Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...


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Processors

***** have evolved into more powerful and more productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors ***** chip microprocessors (CMP) where as a *****, ***** should be code parallelization and ***** for *****s to work *****in a constrained power budget. The key to designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) per*****mance and high throughput (multithreaded) performance ***** to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount ***** energy expended to process each *****), according to ***** amount of parallelism available in the ***** (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, ********** must be able to perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

*****, the parallel programs must ***** able ***** overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitigating the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from code par*****lelization will be limited by the amount of time the system spends processing ***** sequential part ***** the *****

Improving perf*****mance within the constraints of a power *****: Adv*****nces in power technology now lags beh*****d advances in transistor *****, making power/thermal issues an incre*****ingly critical design (and performance) constraint

***** the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor ***** ***** a fixed power budget

***** tr*****ditional microprocessor design - symmetric *****s - rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced resource allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of energy per retired instruction, based on the avail***** thread-level parallelism (Annavaram et al., 2007)" ***** works by "using a c*****servative square relationship between power and **********. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how ***** assign sequential and parallel processes to a ********** CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce ***** ***** operating voltage or frequency of a processor, it does emulate the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., *****)" The main usefulness of AMP is its efficiency especially when programs shift rapidly b*****ween ***** ***** parallel phases, there ***** signifi*****t overhead in frequently ch*****ging the duty cycle. In *****se cases, a static AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The results of ***** tests provided three result categories (Annavaram ***** al., 2007):

Highly parallel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly better on multiple, low-power *****

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent ***** 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

***** ***** programs: ***** about 31 percent to 54 percent of execution ***** in sequential processing, they also *****ed rapidly between ***** and parallel processing

AMP is the new generation ***** microprocessors and EPI (energy per *****) throttling ***** be an essential aspect of future ***** multiprocessors, *****d intend to continue exploring the prom*****e of this approach to improve

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