Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...

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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes


The positive effects of sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level ***** athletic competition. When ***** athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an ***** competition, they approach the event with more confidence, *****d are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, and evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and higher physical dem***** *****. The study showed support for a hypothesis that ***** in tasks appear*****g to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced ***** with the FSS than those having a high number ***** cognitive *****. (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

This field has received a l*****rge amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for ***** Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences ***** Education. Also involved in this field is the National Academy of Sciences/ ***** Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-*****-the-science publications: Enhancing Human *****: Issues, Theories, and Techniques, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), and ***** the Mind's Eye: ***** Human Performance, edited by Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts ***** also *****icipated in by the "Army Research Institute (ARI) ***** *****ed the National Academy of Sciences/ National Research ***** to assess the effect of some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, 1991, p. vii). "In particular, L*****ers chapter (1991) titled "Optimizing Individual *****" d*****cussed the research literature on pre-performance routines, cognitive-behavioral interventi*****s, peak performance, and other topics that address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (Kim, Raldo, *****, 1996)

According to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on the future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans ***** bringing those possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situ*****tion toward an *****ed future one, the *****ticipation and management of emotions ***** ***** initiation and maintenance ***** problem-solving activities are funda***** tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) research in applied sport psychology has documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation *****in sport, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices am*****g ***** (for review, see Singer, Murphey, ***** Tennant, 1993). Olympic, professional, and intercollegiate ********** have been found to use specific categories of cognitive-behavioral strategies to manage emotions ***** improve performance. Of the many skills ***** athletes possess, one of ***** most intriguing is the ability to envision ***** future, and then regulate our behavior and emotions so as ***** bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future events has been explored in virtually every area of psychology, but often is used in addressing the professional level athlete, or the person who is undergoing ***** levels of psychological intervention. (Taylor, Pham, *****, and *****, *****)



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