Essay - Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping...

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Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping Children Learn to Read


Overview. Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet ***** educational needs ***** an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide range ***** developmental needs. The situation ***** urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions of students will not acquire the education necessary to fully participate ***** the economic ***** political aspects ***** society. Additionally, the inequality that results from differences in ***** educational achievement of children is likely ***** further *****n the gap between the rich and poor. Children cannot learn to read without an underst*****ing ***** phonics.

***** National Association for ***** Education of Young ***** (1996) points out ***** all children must know their ABCs *****d the sounds that letters make in order to communicate verbally. Therefore, ***** question in early childhood reading programs should not be whether to teach "phonics" or "whole language *****ing," but rather how ***** teach ***** in context instead ***** in isolation so ***** young learners make the appropriate connections between letters, sounds, and meaning.

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to identify the issues, research, procedures and materials that are related to the recent findings on word decoding.

Structure. This study employs a critical review of the scholarly and relevant literature concerning reading and ***** ***** determine what role, if any, the small group decoding instruction plays in the improvement ***** reading achievement for students. Determining the importance of ***** relationship has implications for how to effectively increase student achievement as well as how resources ***** allocated to achieve the best results. Given ***** ***** ***** gap between proficient readers ***** non-*****, the findings of this study will as a st*****rting point, diminish this disparity and ***** ultimately help create more and better l*****e-long readers. This research is significant in several ways. First, it addresses a cruci*****l issue, important not only to school *****, but the success of ***** public school system. It also addresses a problem that is widespread, ***** impacts most of America's public school students. School success seems to be an import*****t precursor ***** success ***** careers. ***** ***** study ***** not only success in school but throughout later life.

The need cl***** exists and intervention programs in ***** can greatly benefit struggling readers in this country, as most ***** them go to public schools ***** do not rout*****ely offer such *****.

***** of the Relevant Literature

Background ***** Overview. Differences in ***** academic per*****mance of ***** appear early. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NEAP) (1996) reported that students ***** low socio-economic backgrounds and many minority students consistently achieve below the national average in reading skills. Unfortunately, there is no relief as students continue on through the grade levels. In fact, according ***** the NAEP study, ***** gap widens. The longer some children stay in school, the greater


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