Essay - Political Movements in Latin America This Paper is Divided into...

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Political Movements in Latin America

This paper is divided into two parts: the first part provides and defends a definition of populism, addressing its ideology, social base, charisma, clientelism, and the extent of institutionalization; the second part argues that ***** ***** guerrilla movements are very similar phenomena, divided only by the level of their extremism.

***** are many definitions of 'populism', as seemingly each academic uses his or her own definition of this term, expecting all readers to automatic*****y agree with this definition. As Roberts (1995) says, "few ***** science concepts can match populism when it comes to nebulous and inconsistent usage." As Roberts (1995) says, "These multiple dimensions have allowed the populist concept to be applied to a wide range ***** loosely connected empirical phenomena, ranging from economic policies ***** development ph*****es ***** political ideologies, movements, parties, governments, and social coalitions": some of these will ***** discussed below.

***** definitions label political ***** as, "excessive centralization of decision-making, i.e., rule by decree, with decreasing depoliticization" (Eder, 2003). Many academics, such as Eder (2003) have shown that globalization (and neoliberalism) has not put an end to populism, but rather has tr*****sf*****med it, ***** 'neopopulism', which leaves little room for 'true' democracy to develop in those countries that have followed these paths. As we shall see, Venezuela and Peru are two good examples ***** the 'neopopulist' effects of *****, as ***** ***** countries, neoliberal ***** ***** existed side-*****-side with populist strategies (Eder, *****).

Other *****, for example, Weyland (2001) have defined populism as, "populism is best defined ***** a political strategy through which a personalistic leader seeks or exercises power based on direct, unmediated, uninstitutionalized support from large numbers of mostly unorganized followers." This 'single-defining variable' definition is hotly contested by academics, most notably Canovan (1999) who offered her own seven sub-categories with which to define populism, arguing that such a complex, multi-f*****ceted ***** was necessary.

***** academics argue ***** populists are defined by their message, and that their message ***** only be heard in countries fac*****g crises, such that populism really needs ***** ***** ***** ********** the context of exclusion (Buxton, 2000). Others (Roberts, 1995) ***** that "populism is a recurring phenomenon, rather than a period-specific historical anomaly."

Other academics argue that populism is a common characteristic of Latin American politics, which has lasted from ***** inception in the ***** half ***** the twentieth century (Coslovsky, 2002). It is argued ***** populism is both a political ***** an economic phenomena, *****d that, as *****, it has had an important role in the region's dual transitions (*****, 2002). Economic populism can be seen as an attempt to deal with income inequality through ***** use of overly expansive macroeconomic policies i.e., deficit financing (Coslovsky, 2002).

***** this view, populism is best understood as a ***** phenomenon, with politici*****ns being classed as populist if they fulfil three conditions: I) ***** personal style is paternal*****tic, personal and *****tic; ii) ***** are able to mobilize, from the top down, a heterogeneous coalition that includes urban


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