Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...


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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What are the differences? When should ***** and ***** statistics be used?

Descriptive and inferential statistics: Summary explains ***** similarities and differences *****tween descriptive ***** ***** stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to describe a study population that is small enough to include every case. ***** statistics can also describe the actual sample under study, but allow a rese*****rcher ***** extend conclusions to a bro*****der population.

With descriptive statistics, a rese*****rcher ***** ***** how issues affect study groups and ***** variables are related in to other study groups. However, the research cannot describe how those issues ***** the members of the study groups and how these variables are related in those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how the results could be generalized to all ***** and would not know where the groups ***** the study were representative ***** all groups.

These shortcomings of ***** statistics ***** where inferential ***** come in***** play.

Inferential statistics extends conclusions to a broader ***** by mak*****g sure the ***** if representative ***** the group the researcher wishes ***** generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample ***** is representative of ***** group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests of significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the ***** the probability that the ***** found in ***** study group are representative of the population that ***** was chosen ***** represent. ***** or a t-test gives informs the researcher of ***** probability ***** the results ***** could have occurred by chance ***** *****re ***** re*****y no relationship at all ********** the variables you studied in the population.

***** are the similarities between single-case and small-N research designs? What are the differences? ***** should single-case ***** small-N ***** designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain ***** and small-n research *****. These are most *****ten ***** in applied fields of psychology, education, and human behavior in which the subject serves as his/her own control, ra*****r than utiliz*****g an***** individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case *****d small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which are sensitive to averages ***** groups. Small-n ***** includes more than one subject in a research study, ***** the subject still serves as his/her own ***** just like in ***** ***** design.

Single-c*****e and small-n research have three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior of the individual over the course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects are observed long e*****ugh ***** convince ***** researcher that the ***** produces a lasting effect.

Baseline *****: Before the treatment is implemented, a rese*****rcher looks for behavioral trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in basel*****e, but the treatment reversed this trend) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment *****.

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