Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...

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***** have evolved into more powerful and ***** productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors and chip ***** (CMP) where as a result, *****re should be code parallelization and ability for *****s to work ********** a constrained power budget. The key ***** designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) performance and high throughput (multithreaded) performance ***** to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount of ***** expended to process each *****), according to ***** amount of parallelism available in the ***** (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, ********** must be able to perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

*****, the parallel programs must be able to overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitigating the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from code *****ization will be limited by the ***** of time the system spends *****ing ***** sequenti***** part of the *****

***** performance within ***** constraints of a power budget: Adv*****nces in power technology now lags behind advances in transistor *****, making power/thermal issues an incre*****ingly critical design (and performance) constraint

Satisfying the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor ***** within a fixed power *****

The tr*****ditional microprocessor ***** - symmetric ********** ***** rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced resource allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of ***** per retired instruction, based on the available thread-***** ********** (Annavaram et al., 2007)" ***** works by "using a c*****servative square relationship b*****ween ***** and *****formance. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how to assign ***** and parallel processes ***** a particular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce ***** actual operating voltage or frequency of a processor, it does emul*****te the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., 2007)" The main usefulness of AMP is its efficiency ***** when programs shift rapidly b*****ween sequential ***** ***** phases, there is signific*****t overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. ***** ********** cases, a static AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., *****)"

The ********** ***** AMP tests provided three result categories (Annavaram et al., 2007):

***** parallel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly *****tter on multiple, low-power *****

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent to 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

Highly sequential programs: Spent about 31 ***** ***** 54 percent of execution ***** in sequential processing, they also *****ed rapidly between sequential and parallel processing

***** is the new generation of microprocessors and EPI (energy per instruction) throttling ***** be an essential aspect ***** future ***** multiprocessors, ***** intend to continue exploring the promise of this approach to improve


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