Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...

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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes


The positive effects of sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level ***** athletic competition. When the athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an ***** competition, *****y approach the event with more confidence, and are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, and evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and higher physical demand *****. The study showed support for a hypo*****sis that performance in tasks appearing to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced ***** with the FSS than those having a high number of cognitive *****. (Kim, R*****ldo, Singer, 1996)

This field has received a large amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for ***** Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part ***** the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Also involved in this field is ***** National Academy of *****/ ***** Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-*****-*****-science publications: Enhancing Human *****: Issues, Theories, and Techniques, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), and ***** the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance, edited by Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts ***** also participated in ***** the "Army Research Institute (ARI) which *****ed ***** National Academy of Sciences/ National ***** ***** to assess the effect ***** some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, *****, p. vii). "In particular, L*****ers chapter (1991) titled "Optimiz*****g Individual *****" d*****cussed the research literature on pre-performance routines, cognitive-behavioral interventions, peak performance, and other topics ***** address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (Kim, Raldo, *****, 1996)

***** to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on the future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans for bringing ***** possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situation toward an envisioned future one, the *****ticipation ***** management of emotions and the initiation ***** maintenance ***** problem-solving activities are funda***** tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) ***** in applied sport psychology has documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation ********** *****, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices am*****g athletes (for review, see Singer, Murphey, ***** Tennant, 1993). Olympic, professional, and intercollegiate athletes have been found to use specific categories of *****-behavioral strategies ***** manage emotions ***** improve *****. Of ***** many skills that ***** possess, one of the most intriguing is the ability to envision ***** future, and then regulate our behavior ***** emotions so as ***** bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future events h***** ***** explored in virtually every *****a of psychology, but often is used in addressing the professional level athlete, or the person who is undergoing ***** levels of psychological intervention. (*****, Pham, *****, and Armor, 1998)



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