Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...


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Processors

Microprocessors have evolved into more powerful and ***** productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors ***** chip ***** (CMP) where as a *****, there should be code parallelization and ability for CMPs to work within a constrained power budget. The key ***** designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) performance ***** high throughput (multithreaded) ***** is to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or ***** amount of energy expended to process each *****), according to the amount of parallelism available in the software (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, CMPs must be able to perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

Thus, the parallel programs must be able ***** overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitigat*****g the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from ***** parallelization will be limited by the ***** of time ***** system spends processing the sequential part ***** ***** code

***** performance ***** the constraints of a power *****: Adv*****nces in power technology now lags behind advances in transistor technology, making power/thermal issues an incre*****ingly critical design (and performance) constraint

Satisfying the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor ***** within a fixed power budget

The tr*****ditional microprocessor ***** - symmetric microprocessors - rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced ***** allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of energy per retired instruction, based on ***** avail***** thread-***** ***** (***** et al., 2007)" ***** works by "using a c*****servative square relationship between ***** and performance. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how to assign ***** and ***** processes to a *****icular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce the actual operating voltage or frequency of a processor, it ***** emulate the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., 2007)" The main usefulness of AMP is *****s efficiency ***** when programs shift rapidly b*****ween sequential and parallel phases, there is significant overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. ***** these cases, a static AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., *****)"

The results ***** AMP tests provided three result categories (Annavaram et al., 2007):

***** par*****lel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly better on multiple, low-power processors

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent to 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

Highly ***** programs: ***** about 31 ***** to 54 percent of execution ***** in sequential processing, they also shifted rapidly between sequential and parallel processing

AMP ***** the new generation of micro***** ***** EPI (energy per instruction) throttling will be an essential aspect of future ***** multiprocessors, *****d intend to continue exploring the promise of this approach to improve

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