Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...


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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What ***** the differences? When should descriptive and ***** statistics be used?

Descriptive and inferential statistics: Summary explains ***** similarities and differences ********** ***** and ***** stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to describe a study population that is small enough to include every case. ***** statistics can also describe the actual sample under *****, but allow a rese*****rcher ***** extend conclusions to a broader population.

With descriptive statistics, a rese*****rcher can ***** how issues affect study groups and how variables are related in to other study groups. However, the research ********** describe how those issues affect ***** members of the study groups and how these variables ***** related ***** those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how ***** results could ***** generalized to all ***** ***** would not know where the groups in the ***** were representative of all groups.

These shortcom*****gs of descriptive statistics are where inferential statistics come in***** play.

Inferential statistics extends ***** to a broader population by mak*****g sure the study if ***** ***** the group the researcher wishes ***** generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample ***** is representative of ***** group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests of significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the rese*****rcher the probability that the ***** found in ***** study group are representative of the population that ***** was chosen ***** represent. ***** or a t-test gives informs the rese*****rcher of ***** ***** that the results found could have occurred by chance when *****re is re*****y no relationship at all between the variables you studied in the popul*****ion.

***** are ***** similarities ***** single-case and *****-N research designs? What are the differences? When should single-case ***** small-N ***** designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain single-case and small-n research designs. These are most *****ten ***** in applied fields of psychology, education, and human behavior in which ***** subject serves as h*****/her own control, rather than utilizing a*****ther individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case and small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which ***** sensitive to averages ***** groups. Small-n research includes more than one subject in a rese*****rch study, but the ***** still serves as his/her own ***** just like in ***** ***** design.

S*****gle-c*****e and small-n research have three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior of the individual over the course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects are observed long enough to convince ***** *****er that the treatment produces a lasting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the treatment is implemented, a rese*****rcher looks for *****al trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in baseline, but ***** ***** reversed this *****) ***** is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment *****.

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