Essay - Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping...

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Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping Children Learn to Read


Overview. Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet the educational needs ***** an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide r*****ge of developmental needs. The situation is urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions ***** students will not acquire ***** education necessary ***** fully participate in the economic ***** political aspects of society. Additionally, the inequality ***** results from differences in the educational achievement of children is likely to further ********** the gap between the rich and poor. Children cannot learn ***** read *****out an underst*****ding ***** phonics.

The National Association for the Education of Young ***** (1996) points out that all children must know *****ir ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order to communicate verbally. Therefore, ***** question in early childhood reading programs should not be whether to teach "phonics" or "whole language **********," but rather how ***** teach ***** in context instead ***** in isolation so that young learners make the appropriate connections *****tween letters, sounds, and meaning.

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to identify ***** *****, research, procedures ***** materials that are related to the recent findings on word decoding.

Structure. Th***** study employs a critical review of the scholarly and relevant literature concerning reading and ***** to determine what role, if any, the small group decoding instruction plays in the improvement ***** read*****g achievement for students. Determining the importance of ***** relationship has implications for how ***** effectively increase student achievement as ***** as how resources ***** allocated to achieve the best results. Given ***** ***** ***** gap between proficient readers and non-readers, the findings of this study will as a st*****rting point, diminish ***** disparity and ***** ultimately help create more ***** better l*****e-long readers. This research is significant in several ways. First, it addresses a cruci*****l **********, important not only ***** school success, but the success of the public school system. It also addresses a problem th*****t is widespread, and impacts ***** of America's ***** school students. School success seems to be an import*****t precursor to ***** ***** careers. Therefore this study ***** ***** only success in school but throughout later life.

***** need clearly exists and intervention programs in reading can greatly benefit struggling readers in this country, as most of them go to public schools that do not routinely offer such programs.

Review of the Relevant Literature

Background ***** Overview. Differences in the academic performance of children appear early. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NEAP) (1996) reported that students from low socio-economic backgrounds and many minority students consistently achieve below the national average in read*****g skills. Unfortunately, there is no relief as students continue on through the grade levels. In fact, according ***** the NAEP study, the gap widens. The longer some children stay in school, the greater


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