Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...

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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes


The positive effects of sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level of athletic competition. When the athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an athletic competition, *****y approach the event with more confidence, ********** are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, and evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and ***** physical dem***** tasks. The ***** showed support for a hypothesis th*****t performance in ***** appear*****g to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced ***** with the FSS than those having a high number of ***** elements. (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

***** field has received a l*****rge amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for ***** Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Educati*****. Also involved in this field is ***** National Academy of Sciences/ National Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-*****-*****-science publications: Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and *****, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), ***** ***** the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human *****, edited by Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts ***** also participated in ***** the "Army Research Institute (ARI) ***** *****ed the National Academy of Sciences/ National ***** Council to assess the effect ***** some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, 1991, p. vii). "In particular, Landers chapter (*****) titled "Optimizing Individual Performance" d*****cussed the research literature on pre-***** routines, cognitive-behavioral interventi*****s, peak performance, and other topics that address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (*****, Raldo, *****, 1996)

According to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on the future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans for bringing those possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situ*****tion toward an *****ed future one, ***** anticipation and management of emotions and the initiation and maintenance ***** problem-solving activities are funda***** tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) research in applied sport psychology has documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation *****in sport, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices am*****g *****s (for review, see Singer, Murphey, ***** Tennant, 1993). Olympic, professional, and intercollegiate athletes have been found ***** use specific categories of *****-behavioral strategies to manage emotions and improve *****. Of the many skills ***** athletes possess, one of the most intriguing is the ability to envision the *****, and then regulate our behavior ***** emotions so as to bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future events has ***** explored in virtually every *****a of psychology, but often is used in addressing the professional level athlete, or the person who is undergoing ***** levels of psychological intervention. (*****, Pham, Rivkin, and *****, *****)



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