Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...


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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes

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The positive effects ***** sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level of athletic competition. When ***** athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an athletic competition, they approach the event with more confidence, and are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, ***** evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and ***** physical dem***** *****. The ***** showed support for a hypo*****sis th*****t ***** in tasks appear*****g to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced more with the FSS than those having a high number of cognitive *****. (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

***** field has received a large amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part ***** the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences ***** Educati*****. Also involved in this field is ***** National Academy of *****/ National Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-*****-*****-science publications: Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and Techniques, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), ***** In the Mind's Eye: ***** Human Performance, edited by Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts ***** also participated in by the "Army Research *****stitute (ARI) which *****ed ***** National Academy of Sciences/ National Research ***** to assess the effect of some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, *****, p. vii). "In particular, Landers chapter (1991) titled "Optimizing Individual Performance" d*****cussed the research literature on pre-***** routines, cognitive-behavioral interventions, peak performance, and other topics that address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

***** to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on ***** future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans for bringing those possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situation toward an *****ed future one, the anticipation ***** management ***** emotions and ***** initiation ***** maintenance of problem-solving activities are fundamental tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) ***** in applied sport psychology ***** documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation with***** sport, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices among *****s (for review, see Singer, Murphey, & Tennant, 1993). Olympic, professional, and intercollegiate athletes have been found ***** use specific categories of *****-behavioral strategies to manage emotions and improve performance. Of ***** many skills that ***** possess, one of the most intriguing is the ability to envision ***** *****, ***** then regulate our behavior and emotions so as to bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future *****s h***** been explored in virtually every area of psyc*****ology, but often is used in addressing the professional level athlete, or the person who is undergoing ***** levels of psychological intervention. (Taylor, Pham, *****, and Armor, 1998)

Psychologists

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