Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...


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Processors

***** have evolved into more powerful and ***** productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors and chip microprocessors (CMP) where as a result, ***** should be code parallelization and ***** for *****s to work within a constrained power budget. The key ***** designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) per*****mance ***** high throughput (multithreaded) performance ***** to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount ***** energy expended to process each *****), according to the amount of parallelism available in the software (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, CMPs must be able to perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

Thus, the parallel programs must be able to overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitig*****ing the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from ***** par*****lelization will be limited by the ***** of time ***** system spends *****ing the sequential part ***** ***** code

***** perf*****mance within the constraints of a power budget: Adv*****nces in power technology now lags behind advances in transistor technology, making power/thermal issues an increasingly critical design (and performance) constraint

***** the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor ***** ***** a fixed power budget

***** tr*****ditional microprocessor ***** - symmetric microprocessors - rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced resource allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of ***** per retired instruction, based on ***** avail***** thread-***** ***** (Annavaram et al., 2007)" AMP works by "using a c*****servative square relationship between power and *****formance. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how to assign sequential and ***** processes to a particular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce the ***** operating voltage or frequency of a processor, it does emulate the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., 2007)" The main usefulness of AMP is *****s efficiency especially when programs shift rapidly b*****ween sequential ********** parallel phases, there ***** signifi*****t overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. In these cases, a static AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The results ***** AMP tests provided three result categories (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Highly par*****lel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly ********** on multiple, low-***** processors

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent ***** 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

Highly sequential programs: Spent about 31 percent to 54 percent of execution time in sequential processing, they also *****ed rapidly between ***** and parallel processing

***** is the new generation of microprocessors ***** EPI (energy per *****) throttling ***** be an essential aspect ***** future ***** multiprocessors, *****d intend to continue exploring the promise of this approach to improve

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