Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...

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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes


The positive effects ***** sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level of athletic competition. When the athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an ***** competition, they approach the event with more confidence, *****d are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, and evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and ***** physical dem***** tasks. The ***** showed support for a hypothesis th*****t performance in tasks appearing to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced more with the FSS than those having a high number ***** cognitive elements. (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

***** field has received a large amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for ***** Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences ***** Education. Also involved in this field is ***** National Academy of *****/ National Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-*****-the-science publications: Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and *****, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), ***** In the Mind's Eye: ***** Human Performance, edited by Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts were also *****icipated in by the "Army Research Institute (ARI) which approached the National Academy of Sciences/ National ***** ***** to assess the effect of some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, 1991, p. vii). "In particular, L*****ers chapter (1991) titled "Optimiz*****g Individual Performance" d*****cussed the research literature on pre-performance routines, cognitive-behavioral interventions, peak performance, and other topics that address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (*****, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

***** to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on the future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans for bringing ***** possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situ*****tion toward an *****ed future one, the *****ticipation and management of emotions ***** ***** initiation and maintenance ***** problem-solving activities are fundamental tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) ***** in applied sport psychology ***** documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation ********** *****, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices among ***** (for review, see Singer, Murphey, & Tennant, 1993). Olympic, pr*****essional, and intercollegiate athletes have been found ***** use specific categories of cognitive-behavioral strategies to manage emotions and improve per*****mance. Of the many skills ***** athletes possess, one of the most intriguing is ***** ability to envision the *****, ***** then regulate our behavior and emotions so as to bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future events has been explored in virtually every ********** of psychology, but often is used in addressing the professional level athlete, or the person who is undergoing ***** levels of psychological intervention. (*****, Pham, *****, and *****, 1998)



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