Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...


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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What are the differences? When should ***** and ***** statistics be used?

***** and inferential statistics: Summary explains ***** ***** and differences *****tween descriptive ***** ***** stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to describe a study population that is small enough to include every case. ***** statistics can also describe the actual sample under study, but allow a researcher ***** extend conclusions to a broader population.

With descriptive statistics, a rese*****rcher ***** describe how issues affect study groups and how variables are related in to other study groups. However, the research cannot describe ***** those issues ***** the members of the study ***** and how these variables ***** related ***** those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how the results could ***** generalized ***** all ***** and ***** not know where the groups in the ***** were representative of all groups.

These shortcom*****gs of ***** statistics are where inferential ***** come into play.

Inferential statistics extends conclusions to a broader ***** by making sure the study if representative of the group the researcher wishes to generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample ***** is representative of ***** group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests of significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the ***** the prob*****bility that the results found in ***** ***** ***** are representative of the population that group was chosen to represent. ***** or a t-test gives informs the rese*****rcher of the probability ***** the results found could have occurred by chance when there ***** re*****y no relationship at all between the variables you studied in the popul*****ion.

***** are the similarities between single-case and small-N research designs? What are ***** differences? ***** should single-case ***** small-N research designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain ***** and small-n research designs. These are most often ***** in applied fields of psychology, education, and human behavior in which the subject serves as his/her own control, rather than utiliz*****g another individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case and small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which are sensitive ***** averages of groups. Small-n research includes more than one subject in a research study, but the subject still ***** as his/her own ***** just like in ***** single-case design.

Single-case and small-n research ***** three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior ***** the individual over the course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects ***** observed long enough to convince ***** *****er that the ***** produces a l*****sting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the treatment is implemented, a researcher looks for *****al trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in basel*****e, but ***** ***** reversed this *****) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment *****.

Variability in Data:

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