Essay - Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping...

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Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping Children Learn to Read


Overview. Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet ***** educational needs ***** an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide r*****ge ***** developmental *****. The situation ***** urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions of students will not acquire the education necessary to fully participate ***** the economic ***** political aspects of society. Additionally, the inequality that results from differences in ***** educational achievement of children is likely to further *****n the gap between the rich and poor. Children cannot learn ***** read without an understand*****g of phonics.

The National Association for ***** Education of Young ***** (1996) points out that all children must know their ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order to communicate verbally. Therefore, the question in early childhood reading programs should not be whether to teach "phonics" or "whole language learning," but rather how to teach phonics in context instead ***** in isolation so that young learners make the appropriate connections between letters, sounds, and meaning.

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to identify the *****sues, research, procedures ***** materials ***** are related to the recent findings on word decoding.

Structure. This study employs a critical review of the scholarly and relevant literature concerning ***** and decoding to determine what role, if any, the small group decoding instruction plays in ***** improvement of read*****g achievement for students. Determining the importance of this relationship has implications for how ***** effectively increase student achievement as well as how resources are allocated to achieve the best results. Given the ***** ***** gap between proficient readers and non-readers, the findings of this study will as a st*****rting point, diminish ***** disparity and will ultimately help create more ***** better l*****e-long readers. This research is significant in several ways. First, it addresses a crucial issue, important not only ***** school *****, but the success of ***** public school system. It also addresses a problem that is widespread, and impacts most ***** America's public school students. School success seems to be an import*****t precursor ***** success ***** careers. ***** this study ***** not only ***** in school but throughout later life.

***** need clearly exists and *****tervention programs in reading can greatly benefit struggling readers in this country, as most of them go to public schools ***** do not routinely offer such *****.

***** of the Relevant Literature

Background and Overview. Differences in ***** academic performance of ***** appear early. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NEAP) (1996) reported that students ***** low socio-economic backgrounds ***** many minority students consistently achieve below the national average in reading skills. Unfortunately, there is no relief as students continue on through the grade levels. In fact, according ***** the NAEP study, the gap widens. The longer some children stay in school, the greater


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