Essay - Research Proposal Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes Introduction...

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Effects of Imagery Training on Novice Athletes


The positive effects of sports imagery training has been validated by athletes and trainers at the highest level of athletic competition. When the athlete visualizes the individual aspects of an ***** competition, they approach the event with more confidence, ********** are able to attain significantly higher scores. In one study, findings revealed that the Five Step Strategy, which includes mental readying, imaging, focusing, executing, and evaluation procedures, significantly influenced performance in tasks that were low cognitive demand and higher physical demand tasks. The ***** showed support for a hypo*****sis that performance in tasks appearing to contain a greater number of motor elements is enhanced more with the FSS than those having a high number of ***** elements. (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

***** field has received a large amount of attention over the past decade. A Committee on Techniques for ***** Enhancement of Human Performance, was formed as part of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Educati*****. Also involved in this field is the National Academy of *****/ ***** Research Council, and together these organization have lead to the comprehensive state-*****-*****-science publications: Enhancing Human *****: Issues, Theories, and *****, edited by Druckman and Swets (1988), ***** ***** the Mind's Eye: ***** Human Performance, edited by Druckman and Bjork (1991).

These efforts were also *****icipated in by the "Army Research Institute (ARI) ***** approached ***** National Academy of Sciences/ ***** ***** Council to assess the effect of some 'new age' techniques designed to enhance human performance" (Druckman & Bjork, *****, p. vii). "In particular, L*****ers chapter (1991) titled "Optimizing Individual *****" discussed the research literature on pre-performance routines, cognitive-behavioral interventions, peak performance, and other topics ***** address military concerns for enhancing the training of trainees." (Kim, Raldo, Singer, 1996)

According to Taylor, Pham, Rivkin, and Armor (1998) "Mental simulation provides a window on ***** future by enabling people to envision possibilities and develop plans ***** bringing ***** possibilities about. In moving oneself from a current situ*****tion toward an *****ed future one, the *****ticipation ***** management of emotions and ***** initiation ***** maintenance ***** problem-solving activities are funda***** tasks"

Literature Review

According to Ryska (1998) ***** in applied sport psychology ***** documented the nature of mental preparation, its implementation ********** sport, and its impact on various cognitive and affective indices among ***** (for review, see *****, Murphey, & Tennant, 1993). Olympic, professional, and intercollegiate athletes have been found ***** use specific categories of *****-behavioral strategies to manage emotions ***** improve per*****mance. Of ***** many skills that athletes possess, one ***** the most intriguing is the ability to envision the future, and *****n regulate our behavior and emotions so as to bring it about the visualized or imagined goal. This ability to imagine future *****s h***** ***** explored in virtually every ********** of psyc*****ology, but often is used in addressing the professional ***** athlete, or the person who is undergoing o*****r levels of psychological intervention. (*****, Pham, *****, and *****, 1998)



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