Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...


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Processors

Microprocessors have evolved into more powerful and ***** productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors ***** chip ***** (CMP) where as a *****, there should be code parallelization and ***** for CMPs to work *****in a constrained power budget. The key to designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) per*****mance and high throughput (multithreaded) performance is to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or ***** amount ***** energy expended to process each *****), according to the amount of parallelism available in the ***** (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, CMPs must be able to perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

*****, the parallel programs must ***** able ***** overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitig**********g the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from ***** parallelization will be limited by the amount of time the system spends processing ***** sequential part of the code

Improving performance within the constraints of a power budget: Adv*****nces in power technology now lags beh*****d advances in transistor *****, making power/thermal issues an increasingly critical design (and performance) constraint

***** the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor performance within a fixed power *****

***** tr*****ditional microprocessor ***** - symmetric ********** ***** rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced ***** allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of ***** per retired instruction, based on ***** avail***** thread-***** ***** (Annavaram et al., 2007)" ***** works by "using a c*****servative square relationship b*****ween ***** and **********. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how to assign sequential and parallel processes ***** a particular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce ***** ***** operating voltage or frequency ***** a *****, it does emul*****te the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., *****)" The main usefulness of AMP is its efficiency especially when programs shift rapidly between ***** ***** ***** phases, there ***** significant overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. In ********** cases, a st*****tic AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The results of ***** tests provided three result categories (Annavaram ***** al., 2007):

Highly par*****lel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly better on multiple, low-power *****

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent to 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

***** sequential programs: Spent about 31 ***** to 54 percent of execution time in sequential processing, they also ********** rapidly ***** sequential and parallel processing

AMP is the new generation of microprocessors and EPI (energy per *****) throttling will be an essential aspect ***** future chip multiprocessors, *****d intend to continue exploring the promise of this approach to improve

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