Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...


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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What ***** the differences? When should ***** and ***** statistics be used?

***** and inferential statistics: Summary explains the ***** and differences between descriptive ***** inferential stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to descri***** a study population that is small enough to include every case. Descriptive statistics can also ********** the actual sample under *****, but allow a researcher ***** extend conclusions to a broader population.

With descriptive statistics, a rese*****rcher ***** describe how issues affect study groups and how variables are related in to other study *****. However, the research cannot describe ***** those issues affect ***** members of the study groups and how these variables ***** related in those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how the results could ***** generalized to all groups and would not know where the ***** ***** ***** study were representative of all groups.

***** shortcomings of ***** statistics are where inferential statistics come in***** play.

Inferential ***** extends conclusions to a broader population by mak*****g sure the ***** if representative ***** the group the researcher wishes to generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample that is representative of ***** group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests ***** significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the ***** the prob*****bility that the ***** found in the study group are representative of ***** population that ***** was chosen to represent. Chi-Sqaure or a t-test gives informs the rese*****rcher of ***** probability that the results ***** could have occurred by chance ***** there ***** really no relationship at all ***** the variables you studied in the population.

What are ***** similarities between single-case and *****-N research designs? What are the differences? ***** should single-case and small-N ***** designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain single-case and small-n research designs. These are most often ***** in applied fields of psychology, education, and human behavior in ***** the subject serves as his/her own control, rather than utilizing an***** individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case *****d small-n designs because they are sensitive ***** individual organism differences versus group designs which are sensitive to averages of groups. Small-n research includes more ***** one subject in a research study, but the subject still ***** as his/her own ***** just like in ***** single-case design.

Single-case and small-n research ***** three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior of the individual over ***** course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects ***** observed long e*****ugh to convince ***** *****er that the ***** produces a lasting effect.

Baseline *****: Before the treatment is implemented, a rese*****rcher looks for behavioral trends. If a treatment reverses a b*****seline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in b*****el*****e, but ***** ***** reversed th***** *****) ********** is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment effect.

Variability in Data:

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