Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...

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Microprocessors have evolved into more powerful and ***** productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors and chip microprocessors (CMP) where as a result, ***** should be code parallelization and ability for *****s to work *****in a constrained power budget. The key ***** designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) performance and high throughput (multithreaded) ***** ***** to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount of energy expended to process each *****), according to ***** amount ***** parallelism available in the software (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, CMPs must be able to perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

*****, the parallel programs must be able ***** overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitig**********g the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from code par*****lelization will be limited by the amount of time the system spends processing the sequential part of the code

Improving performance within ***** constraints of a power *****: Adv*****nces in power technology now lags behind advances in transistor technology, making power/thermal issues an increasingly critical design (and performance) constraint

***** the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor performance ***** a fixed power budget

The tr*****ditional microprocessor design - symmetric *****s - rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced ***** allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of ***** per retired instruction, based on the avail***** thread-***** ***** (***** et al., 2007)" ***** works by "using a c*****servative square relationship b*****ween power and *****. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how ***** assign sequential and ***** processes to a particular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce the actual operating voltage or frequency of a processor, it ***** emulate the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., *****)" The main usefulness of AMP is its efficiency ***** when programs shift rapidly between ***** ***** parallel phases, there ***** signific*****t overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. In *****se cases, a static AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The *****s of ***** tests provided three result categories (Annavaram et al., 2007):

***** par*****lel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly ********** on multiple, low-***** processors

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent to 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

Highly ***** programs: ***** about 31 percent ***** 54 ***** of execution ***** in sequential processing, they also shifted rapidly ***** ***** and parallel processing

AMP is the new generation of microprocessors ***** EPI (energy per instruction) throttling will be an essential aspect of future chip multiprocessors, and intend to continue exploring the prom*****e of this approach to improve


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