Essay - Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping...


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Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques ***** Approaches for Helping Children Learn to Read

Introduction

Overview. Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet ***** educational needs of an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide r*****ge ***** developmental needs. The situation ***** urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions of students will not acquire the education necessary ***** fully participate in the economic and political aspects ***** society. Additionally, the inequality that results from differences in the ********** ***** of children is likely to further *****n the gap between the rich ***** poor. Children cannot learn to read without an understand*****g ***** phonics.

***** National Association for ***** Education of Young ***** (1996) points out ***** all children must know their ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order to communicate verbally. Therefore, the question in early childhood ***** programs should not be whether to teach "phonics" or "whole language **********," but rather how ***** teach phonics in context instead of in isolation so ***** young learners ***** the appropriate connections between letters, sounds, and meaning.

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to identify the *****, research, procedures ***** materials that are related to the recent findings on word decoding.

Structure. Th***** study employs a critical review of the scholarly and relevant literature concerning *****ing and ***** ***** determine what role, if any, the small group decoding instruction plays in the improvement ***** read*****g achievement for students. Determining the importance of this relationship has implications ***** how to effectively increase student achievement as well as how resources are allocated ***** achieve the best results. Given the ***** ***** ***** between proficient readers ***** non-readers, ***** findings of this study will as a st*****rting point, diminish this disparity and will ultimately help create more ***** better l*****e-long readers. *****is research is significant in several ways. First, it addresses a cruci*****l *****sue, important not only to school success, but the success of the public school system. It also addresses a problem that is widespread, and impacts most ***** America's public school students. School success seems ***** be an import*****t precursor to ***** ***** c*****ers. ***** this study impacts not only success in school but throughout later life.

The need clearly exists and intervention programs in reading can greatly benefit struggling readers in this country, as most of them go to ***** schools that do not routinely offer such programs.

***** of the Relevant Literature

Background and Overview. Differences in the academic performance of ***** appear early. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NEAP) (1996) reported that ***** ***** low socio-economic backgrounds ***** many minority students consistently achieve below ***** national average in read*****g skills. Unfortunately, there is no relief as students continue on through the grade levels. In fact, according ***** the NAEP study, ***** gap widens. The longer some children stay in school, the greater

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