Essay - Processors Microprocessors Have Evolved into More Powerful and More Productive...

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***** have evolved into more powerful and more productive systems today albeit there are some challenges faced with actual operations especially with regards to software codes ability to keep up with the changes. This is the result of the deployment of dual-core microprocessors and chip microprocessors (CMP) where as a result, *****re should be code parallelization and ***** for CMPs to work within a constrained power budget. The key ***** designing a CMP that can achieve both high scalar (sequential) performance ***** high throughput (multithreaded) performance ***** to dynamically vary the EPI (energy per instruction, or the amount ***** energy expended to process each *****), according to the amount of parallelism available in the software (Annavaram, Grochowski & Shen, 2007). Simply put, CMPs must be able ***** perform at optimum level with very little energy exhaustion.

*****, the parallel programs must be able to overcome three major hurdles (Annavaram et al., 2007):

Mitigat*****g the effects of Amdahl's law: Performance gain, or speed-up, seen from ***** par*****lelization will be limited by the amount of time the system spends *****ing ***** sequential part of the code

***** performance ***** ***** constraints of a power budget: Advances in power technology now lags behind advances in transistor technology, making power/thermal issues an increasingly critical design (and performance) constraint

Satisfying the conflicting microarchitectural demands of parallel vs. sequential processing: Difficulty of optimizing processor performance within a fixed power *****

The tr*****ditional microprocessor ***** - symmetric microprocessors ***** rely on algorithms that determines load balancing by allocating instructions amongst different processors to gain maximum resource utilization. In the asymmetric multiprocessor (AMP) system, efficiency and balanced resource allocation is achieved and the "processor expends a varying amount of energy per retired instruction, based on ***** available thread-level ***** (Annavaram et al., 2007)" ***** works by "using a conservative square relationship b*****ween ***** and *****. The processor affinity was used to tell the o*****ating-system scheduler how ***** assign sequential and parallel processes to a *****icular CPU and although clock throttling does not reduce the actual operating voltage or frequency of a processor, it does emulate the behavior of an EPI throttle. (Annavaram et al., *****)" The main usefulness of AMP is its ***** ***** when programs shift rapidly between ***** ***** parallel phases, there is signific*****t overhead in frequently changing the duty cycle. ***** these cases, a st*****tic AMP may be more efficient. (Annavaram et al., 2007)"

The results ***** AMP tests provided three result categories (Annavaram ***** al., 2007):

Highly parallel, CPU-intensive programs: Performed slightly ********** on multiple, low-power processors

Moderately parallel programs: Spent about 23 percent to 36 percent of their execution time in sequential processing.

Highly sequential programs: Spent about 31 percent ***** 54 percent of execution time in sequential processing, they also ********** rapidly ***** sequential and ***** processing

AMP ***** the new generation of microprocessors ***** EPI (energy per instruction) throttling ***** be an essential aspect ***** future chip multiprocessors, and intend to continue exploring the promise of this approach to improve


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