Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...

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Microprocessors have evolved into more powerful and more productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors ***** chip ***** (CMP) where as a *****, there should be code parallelization and ***** for *****s to work within a constrained power budget. The key to designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) per*****mance and high throughput (multithreaded) performance is to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount ***** energy expended to process each instruction), according to the amount of parallel*****m available in the ***** (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, *****s must be able to perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

*****, the parallel programs must ***** able to overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitig*****ing the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from code parallelization will be limited by the amount of time the system spends processing ***** sequential part of the code

***** perf*****mance within ***** constraints of a power budget: Adv*****nces in power technology now lags beh*****d advances in transistor technology, making power/thermal issues an incre*****ingly critical design (and performance) constraint

***** the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor ***** within a fixed power budget

The tr*****ditional microprocessor ***** - symmetric *****s ***** rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating *****s amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced resource allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of energy per retired instruction, based on ***** avail***** thread-level parallelism (Annavaram et al., 2007)" ***** works by "using a conservative square relationship between ***** and **********. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how to assign sequential and parallel processes ***** a particular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce the actual operating voltage or frequency ***** a processor, it ***** emul*****te the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., *****)" The main usefulness of AMP is *****s ***** especially when programs shift rapidly between sequential ***** parallel phases, there ***** signifi*****t overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. In *****se cases, a st*****tic AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The results of AMP tests provided three result categories (Annavaram et al., 2007):

***** parallel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly better on multiple, low-power *****

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent to 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

***** sequential programs: Spent about 31 percent ***** 54 ***** of execution ***** in sequential processing, they also shifted rapidly ***** ***** and parallel processing

AMP is the new generation ***** microprocessors and EPI (energy per *****) throttling will be an essential aspect of future chip multiprocessors, ***** intend to continue exploring the prom*****e of this approach to improve


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