# Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...

Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What are the differences? When should descriptive and inferential statistics be used?

***** and ***** statistics: Summary explains ***** ***** and differences ********** descriptive and inferential stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises the kind of analyses to describe a study population that is small enough to include every case. Descriptive statistics can also ***** the actual sample under *****, but allow a researcher ***** extend conclusions to a bro*****der population.

With descriptive statistics, a researcher can describe how issues affect study groups and ***** variables are related in to other study groups. However, the research *****not describe how those issues ***** ***** members of the study ***** and ***** these variables are related in those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how ***** results could be generalized to all ***** ***** would not know where the groups in ***** study were representative ***** all groups.

These shortcomings of descriptive statistics ***** where inferential ***** come into play.

***** statistics extends ***** to a broader ***** by making sure the ***** if ***** ***** the group the researcher wishes ***** generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample ***** is representative of the group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests ***** significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the rese*****rcher the probability that the ***** found in the study ***** are representative of the population that group was chosen ***** represent. Chi-Sqaure or a t-test gives informs the rese*****rcher of the probability ***** the results ***** could have occurred by chance when *****re ***** re*****y no relationship at all between the variables you studied in the population.

***** are the similarities between single-case and small-N research designs? What are the differences? ***** should single-case ***** small-N ***** designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain single-case and small-n research *****. These are most often used in applied fields of psychology, education, ***** human behavior in ***** the subject serves as his/her own control, ra*****r than utiliz*****g a*****ther individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case and small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which are sensitive ***** averages of groups. Small-n ***** includes more ***** one subject in a research study, but the subject still serves as his/her own control just like in the ***** design.

S*****gle-case and small-n research ***** three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior ***** the individual over the course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects ***** observed long enough to convince the researcher that ***** ***** produces a l*****sting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the treatment is implemented, a researcher looks for ********** trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in b*****el*****e, but the ***** reversed this *****) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment effect.

***** in Data:

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