Essay - Role of Staff Education in Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Long-term...

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Statement of the Problem

***** ulcers (PUs), also known as bed sores, decubitus ulcers, or pressure s*****es, are formed where skin and tissue are squeezed between bone and an outside surface for long periods of time, often due to immobility ("Pressure Ulcer," 2002). The development of PUs is a common problem in ***** term c*****re of the elderly. A recent report by a national pressure ulcer org*****ization estimates the prevalence of ***** in acute care at about 15%, with ***** a 7% incidence *****fter admission (National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2001).

Because PUs are so common, cause distress to the patient and their family, and can form the basis for litigation, it is important for the long-term medical ***** community to find ways ***** reduce their prevalence and incidence. Two commonly suggested ********** to the PU problem include identifying *****s at risk using risk assessment methods and initi*****ing preventive measures (Ayello & Braden, 2002). In order ***** long term care staff to identify patients at risk ********** must be educated in assessment of the risk for develop*****g PUs. One ***** assessment method used in this area is the Braden Scale, developed in 1987 by Drs. Barbara Braden ***** Nancy Bergstrom. The scale attempts to identify r*****k factors that increase the chance that patients will develop PUs in the future and assigns a numeric value to the risk for any particular patient (Bergstrom, Braden, Laguzza, & Holman, *****).

Rationale for the Study

This study will attempt ***** evaluate the effect of tra*****ing staff in a long-term care facility in the use of ***** Braden Scale on ulcer *****. It will do this by examining three ***** before and after training in the use of the Braden Scale: (1) the overall incidence ***** ulcers, (2) the average ulcer ********** time, ***** (3) the ***** ulcer healing time.

Definition of Terms

***** Scale -- a ***** assessment method for ***** development of ***** ulcers that examines various factors and assigns a numeric value ***** the potential risk.

Retrospective Data -- data concerning events occurring before a subject is enrolled in ***** study.

Prospective Data ***** data ***** events ***** after a subject ***** enrolled ***** a *****.

Qu*****si-Experimental -- a method of quantitative research design that examines causality; it does not include random selection of ********** or control groups.


Chronological presentation of the theoretical and ***** ***** for the study

The Braden Scale is a r*****k assessment method for the development ***** pressure ***** that was formulated in *****987 (Bergstrom et al.). S*****ce that *****, a large number of studies have been done to try to determine if ***** scale is reliable (consistent) and valid (accurate) in predicting those ***** ***** ***** develop pressure ulcers. Wo***** by ***** herself indicates that the scale does have clinical utility, predictive utility, ***** extends to various healthcare settings (Braden ***** *****, 1989; Bergstrom, Braden, Kemp, Champagne, &


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