Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...

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Microprocessors have evolved into more powerful and ***** productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors and chip ***** (CMP) where as a *****, *****re should be code parallelization and ability for CMPs to work ********** a constrained power budget. The key ***** designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) per*****mance and high throughput (multithreaded) performance ***** to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount of energy expended to process each instruction), according to ***** amount ***** parallelism available in the software (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, CMPs must be able ***** perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

*****, the parallel programs must be able to overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitig*****ing the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from ***** parallelization will be limited by the ***** of time ***** system spends *****ing the sequential part of the code

***** performance within the constraints of a power *****: Advances in power technology now lags behind advances in transistor technology, making power/thermal issues an incre*****ingly critical design (and performance) constraint

Satisfying the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor performance ***** a fixed power budget

The tr*****ditional microprocessor design - symmetric ********** - rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced resource allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of ***** per retired instruction, based on the avail***** thread-level ********** (***** et al., 2007)" ***** works by "using a conservative square relationship b*****ween ***** and performance. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how ***** assign ***** and parallel processes to a ********** CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce ***** actual operating voltage or frequency of a *****, it ***** emulate the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., *****)" The main usefulness of AMP is its ***** ***** when programs shift rapidly between sequential ***** parallel phases, there ***** signific*****t overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. ***** ********** cases, a st*****tic AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The results ***** ***** tests provided three result categories (Annavaram ***** al., 2007):

Highly parallel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly *****tter on multiple, low-power processors

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent ***** 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

***** ***** programs: Spent about 31 percent to 54 percent of execution time in sequential processing, they also shifted rapidly ***** sequential and ***** processing

AMP is the new generation of micro***** and EPI (energy per *****) throttling ***** be an essential aspect ***** future chip multiprocessors, ***** intend to continue exploring the prom*****e of this approach to improve


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