Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...


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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What ***** the differences? When should descriptive and inferential statistics be used?

Descriptive and ***** statistics: Summary explains ***** similarities and differences between descriptive ***** inferential stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to describe a study population that is small enough to include every case. ***** statistics can also ***** the actual sample under *****, but allow a researcher ***** extend conclusions to a broader population.

With descriptive statistics, a researcher ***** describe how issues affect study groups and ***** variables are related in to other study *****. However, the research cannot describe how those issues affect ***** members of the study groups and how these variables ***** related ***** those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how ***** results could be generalized ***** all groups and ***** not know where the groups in the ***** were representative ***** all groups.

These shortcom*****gs of ***** statistics are where inferential statistics come into play.

***** statistics extends conclusions to a broader ***** by making sure the study if ***** ***** the group ***** researcher wishes to generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample that is representative of the group to which the researcher plans to *****. Tests of significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the researcher the probability that the results found in the study ***** are representative of ***** population that group was chosen ***** represent. ***** or a t-test gives informs the researcher of ***** ***** that the results ***** could have occurred by chance when *****re is really no relationship at all between the variables you studied in the popul*****ion.

***** are the similarities ***** single-case and *****-N research designs? What are ***** differences? When should single-case ***** small-N ***** designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain single-case and small-n research *****. These are most often ***** in applied fields of psychology, education, ***** human behavior in ***** the subject serves as h*****/her own control, rather than utiliz*****g an***** individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case and small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which are sensitive ***** averages ***** groups. Small-n research includes more ***** one subject in a research study, but the ***** still serves as his/her own ***** just like in the ***** design.

S*****gle-case and ***** research ***** three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior of the individual over the course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects ***** observed long e*****ugh to convince the researcher that the treatment produces a lasting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the ***** is implemented, a rese*****rcher looks for ********** trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in baseline, but the ***** reversed th***** *****) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment effect.

***** in Data:

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