Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...

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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes


The positive effects of sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level of athletic competition. When ***** athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an ***** competition, *****y approach the event with more confidence, *****d are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, and evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and higher physical demand tasks. The ***** showed support for a hypothesis that ***** in tasks appearing to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced more with the FSS than those having a high number of cognitive elements. (Kim, R*****ldo, Singer, 1996)

***** field ***** received a l*****rge amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part ***** the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences ***** Educati*****. Also involved in this field is the National Academy of Sciences/ National Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-of-*****-science publications: Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and *****, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), and ***** the Mind's Eye: ***** Human *****, edited ***** Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts were also participated in by the "Army Research Institute (ARI) which approached the ***** Academy of Sciences/ National Research ***** to assess the effect of some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, *****, p. vii). "In particular, Landers chapter (1991) titled "Optimiz*****g Individual Performance" discussed the research literature on pre-performance routines, cognitive-behavioral interventi*****s, peak performance, and other topics that address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

***** to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on ***** future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans for bringing ***** possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situ*****tion toward an envisioned future one, the *****ticipation ***** management of emotions and ***** initiation and maintenance ***** problem-solving activities are fundamental tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) ***** in applied sport psychology has documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation with***** *****, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices among *****s (for review, see Singer, Murphey, ***** Tennant, 1993). Olympic, professional, and intercollegiate athletes have been found to use specific categories of *****-behavioral strategies to manage emotions and improve performance. Of ***** many skills that ***** possess, one ***** the most intriguing is ***** ability to envision the *****, and then regulate our behavior and emotions so as ***** bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future *****s h***** ***** explored in virtually every ********** of psyc*****ology, but often is used in addressing the professional ***** athlete, or the person who is undergoing ***** levels of psychological intervention. (Taylor, Pham, *****, and *****, 1998)



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