Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...

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***** have evolved into more powerful and more productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors and chip microprocessors (CMP) where as a *****, there should be code parallelization and ability for *****s to work within a constrained power budget. The key ***** designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) performance ***** high throughput (multithreaded) performance is to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or ***** amount of energy expended to process each *****), according to the amount of parallel*****m available in the ***** (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, CMPs must be able to perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

Thus, the parallel programs must be able ***** overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitig*****ing the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from code parallelization will be limited by the ***** of time ***** system spends processing the sequential part ***** the code

***** performance ***** ***** constraints of a power *****: Adv*****nces in power technology now lags beh*****d advances in transistor technology, making power/thermal issues an increasingly critical design (and performance) constraint

Satisfying the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor performance within a fixed power budget

***** traditional microprocessor design - symmetric microprocessors ***** rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced resource allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of ***** per retired instruction, based on the avail***** thread-level ********** (***** et al., 2007)" AMP works by "using a conservative square relationship between power and **********. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how to assign sequential and parallel processes to a particular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce ***** actual operating voltage or frequency ***** a processor, it ***** emul*****te the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., 2007)" The main usefulness of AMP is *****s efficiency ***** when programs shift rapidly between sequential *****d ***** phases, there is signifi*****t overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. ***** these cases, a static AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The results of AMP tests provided three result categories (Annavaram et al., 2007):

***** parallel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly better on multiple, low-***** *****

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent ***** 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

***** sequential programs: ***** about 31 ***** to 54 percent of execution time in sequential processing, they also *****ed rapidly ***** sequential and ***** processing

***** is the new generation ***** microprocessors and EPI (energy per instruction) throttling ***** be an essential aspect of future chip multiprocessors, ***** intend to continue exploring the promise of this approach to improve


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