Essay - Role of Staff Education in Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Long-term...

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Statement of the Problem

***** ulcers (PUs), also known as bed sores, decubitus ulcers, or pressure s*****es, are formed where skin and tissue are squeezed between bone and an outside surface for long periods of time, ********** due to immobility ("Pressure Ulcer," 2002). The development of ***** is a common problem in ***** term c*****re of ***** elderly. A recent report by a national pressure ulcer organization estimates the prevalence of PUs in acute care at about 15%, with about a 7% ********** after admission (National ***** Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2001).

Because PUs are so common, cause distress to ***** patient and their family, and can form the basis for litigation, it is important for the long-term medical ***** community ***** find ways to reduce their prevalence and incidence. Two commonly suggested solutions to the PU ***** include identifying *****s at r*****k using risk assessment methods and initi*****ing preventive measures (Ayello & Braden, 2002). In order for long term care staff to identify patients at risk they must be educated in assessment ***** the risk for developing PUs. One ***** assessment method used in this area is the Braden Scale, developed in 1987 by Drs. Barbara Braden ***** Nancy Bergstrom. The scale attempts to ***** risk factors that increase the chance that patients will develop PUs in the future and assigns a numeric value to the risk for any particular patient (Bergstrom, Braden, Laguzza, & Holman, *****).

Rationale for the Study

This study will attempt ***** evaluate the effect of training ***** in a long-***** care facility in the use of the ***** Scale on ulcer incidence. It will do this by examining three ***** before and after ***** in the use of the Braden Scale: (1) the overall incidence ***** ulcers, (2) the average ulcer ***** time, ***** (3) the average ulcer healing time.

Definition of Terms

***** Scale -- a risk assessment method for the *****ment of pressure ulcers that examines various factors and assigns a ***** value ***** ***** potential *****.

***** Data -- data concerning events occurring before a subject is enrolled in ***** *****.

Prospective Data ***** data ***** events occurr*****g after a subject ***** enrolled in a study.

Qu*****si-Experimental -- a method of qu*****ntitative research design that ***** causality; it does not include random selection of subjects or control groups.


Chronological presentation of the theoretical and research basis for the study

***** Braden Scale is a risk assessment method for the development of pressure ulcers ***** was *****ulated in 1987 (Bergstrom et al.). Since that time, a large number of studies have been done to try to determine if the scale is reliable (consistent) and valid (accurate) in predicting those patients ***** will develop pressure *****. Work by Braden herself indicates that the ***** ***** have clinical utility, predictive utility, and extends ***** various healthcare settings (***** ***** *****, 1989; Bergstrom, Braden, Kemp, Champagne, &


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