****ten requires a cooper*****tive witness, a police undercover agent who has gained the suspect's confidence and can wear a wire, *****nd/***** a warrant to listen to the suspect's phone calls. Moving or tailing a suspect ***** be unreliable and difficult ***** vehicle surveillance can prove obtrusive. Depending on ***** nature of the subject it can also ***** dangerous (O'Connor 2007).

Following the proper legal protocols when conducting these various *****ms ***** ***** are essential for members of the force. This is particularly important when using those forms ***** surveillance involving technological assistance, such as camera-based or wiretapping technology. They have extensive legal limitations as they are regarded as especially intrusive into an individual's privacy and ***** often involve the individual's home, where there is an expectation of privacy not assumed in ***** open environment. "In 1967, the Court ruled that telephone ***** was technically a search and by 1972, ***** Court ***** rul*****g that every single phone and wire tap needed prior judicial approval" and required probable cause that a crime ***** been or is about to be committed (***** 2007). Computer surveillance often has even more onerous ***** specific legal restrictions.

***** meet the cost challenges of the future while still complying with ***** safety needs of the public and the financial needs of departments, police departments, ***** at smaller venues such as college campuses, are attempting ***** adapt the environment to more effective policing, even before ***** occurs. These strategies ***** CPTED (Crime prevention through environmental design) stress ***** ra*****r than coping with the ***** difficulties of conventional *****, where a ***** c*****n easily 'shake' an officer on foot—provided that a likely crimin*****l can be identified in the first place—***** departments should shifting to a philosophy of environment*****l ********** surveillance (Otterstatter 2008). CPTED is a crime prevention str*****tegy and a "design concept directed primarily at keeping intruders easily observable. [It is] Promoted by fe*****ures that maximize visibility of people, parking ********** and building entrances: doors and windows that look out on to streets and parking areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and *****; front porches; adequate nighttime lighting" (Otterstatter 2008).

Creating a sense of b*****rriers, a system *****lso known as territorial rein*****ment according to the principles ***** ***** likewise does not require new training of officers, new technology, or much of an additional cost outlay. It is dependant upon the psychological concept of ***** broken window, namely that ***** creating barriers that define private *****ty lines, ***** are less likely ***** break in—in other


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