Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...

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Microprocessors have evolved into more powerful and ***** productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors ***** chip ***** (CMP) where as a result, ***** should be code parallelization and ***** for *****s to work *****in a constrained power budget. The key to designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) performance and high throughput (multithreaded) performance ***** to dynamically vary ***** EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount of energy expended to process each instruction), according to ***** amount of parallelism available in the software (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, CMPs must be able to perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

*****, the parallel programs must ***** able to overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitig**********g the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from ***** *****ization will be limited by the amount of time ***** system spends *****ing the sequential part ***** the code

***** performance within the constraints of a power budget: Advances in power technology now lags beh*****d advances in transistor *****, making power/thermal issues an incre*****ingly critical design (and performance) constraint

Satisfying the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor performance ***** a fixed power *****

***** tr*****ditional microprocessor ***** - symmetric microprocessors - rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced resource allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of ***** per retired instruction, based on ***** avail***** thread-***** parallelism (***** et al., 2007)" AMP works by "using a conservative square relationship b*****ween power and performance. The processor affinity was used to tell the operating-system scheduler how ***** assign sequential and parallel processes to a particular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce ***** actual operating voltage or frequency ***** a *****, it ***** emul*****te the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., *****)" The main usefulness of AMP is *****s efficiency ***** when programs shift rapidly between ***** ***** ***** phases, there is significant overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. In *****se cases, a st*****tic AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The ********** of ***** tests provided three result categories (Annavaram et al., *****):

***** par*****lel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly better on multiple, low-power processors

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent to 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

***** sequential programs: ***** about 31 ***** to 54 percent of execution time in sequential processing, they also *****ed rapidly between ***** and ***** processing

AMP ***** the new generation of micro***** ***** EPI (energy per instruction) throttling ***** be an essential aspect ***** future ***** multiprocessors, *****d intend to continue exploring the promise of this approach to improve


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