Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...


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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes

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The positive effects of sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level of athletic competition. When ***** athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an ***** competition, *****y approach the event with more confidence, *****d are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, and evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and ***** physical dem***** tasks. The ***** showed support for a hypo*****sis th*****t ***** in ***** appear*****g to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced ***** with the FSS than those having a high number of cognitive elements. (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

This field ***** received a large amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part of ***** Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Also involved in this field is the National Academy of Sciences/ ***** Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-*****-*****-science publications: Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and Techniques, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), ***** In the Mind's Eye: ***** Human *****, edited ***** Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts ***** also participated in by the "Army Research *****stitute (ARI) which approached the National Academy of Sciences/ ***** Research Council to assess the effect ***** some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, 1991, p. vii). "In particular, Landers chapter (*****) titled "Optimiz*****g Individual Performance" discussed the research literature on pre-***** routines, *****-behavioral interventi*****s, peak performance, and other topics that address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (*****, Raldo, *****, 1996)

According to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on ***** future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans ***** bringing those possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situ*****tion toward an *****ed future one, the *****ticipation and management of emotions and the initiation and maintenance of problem-solving activities are funda***** tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) research in applied sport psychology has documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation with***** sport, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices among ***** (for review, see Singer, Murphey, ***** Tennant, 1993). Olympic, professional, and intercollegiate athletes have been found to use specific categories of cognitive-behavioral strategies ***** manage emotions ***** improve *****. Of ***** many skills that athletes possess, one of the most intriguing is the ability to envision ***** future, and then regulate our behavior ***** emotions so as to bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future events ***** ***** explored in virtually every area of psychology, but often is used in addressing the professional level athlete, or the person who is undergoing other levels of psychological intervention. (Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor, *****)

Psychologists

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