Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...

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Microprocessors have evolved into more powerful and more productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors ***** chip microprocessors (CMP) where as a result, *****re should be code parallelization and ***** for *****s to work ********** a constrained power budget. The key ***** designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) performance ***** high throughput (multithreaded) performance is to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount ***** energy expended to process each *****), according to ***** amount of parallel*****m available in the software (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, CMPs must be able ***** perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

Thus, the parallel programs must be able to overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitig*****ing the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from ***** par*****lelization will be limited by the amount of time ***** system spends *****ing the sequential part of the code

***** performance within the constraints of a power budget: Adv*****nces in power technology now lags beh*****d advances in transistor *****, making power/thermal issues an incre*****ingly critical design (and performance) constraint

Satisfying the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor ***** within a fixed power *****

The traditional microprocessor ***** - symmetric ********** ***** rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced resource allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of energy per retired instruction, based on ***** avail***** thread-level parallelism (Annavaram et al., 2007)" ***** works by "using a conservative square relationship b*****ween power and performance. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how ***** assign sequential and parallel processes to a particular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce ***** actual operating voltage or frequency of a processor, it ***** emulate the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., 2007)" The main usefulness of AMP is *****s ***** ***** when programs shift rapidly between ***** and ***** phases, there ***** signifi*****t overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. In ********** cases, a st*****tic AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The results ***** AMP tests provided three result categories (Annavaram ***** al., *****):

***** par*****lel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly better on multiple, low-***** processors

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent to 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

***** ***** programs: Spent about 31 percent ***** 54 percent of execution time in sequential processing, they also shifted rapidly ***** ***** and parallel processing

AMP is the new generation of microprocessors and EPI (energy per instruction) throttling will be an essential aspect of future ***** multiprocessors, *****d intend to continue exploring the promise of this approach to improve


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