Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...

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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes


The positive effects ***** sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level of athletic competition. When ***** athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an athletic competition, they approach the event with more confidence, and are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, ***** evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and ***** physical demand *****. The ***** showed support for a hypothesis th*****t ***** in tasks appearing to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced more with the FSS than those having a high number ***** cognitive elements. (Kim, R*****ldo, Singer, 1996)

***** field ***** received a large amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for ***** Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences ***** Education. Also involved in this field is ***** National Academy of Sciences/ ***** Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-of-the-science publications: Enhancing Human *****: Issues, Theories, and Techniques, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), ***** ***** the Mind's Eye: ***** Human Performance, edited ***** Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts were also participated in by the "Army Research Institute (ARI) which ********** ***** National Academy of Sciences/ National Research Council to assess the effect of some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, 1991, p. vii). "In particular, Landers chapter (*****) titled "Optimizing Individual *****" discussed the research literature on pre-performance routines, cognitive-behavioral interventi*****s, peak performance, and other topics that address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (Kim, Raldo, *****, 1996)

According to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on ***** future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans for bringing ***** possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situation toward an *****ed future one, the *****ticipation and management of emotions and ***** initiation ***** maintenance ***** problem-solving activities are fundamental tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) research in applied sport psychology has documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation *****in sport, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices am*****g ***** (for review, see Singer, Murphey, ***** Tennant, 1993). Olympic, pr*****essional, and intercollegiate athletes have been found to use specific categories of *****-behavioral strategies to manage emotions ***** improve per*****mance. Of the many skills that ***** possess, one of ***** most intriguing is the ability to envision ***** future, and then regulate our behavior ***** emotions so as ***** bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future events ***** been explored in virtually every area of psychology, but often is used in addressing the professional level athlete, or the person who is undergoing ***** levels of psychological intervention. (*****, Pham, Rivkin, and *****, *****)



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