Essay - Political Movements in Latin America This Paper is Divided into...

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Political Movements in Latin America

***** paper is divided into two parts: the first part provides and defends a definition of popul*****m, addressing its ideology, social base, charisma, clientelism, and the extent of institutionalization; the second part argues that populism and guerrilla movements are very similar phenomena, divided only by the level of their extremism.

***** are many definitions of 'populism', as seemingly each academic uses his or her own definition of this term, expecting all readers to automatically agree with this definition. As Roberts (1995) says, "few social science concepts can match populism when it comes to nebulous and inconsistent usage." As Roberts (1995) says, "These multiple dimensions have allowed the populist concept to be applied to a wide range ***** loosely connected empirical phenomena, ranging from economic policies and development ph*****es to pol*****ical ideologies, movements, parties, governments, and social coalitions": some of these will ***** discussed below.

Some definitions label political ***** as, "excessive centralization of decision-making, i.e., rule ***** decree, with decreasing depoliticization" (Eder, 2003). Many academics, such as Eder (2003) have sh***** that globalization (and neoliberalism) has not put an end to populism, but rather has transformed it, in***** 'neopopulism', which leaves l*****tle room for 'true' democracy to develop in those countr*****s that have followed these paths. As we *****all see, Venezuela and Peru are two good examples ***** the 'neopopulist' effects of globalization, as in these countries, neoliberal policies ***** existed side-by-side ***** populist strategies (Eder, 2003).

Other *****, for example, Weyland (2001) have defined populism as, "populism is best defined as a political strategy through which a personal*****tic leader seeks or exercises power based on direct, unmediated, uninstitutionalized support ***** large numbers of mostly unorganized followers." This 'single-defining variable' definition is hotly contested by academics, most notably Canovan (1999) who offered her own seven sub-categories with ***** to define populism, arguing that such a complex, multi-faceted ***** was necessary.

Other academics argue ***** populists are ***** by their message, and that their message can only be heard in ***** facing crises, such that ***** really needs to ***** defined within the context of exclusion (Buxton, 2000). Others (Roberts, 1995) argue that "populism is a recurring phenomenon, r*****ther than a period-specific historical anomaly."

Other academics ***** that populism is a common characteristic of ***** American politics, which has lasted from ***** inception in the first half ***** the twentieth century (Coslovsky, 2002). It is argued ***** populism is both a political ***** an economic *****, and that, as such, it has had an import*****t role ***** the region's dual transitions (Coslovsky, 2002). Economic populism can be seen as an attempt to deal with income inequality through the use of overly exp*****sive macroeconomic policies i.e., deficit financing (*****, 2002).

***** this view, populism is best unders*****od as a politic*****l phenomenon, ***** politicians being classed as popul*****t if they fulfil three conditions: I) ***** personal style is paternal*****tic, ***** and *****tic; ii) they are able to mobilize, from the top down, a heterogeneous coalition that includes urban


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