Essay - Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping...

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Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques ***** Approaches for Helping Children Learn to Read


*****. Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide range ***** developmental *****. The situation ***** urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions of students will not acquire the education necessary to fully participate in the economic and political aspects of society. Additionally, the inequality that results from differences in ***** ********** ***** of children is likely to further widen the gap between the rich ***** poor. Children cannot learn ***** read without an underst*****ding ***** phonics.

***** National Association for ***** Education of Young Children (1996) points out that all children must know their ABCs and the sounds ***** letters make in order to communicate verbally. Therefore, ***** question in early childhood ***** programs should not be whether to teach "phonics" or "whole language **********," but rather how ***** teach ***** in context instead ***** in isolation so that young learners make the appropriate connections *****tween letters, sounds, and meaning.

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to identify the *****, research, procedures and materials ***** are related to the recent findings on word decoding.

Structure. This study employs a critical review of the scholarly and relevant literature concerning reading and decoding ***** determine what role, if any, the small group decoding instruction plays in the improvement ***** read*****g achievement for students. Determining the importance of this relationship has implications for how to effectively increase student achievement as well as how resources ***** allocated ***** achieve the best results. Given ***** current achievement ***** between proficient readers ***** non-*****, the findings of ***** study ***** as a st*****rting point, diminish this disparity and will ultimately help create more and better life-long readers. ***** research is significant in several ways. First, it addresses a crucial issue, important not only to school *****, but the success of ***** public school system. It also addresses a problem th*****t is widespread, and impacts ***** ***** America's public school students. School success seems to be an important precursor to success in careers. ***** ***** study ***** not only ***** in school but throughout later life.

***** need clearly exists and *****tervention programs in reading can greatly benefit struggling readers in this country, as most of them go to public schools that do not rout*****ely offer such programs.

***** of the Relevant Literature

Background ***** Overview. Differences in ***** academic performance of ***** appear early. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NEAP) (1996) reported that students ***** low socio-economic backgrounds and many minority students consistently achieve below the national average in reading skills. Unfortunately, there is no relief as students continue on through the grade levels. In fact, according to the NAEP study, ***** gap widens. The longer some children stay in school, the greater


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