Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...

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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What are the differences? When should ***** and inferential statistics be used?

Descriptive and inferential statistics: Summary explains ***** ***** and differences between descriptive ***** inferential stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to descri***** a study population that is small enough to include every case. ***** statistics can also *****be the actual sample under *****, but allow a rese*****rcher to extend conclusions ***** a broader population.

With descriptive statistics, a rese*****rcher ***** describe how issues affect study groups and ***** variables are related in to other study *****. However, the research cannot describe how those issues ***** ***** members of the study groups and ***** these variables ***** related ***** those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how ***** results could ***** generalized to all ***** and ***** not know where the groups in the study were representative of all groups.

***** shortcomings of ***** statistics are where inferential ***** come in***** play.

***** statistics extends conclusions to a broader ***** by making sure the study if representative ***** the group the researcher wishes ***** generalize to. This is accomplished ***** choosing a sample ***** is ***** of the group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests ***** significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the researcher the probability that the results found in ***** study group are representative of the population that group was chosen ***** represent. Chi-Sqaure or a t-test gives informs the ***** of ***** prob*****bility ***** the results found could have occurred by chance when there ***** re*****y no relationship at all ***** the variables you studied in the population.

What are ***** similarities between single-case and small-N research designs? What are the differences? When should single-case and small-N research designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain single-case and small-n research *****. These are most often ***** in applied fields of psychology, education, ***** human behavior in which the subject serves as his/her own control, rather than utiliz*****g a*****ther individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case and small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which are sensitive ***** averages ***** groups. Small-n ***** includes more ***** one subject in a rese*****rch study, ***** the ***** still serves as his/her own control just like in the single-c*****e design.

Single-case and ***** research ***** three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior of the individual over ***** course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects ***** observed long enough to convince ***** researcher that the treatment produces a l*****sting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the treatment is implemented, a researcher looks for behavioral trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in b*****eline, but ***** treatment reversed th***** *****) *****is is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment *****.

Variability in Data:


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