Essay - Role of Staff Education in Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Long-term...

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Statement of the Problem

Pressure ulcers (PUs), also known as bed sores, decubitus ulcers, or pressure sores, are formed where skin and tissue are squeezed between bone and an outside surface for long periods of time, *****ten due to immobility ("Pressure Ulcer," 2002). The development of PUs is a common problem in long term care of ***** elderly. A recent report by a national pressure ulcer organization estimates the prevalence of ***** in acute care at about 15%, with ***** a 7% incidence *****fter admission (National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2001).

Because PUs are so common, cause distress ***** the patient and their family, and can form the basis for litigation, it is important for the long-term medical care community to find ways ***** reduce ***** prevalence and incidence. Two commonly suggested solutions to the PU problem include identifying patients at risk using risk assessment methods and initiating preventive measures (Ayello & Braden, *****). In order ***** long term ***** staff to identify patients at risk they must be educ*****ed in assessment ***** the risk for developing PUs. One risk assessment method used in this area is the ***** Scale, developed in 1987 by Drs. Barbara Braden and Nancy Bergstrom. The scale attempts to ***** risk factors that increase the chance that patients will develop PUs in the future and assigns a numeric value to the risk for any particular patient (Bergstrom, *****, Laguzza, & Holman, *****).

Rationale for the Study

This study will attempt ***** evaluate the effect of training staff in a long-term care facility in the use of ***** Braden Scale on ulcer incidence. It will do this by examining three factors before and after training in the use of ***** Braden Scale: (1) the overall ***** ***** ulcers, (2) the average ulcer ***** time, and (3) the average ulcer healing time.

Definition of Terms

Braden Scale -- a ***** assessment method for the development ***** ***** *****s that examines various factors ***** assigns a numeric value of ***** potential risk.

***** Data ***** data concerning events occurring before a subject is enrolled in ***** *****.

Prospective Data -- data concerning events ***** after a subject ***** enrolled in a study.

Quasi-Experimental -- a method of quantitative research design that examines causality; it does not include random selection ***** subjects or control groups.


***** presentation of the theoretical and research ***** for the study

The Braden Scale is a risk assessment method for the development ***** pressure ulcers that was *****ulated in *****987 (Bergstrom et al.). S*****ce that time, a large number of studies have been done to try to determine if the sc*****e is reliable (consistent) and valid (accurate) in predicting those patients that will develop pressure ulcers. Work by Braden herself indicates that the scale does have clinical utility, predictive utility, ***** extends to various healthcare settings (Braden ***** *****, 1989; Bergstrom, *****, Kemp, Champagne, &


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