Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...


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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What are the differences? When should ***** and ***** statistics be used?

***** and inferential statistics: Summary explains the similarities and differences ********** descriptive and inferential stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises ***** kind of analyses to descri***** a study population that is small enough to include every case. Descriptive statistics can also describe the actual sample under *****, but allow a researcher ***** extend conclusions to a bro*****der population.

With descriptive statistics, a rese*****rcher can describe how issues affect study groups and how variables are related in to other study groups. However, the research cannot describe how those issues ***** ***** members of the study groups and ***** these variables are related ***** those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how the results could ***** generalized ***** all groups ***** would not know where the ***** in the study were representative of all groups.

***** shortcomings of descriptive statistics ***** where inferential statistics come into play.

***** statistics extends conclusions to a broader ***** by making sure the ***** if ***** of the group ***** researcher wishes to generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample ***** is representative of the group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests of significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the researcher the probability that the ***** found in ***** study ***** are representative of the population that group was chosen ***** represent. ***** or a t-test gives informs ***** researcher of the ***** that the results ***** could have occurred by chance when *****re is really no relationship at all between the variables you studied in the population.

***** are ***** similarities ***** single-case and *****-N research designs? What are the differences? ***** should single-case ***** small-N research designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain single-case and small-n research designs. These are most *****ten ***** in applied fields of psychology, education, ***** human behavior in which the subject serves as h*****/her own control, rather than utilizing another individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case and small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which are sensitive to averages of groups. Small-n research includes more ***** one subject in a rese*****rch study, but the ***** still serves as his/her own ***** just like in the ***** design.

S*****gle-c*****e and small-n research ***** three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior ***** the individual over the course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects ***** observed long enough ***** convince ***** researcher that the ***** produces a lasting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the treatment is implemented, a rese*****rcher looks for behavioral trends. If a treatment reverses a b*****seline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in b*****el*****e, but the treatment reversed th***** trend) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment *****.

Variability in Data:

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