Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...

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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What ***** the differences? When should descriptive and inferential statistics be used?

Descriptive and ***** statistics: Summary explains the similarities and differences ********** descriptive ***** inferential stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to describe a study population that is small enough to include every case. ***** statistics can also ***** the actual sample under *****, but allow a researcher to extend conclusions ***** a bro*****der population.

With descriptive statistics, a rese*****rcher ***** describe how issues affect study groups and how variables are related in to other study *****. However, the research cannot describe how those issues affect ***** members of the study groups and ***** these variables are related ***** those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how ***** results could be generalized ***** all ***** and would not know where the groups in ***** study were representative ***** all groups.

These shortcom*****gs of descriptive statistics are where inferential statistics come into play.

Inferential ***** extends conclusions to a broader ***** by making sure the ***** if representative ***** the group the researcher wishes ***** generalize to. This is accomplished ***** choosing a sample that is representative of ***** group to which the researcher plans to *****. Tests of significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the rese*****rcher the probability that the results found in the study group are representative of ***** population that ***** was chosen ***** represent. ***** or a t-test gives informs the researcher of ***** probability that the results ***** could have occurred by chance when *****re is re*****y no relationship at all between the variables you studied in the popul*****ion.

***** are ***** similarities ***** single-case and *****-N research designs? What are the differences? When should single-case ***** small-N ***** designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain ***** and small-n research *****. These are most *****ten ***** in applied fields of psychology, education, ***** human behavior in ***** ***** subject serves as h*****/her own control, rather than utiliz*****g an***** individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case *****d small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which ***** sensitive to averages of groups. Small-n ***** includes more ***** one subject in a research study, but the ***** still serves as his/her own ***** just like in ***** single-c*****e design.

***** and small-n research have three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior ***** the individual over the course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects are observed long e*****ugh ***** convince the researcher that ***** ***** produces a l*****sting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the treatment is implemented, a rese*****rcher looks for ********** trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in b*****el*****e, but ***** ***** reversed this trend) ***** is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment *****.

***** in Data:


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