Essay - Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping...

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Reading and Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping Children Learn to Read


*****. Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide r*****ge ***** developmental *****. The situation is urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions of students will not acquire ***** education necessary to fully participate ***** the economic ***** political aspects of society. Additionally, ***** inequality that results from differences in the educational achievement of children is likely ***** further ********** the gap between the rich and poor. Children cannot learn to read *****out an underst*****ing ***** phonics.

***** National Association for ***** Education of Young ***** (1996) points out that all children must know their ABCs *****d the sounds that letters make in order to communicate verbally. Therefore, ***** question in early childhood ***** programs should not be whether to teach "phonics" or "whole language learning," but rather how ***** teach ***** in context instead of in ********** so ***** young learners ***** the appropriate connections *****tween letters, sounds, and meaning.

Purpose. The purpose of this study is to identify ***** **********, research, procedures and materials that are related to the recent findings on word decoding.

Structure. This study employs a critical review of the scholarly and relevant literature concerning *****ing and decoding ***** determine what role, if any, the small group decoding instruction plays in the improvement of read*****g achievement for students. Determining the importance of ***** relationship has implications for how to effectively increase student achievement as well as how resources are allocated ***** achieve the best results. Given the ***** achievement gap between proficient readers and non-readers, ***** findings of this study will as a starting point, diminish ***** disparity and ***** ultimately help create more and better life-long readers. This research is significant in several ways. First, it addresses a crucial **********, important not only to school *****, but the success of ***** public school system. It also addresses a problem that is widespread, ***** impacts ***** of America's public school students. School success seems ***** be an important precursor to ***** in c*****ers. There*****e this study impacts ***** only success in school but throughout later life.

***** need cl***** exists and intervention programs in reading can greatly benef***** struggling readers in this country, as most ***** them go to ***** schools ***** do not routinely offer such programs.

Review of the Relevant Literature

Background and Overview. Differences in the academic performance of ***** appear early. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NEAP) (1996) reported that ***** from low socio-economic backgrounds and many minority students consistently achieve below the national average in read*****g skills. Unfortunately, there is no relief as students continue on through the grade levels. In fact, according to the NAEP study, the gap widens. The longer some children stay in school, the greater


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