Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...


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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What ***** the differences? When should descriptive and ***** statistics be used?

Descriptive and inferential statistics: Summary explains the similarities and differences between descriptive and ***** stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to describe a study population that is small enough to include every case. ***** statistics can also ***** the actual sample under study, but allow a rese*****rcher ***** extend conclusions to a broader population.

With descriptive statistics, a researcher can describe how issues affect study groups and how variables are related in to other study groups. However, the research cannot describe how those issues ***** ***** members of the study groups and ***** these variables ***** related ***** those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how the results could be generalized ***** all ***** ***** ***** not know where the groups in ***** study were representative of all groups.

***** shortcomings of descriptive statistics are where inferential ***** come into play.

***** statistics extends conclusions to a broader ***** by making sure the ***** if representative of the group the researcher wishes to generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample that is representative of ***** group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests of significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the ***** the probability that the results found in the study group are representative of the population that ***** was chosen to represent. Chi-Sqaure or a t-test gives informs ***** rese*****rcher of the probability that the results ***** could have occurred by chance ***** there ***** re*****y no relationship at all ***** the variables you studied in the population.

***** are the similarities between single-case and small-N research designs? What are ***** differences? ***** should single-case ***** small-N research designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain ***** and small-n research designs. These are most often used in applied fields of psychology, education, ***** human behavior in ***** the subject serves as his/her own control, rather than utiliz*****g an***** individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case *****d small-n designs because they are sensitive ***** individual organism differences versus group designs which are sensitive to averages of groups. Small-n ***** includes more ***** one subject in a research study, ***** the ***** still serves as his/her own ***** just like in the single-c*****e design.

Single-case and small-n research have three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior ***** the individual over the course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects ***** observed long e*****ugh ***** convince ***** *****er that the ***** produces a lasting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the treatment is implemented, a rese*****rcher looks for behavioral trends. If a treatment reverses a b*****seline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in basel*****e, but ***** treatment reversed this trend) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment *****.

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