Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...


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Processors

***** have evolved into more powerful and ***** productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors and chip microprocessors (CMP) where as a *****, ***** should be code parallelization and ability for *****s to work within a constrained power budget. The key to designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) per*****mance ***** high throughput (multithreaded) performance is to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount of energy expended to process each instruction), according to ***** amount ***** parallel*****m available in the ***** (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, CMPs must be able to perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

Thus, the parallel programs must ***** able to overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitig**********g the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from code *****ization will be limited by the ***** of time the system spends *****ing the sequential part of the *****

Improving performance ***** the constraints of a power budget: Advances in power technology now lags beh*****d advances in transistor *****, making power/thermal issues an increasingly critical design (and performance) constraint

***** the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor ***** within a fixed power *****

The traditional microprocessor ***** - symmetric *****s ***** rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced resource allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of energy per retired instruction, based on the avail***** thread-level *****ism (***** et al., 2007)" AMP works by "using a conservative square relationship between power and **********. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how to assign ***** and parallel processes to a particular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce ***** actual operating voltage or frequency of a *****, it does emulate the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., 2007)" The main usefulness of AMP is *****s efficiency especially when programs shift rapidly between sequential and parallel phases, there is signifi*****t overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. In *****se cases, a st*****tic AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., *****)"

The results ***** AMP tests provided three result categories (Annavaram et al., 2007):

***** par*****lel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly better on multiple, low-***** processors

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent to 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

***** ***** programs: Spent about 31 ***** ***** 54 percent of execution ***** in sequential processing, they also *****ed rapidly ***** ***** and parallel processing

***** is the new generation ***** microprocessors ***** EPI (energy per *****) throttling ***** be an essential aspect of future ***** multiprocessors, and intend to continue exploring the prom*****e of this approach to improve

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