Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...


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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What ***** the differences? When should descriptive and inferential statistics be used?

Descriptive and ***** statistics: Summary explains the ***** and differences ********** ***** and inferential stations ***** when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises ***** kind of analyses to describe a study population that is small enough to include every case. ***** statistics can also ***** the actual sample under study, but allow a researcher to extend conclusions ***** a broader population.

With descriptive statistics, a rese*****rcher ***** describe how issues affect study groups and how variables are related in to other study *****. However, the research cannot describe how those issues affect ***** members of the study groups and ***** these variables are related ***** those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how the results could be generalized to all ***** and would not know where the groups in the ***** were representative of all groups.

***** shortcomings of ***** statistics are where inferential ***** come into play.

Inferential statistics extends conclusions to a broader population by making sure the study if representative of the group the researcher wishes to generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample that is representative of the group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests of significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the ***** the prob*****bility that the ***** found in ***** study group are representative of the population that group was chosen ***** represent. ***** or a t-test gives informs ***** researcher of the probability ***** the results ***** could have occurred by chance ***** there ***** really no relationship at all *****tween the variables you studied in the population.

***** are the similarities between single-case and *****-N research designs? What are ***** differences? When should single-case and small-N research designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain ***** and small-n research *****. These are most *****ten used in applied fields of psychology, education, and human behavior in which the subject serves as his/her own control, rather than utiliz*****g another individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case and small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which are sensitive ***** averages of groups. Small-n ***** includes more than one subject in a rese*****rch study, but the ***** still serves as his/her own ***** just like in ***** s*****gle-case design.

***** and small-n research ***** three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior of the individual over ***** course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects are observed long enough to convince ***** researcher that the ***** produces a lasting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the treatment is implemented, a researcher looks for ********** trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in b*****eline, but the ***** reversed this *****) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment effect.

***** in Data:

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