Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...


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research proposal

Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes

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The positive effects ***** sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level of athletic competition. When ***** athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an ***** competition, they approach the event with more confidence, *****d are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, and evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and ***** physical demand tasks. The study showed support for a hypo*****sis th*****t performance in ***** appear*****g to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced more with the FSS than those having a high number ***** cognitive *****. (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

***** field ***** received a l*****rge amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for ***** Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Also involved in this field is the National Academy of Sciences/ ***** Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-*****-*****-science publications: Enhancing Human *****: Issues, Theories, and *****, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), ***** In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance, edited by Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts ***** also *****icipated in ***** the "Army Research *****stitute (ARI) ***** approached the National Academy of Sciences/ National ***** Council to assess the effect of some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, *****, p. vii). "In particular, Landers chapter (1991) titled "Optimizing Individual *****" discussed the research literature on pre-performance routines, *****-behavioral interventi*****s, peak performance, and other topics that address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (*****, Raldo, *****, 1996)

According to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on ***** future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans ***** bringing those possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situation toward an *****ed future one, the anticipation and management of emotions ***** the initiation and maintenance ***** problem-solving activities are funda***** tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) research in applied sport psychology has documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation within sport, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices among ***** (for review, see Singer, Murphey, & Tennant, 1993). Olympic, pr*****essional, and intercollegiate athletes have been found ***** use specific categories of *****-behavioral strategies to manage emotions ***** improve performance. Of the many skills that ***** possess, one ***** the most intriguing is the ability to envision ***** future, and then regulate our behavior ***** emotions so as ***** bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future *****s ***** been explored in virtually every area of psychology, but often is used in addressing the professional level athlete, or the person who is undergoing o*****r levels of psychological intervention. (*****, Pham, *****, and Armor, 1998)

Psychologists

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