Essay - Political Movements in Latin America This Paper is Divided into...

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Political Movements in Latin America

This paper is divided into two parts: the first part provides and defends a definition of populism, addressing its ideology, social base, charisma, clientelism, and the extent of institutionalization; the second part argues that populism ***** guerrilla movements are very similar phenomena, divided only by the level of their extremism.

***** ***** many *****s of '*****', as seemingly each academic uses his or her own definition ***** this term, expecting all readers to automatically agree with this definition. As Roberts (1995) says, "few social science concepts can match populism when it comes to nebulous and inconsistent usage." ***** Roberts (*****) says, "These multiple dimensions have allowed the populist concept ***** be applied to a wide range of loosely connected empirical phenomena, ranging from economic policies ***** development phases ***** political ideologies, movements, parties, governments, and social coalitions": some ***** *****se will be discussed below.

***** definitions label political ***** as, "excessive centralization of decision-making, i.e., rule by decree, with decreasing depoliticization" (Eder, 2003). Many academics, such as Eder (2003) have sh***** that globalization (***** neoliberalism) has not put an end to populism, but rather has tr*****sf*****med it, into 'neopopulism', which leaves little room for 'true' democracy to develop in those countries that have followed these paths. As we ********** see, Venezuela and Peru are two good examples of the 'neopopulist' effects of globalization, as in ***** countries, neoliberal policies have existed side-*****-side ***** populist strategies (Eder, *****).

O*****r academics, for example, Weyland (2001) have defined populism as, "populism is best ***** as a politic*****l strategy through which a personalistic leader seeks or exercises power based on direct, unmediated, uninstitutionalized support from large numbers of mostly unorganized followers." This 'single-defining variable' definition is hotly contested by *****, most notably Canovan (1999) who offered her own seven sub-categories with ***** to define populism, arguing that such a complex, multi-faceted definition was necessary.

***** academics argue that populists are defined by ***** message, and that their message ***** only be heard in countries fac*****g crises, such that populism really needs to ***** ***** *****in the context of exclusion (Buxton, 2000). Others (Roberts, 1995) ***** that "***** is a recurring phenomenon, r*****ther than a period-specific historical anomaly."

Other academics argue that populism is a common characteristic of Latin American politics, which has lasted ***** its inception in the ***** half ***** the twentieth century (Coslovsky, 2002). It is argued ***** populism is both a political and an economic *****, *****d that, as such, it has had an import*****t role ***** the region's dual transitions (*****, 2002). Economic populism can be seen as an attempt to deal with income inequality through the use of overly expansive macroeconomic policies i.e., deficit financing (Coslovsky, 2002).

In this view, populism is best unders*****od as a ***** phenomenon, with politicians being classed as populist if they fulfil three conditions: I) ***** personal style is paternal*****tic, ***** and *****tic; ii) they are able to mobilize, from the top down, a heterogeneous coalition that includes urban


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