Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...

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***** have evolved into more powerful and ***** productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors ***** chip ***** (CMP) where as a *****, ***** should be code parallelization and ***** for CMPs to work ********** a constrained power budget. The key to designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) per*****mance ***** high throughput (multithreaded) performance is to dynamically vary ***** EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount of ***** expended to process each *****), according to the amount ***** parallelism available in the software (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, CMPs must be able ***** perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

Thus, the parallel programs must be able to overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitigating the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from ***** par*****lelization will be limited by the ***** of time ***** system spends *****ing the sequential part ***** ***** code

***** perf*****mance within the constraints of a power *****: Adv*****nces in power technology now lags behind advances in transistor technology, making power/thermal issues an increasingly critical design (and performance) constraint

***** the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor ***** ***** a fixed power budget

***** tr*****ditional microprocessor design - symmetric microprocessors ***** rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced ***** allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of ***** per retired instruction, based on the available thread-***** ***** (***** et al., 2007)" AMP works by "using a conservative square relationship between ***** and *****formance. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how to assign ***** and parallel processes ***** a particular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce ***** actual operating voltage or frequency of a *****, it does emulate the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., *****)" The main usefulness of AMP is *****s ***** especially when programs shift rapidly between sequential ***** parallel phases, there is signifi*****t overhead in frequently ch*****ging the duty cycle. In ********** cases, a static AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The results of AMP tests provided three result categories (Annavaram ***** al., *****):

***** parallel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly ********** on multiple, low-power processors

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent to 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

***** sequential programs: Spent about 31 percent ***** 54 ***** of execution time in sequential processing, they also *****ed rapidly ***** ***** and ***** processing

***** is the new generation of microprocessors ***** EPI (energy per instruction) throttling ***** be an essential aspect ***** future chip multiprocessors, and intend to continue exploring the prom*****e of this approach to improve


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