Essay - Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping...

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Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping Children Learn to Read


Overview. Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet ***** educational needs ***** an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide range of developmental *****. The situation is urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions ***** students will not acquire the education necessary to fully participate in the economic and political aspects of society. Additionally, the inequality ***** results from differences in ***** educational ***** of children is likely ***** further *****n the gap between the rich ***** poor. Children cannot learn to read *****out an understand*****g of phonics.

***** National Association for ***** Education ***** Young ***** (1996) points out that all children must know their ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order to communicate verbally. Therefore, the question in early childhood ***** programs should not be whether to teach "phonics" or "whole language **********," but rather how ***** teach phonics in context instead of in *****olation so that young learners ***** the appropriate connections *****tween letters, sounds, and meaning.

Purpose. The purpose ***** this study is to identify the issues, research, procedures and materials ***** are related to the recent findings on word decoding.

Structure. This study employs a critical review of the scholarly and relevant literature concerning reading and ***** ***** determine what role, if any, the small group decoding instruction plays in ***** improvement of reading achievement for students. Determining the importance of ***** relationship has implications ***** how to effectively increase student achievement as well as how resources are allocated to achieve the best results. Given the current achievement gap between proficient readers ***** non-*****, ***** findings of this study will as a st*****rting point, diminish ***** disparity and ***** ultimately help create more ***** better l*****e-long readers. ***** research is significant in several ways. First, it addresses a cruci*****l *****sue, important not only ***** school *****, but the success of ***** public school system. It also addresses a problem that is widespread, and impacts ***** ***** America's ***** school students. School success seems to be an import*****t precursor to ***** in careers. ***** this study impacts ***** only success in school but throughout later life.

***** need clearly exists and *****tervention programs in ***** can greatly benef***** struggling readers in this country, as most of them go to public schools ***** do not rout*****ely offer such programs.

***** of the Relevant Literature

Background ***** Overview. Differences in the academic performance of ***** appear early. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NEAP) (1996) reported that ***** from low socio-economic backgrounds and many minority students consistently achieve below the national average in read*****g skills. Unfortunately, there is no relief as students continue on through the grade levels. In fact, according ***** the NAEP study, ***** gap widens. The longer some children stay in school, the greater


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