Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...


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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What ***** the differences? When should descriptive and ***** statistics be used?

Descriptive and inferential statistics: Summary explains ***** ***** and differences ********** ***** ***** ***** stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to descri***** a study population that is small enough to include every case. Descriptive statistics can also describe the actual sample under *****, but allow a researcher ***** extend conclusions to a broader population.

With descriptive statistics, a rese*****rcher can describe how issues affect study groups and ***** variables are related in to other study groups. However, the research ********** describe how those issues ***** ***** members of the study ***** and ***** these variables ***** related ***** those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how ***** results could be generalized to all groups and would not know where the groups in ***** study were representative of all groups.

***** shortcomings of descriptive statistics are where inferential statistics come into play.

Inferential ***** extends ***** to a broader population by making sure the ***** if representative ***** the group ***** researcher wishes ***** generalize to. This is accomplished ***** choosing a sample ***** is ***** of the group to which the researcher plans to *****. Tests ***** significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the ***** the prob*****bility that the results found in the study group are representative of ***** population that group was chosen ***** represent. Chi-Sqaure or a t-test gives informs the researcher of ***** probability ***** the results found could have occurred by chance when there ***** re*****y no relationship at all ********** the variables you studied in the population.

What are the similarities between single-case and small-N research designs? What are ***** differences? When should single-case ***** small-N ***** designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain ***** and small-n research designs. These are most *****ten used in applied fields of psychology, education, ***** human behavior in which the subject serves as his/her own control, ra*****r than utiliz*****g an***** individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case *****d small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which ***** sensitive to averages of groups. Small-n ***** includes more ***** one subject in a research study, ***** the subject still ***** as his/her own control just like in ***** ***** design.

S*****gle-case and ***** research ***** three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior of the individual over the course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects are observed long e*****ugh to convince the *****er that ***** treatment produces a lasting effect.

Baseline *****: Before the treatment is implemented, a rese*****rcher looks for *****al trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in b*****eline, but ***** treatment reversed th***** trend) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a ***** effect.

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