Essay - Research Methodologies What are the Similarities Between Descriptive and Inferential...


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Research Methodologies

What are the similarities between descriptive and inferential statistics? What ***** the differences? When should descriptive and inferential statistics be used?

***** and ***** statistics: Summary explains the ***** and differences *****tween ***** and inferential stations and when each method should be used. Descriptive statistics comprises ***** kind of analyses to descri***** a study population that is small enough to include every case. ***** statistics can also ********** the actual sample under *****, but allow a researcher ***** extend conclusions to a broader population.

With descriptive statistics, a rese*****rcher can describe how issues affect study groups and ***** variables are related in to other study groups. However, the research cannot describe how those issues affect ***** members of the study ***** and how these variables ***** related ***** those groups. Furthermore, the researcher would not be able to conclude how the results could be generalized ***** all ***** and would not know where the groups in ***** ***** were representative of all groups.

These shortcom*****gs of ***** statistics are where inferential statistics come into play.

Inferential ***** extends ***** to a broader ***** by making sure the study if representative ***** the group ***** researcher wishes ***** generalize to. This is accomplished by choosing a sample ***** is ***** of the group to which the researcher plans to generalize. Tests of significance confirm generalization. A Chi-Sqaure or a T-Test tells the researcher the probability that the results found in ***** study ***** are representative of the population that group was chosen ***** represent. Chi-Sqaure or a t-test gives informs ***** rese*****rcher of the probability ***** the results ***** could have occurred by chance when there is re*****y no relationship at all between the variables you studied in the population.

***** are ***** similarities ***** single-case and small-N research designs? What are the differences? When should single-case ***** small-N research designs be used?

Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) explain ***** and small-n research *****. These are most *****ten ***** in applied fields of psychology, education, and human behavior in ***** the subject serves as his/her own control, rather than utilizing another individual/group. Researchers utilize single-case and small-n designs because they are sensitive to individual organism differences versus group designs which ***** sensitive ***** averages of groups. Small-n ***** includes more ***** one subject in a rese*****rch study, ***** the ***** still serves as his/her own control just like in the single-c*****e design.

Single-case and small-n research ***** three major requirements (Kazdin):

Continuous Assessment: The research repeatedly observes the behavior ***** the individual over ***** course of the intervention. Thus, any treatment effects are observed long enough to convince ***** researcher that the ***** produces a lasting effect.

Baseline Assessment: Before the treatment is implemented, a rese*****rcher looks for behavioral trends. If a treatment reverses a baseline trend (e.g., things were getting worse as time went on in basel*****e, but ***** ***** reversed th***** *****) this is considered powerful evidence suggesting (though not proving) a treatment *****.

Variability in Data:

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