Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...

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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What are the differences? When should descriptive and inferential statistics be used?

***** and ***** statistics: Summary explains ***** ***** and differences ********** descriptive and inferential stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to describe a study population that is small enough to include every case. Descriptive statistics can also ***** the actual sample under *****, but allow a researcher ***** extend conclusions to a bro*****der population.

With descriptive statistics, a researcher can describe how issues affect study groups and ***** variables are related in to other study groups. However, the research *****not describe how those issues ***** ***** members of the study ***** and ***** these variables are related in those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how ***** results could be generalized to all ***** ***** would not know where the groups in ***** study were representative ***** all groups.

These shortcomings of descriptive statistics ***** where inferential ***** come into play.

***** statistics extends ***** to a broader ***** by making sure the ***** if ***** ***** the group the researcher wishes ***** generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample ***** is representative of the group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests ***** significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the rese*****rcher the probability that the ***** found in the study ***** are representative of the population that group was chosen ***** represent. Chi-Sqaure or a t-test gives informs the rese*****rcher of the probability ***** the results ***** could have occurred by chance when *****re ***** re*****y no relationship at all between the variables you studied in the population.

***** are the similarities between single-case and small-N research designs? What are the differences? ***** should single-case ***** small-N ***** designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain single-case and small-n research *****. These are most often used in applied fields of psychology, education, ***** human behavior in ***** the subject serves as his/her own control, ra*****r than utiliz*****g a*****ther individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case and small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which are sensitive ***** averages of groups. Small-n ***** includes more ***** one subject in a research study, but the subject still serves as his/her own control just like in the ***** design.

S*****gle-case and small-n research ***** three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior ***** the individual over the course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects ***** observed long enough to convince the researcher that ***** ***** produces a l*****sting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the treatment is implemented, a researcher looks for ********** trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in b*****el*****e, but the ***** reversed this *****) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment effect.

***** in Data:


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