Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...

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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes


The positive effects ***** sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level of athletic competition. When the athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an athletic competition, they approach the event with more confidence, *****d are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, and evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and higher physical demand *****. The ***** showed support for a hypo*****sis th*****t performance in tasks appearing to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced ***** with the FSS than those having a high number of ***** elements. (Kim, R*****ldo, Singer, 1996)

This field ***** received a large amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for ***** Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences ***** Education. Also involved in this field is ***** National Academy of *****/ National Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-of-the-science publications: Enhancing Human *****: Issues, Theories, and *****, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), and In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance, edited ***** Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts were also *****icipated in by the "Army Research Institute (ARI) ***** approached ***** National Academy of Sciences/ National Research ***** to assess the effect of some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, *****, p. vii). "In particular, L*****ers chapter (1991) titled "Optimizing Individual *****" d*****cussed the research literature on pre-performance routines, cognitive-behavioral interventi*****s, peak performance, and other topics that address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

***** to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on the future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans ***** bringing those possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situ*****tion toward an *****ed future one, the anticipation ***** management of emotions and the initiation and maintenance ***** problem-solving activities are fundamental tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) research in applied sport psychology has documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation within sport, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices am*****g athletes (for review, see *****, Murphey, & Tennant, 1993). Olympic, professional, and intercollegiate athletes have been found ***** use specific categories of cognitive-behavioral strategies to manage emotions and improve performance. Of the many skills that athletes possess, one ***** ***** most intriguing is the ability to envision ***** *****, ***** then regulate our behavior and emotions so as to bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future *****s ***** been explored in virtually every area of psychology, but often is used in addressing the professional ***** athlete, or the person who is undergoing o*****r levels of psychological intervention. (Taylor, Pham, *****, and Armor, *****)



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