Essay - Role of Staff Education in Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Long-term...

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Statement of the Problem

Pressure ulcers (PUs), also known as bed sores, decubitus ulcers, or pressure sores, are formed where skin and tissue are squeezed between bone and an outside surface for long periods of time, often due to immobility ("Pressure Ulcer," 2002). The development of ***** is a common problem in ***** term care of the elderly. A recent report by a n*****tional pressure ulcer organization estimates the prevalence of PUs in acute care at about 15%, with ***** a 7% incidence *****fter admission (National Pressure Ulcer *****dvisory Panel, 2001).

Because PUs are so common, cause distress to ***** patient and their family, and can form the basis for litigation, it is important for the long-term medical care community to find ways to reduce ***** prevalence and incidence. Two commonly suggested ********** to the PU ***** include identifying *****s at r*****k using risk assessment methods and initi*****ing preventive measures (Ayello & Braden, 2002). In order ***** long term ***** staff to identify patients at risk they must be educ*****ed in assessment ***** the risk for developing *****. One risk assessment method used in this area is the Braden Scale, developed in 1987 by Drs. Barbara ***** ***** Nancy Bergstrom. The scale attempts to identify risk factors that increase the chance that patients will develop PUs in the future and assigns a numeric value to the risk for any particular patient (Bergstrom, Braden, Laguzza, & Holman, 1987).

Rationale for the Study

This study will attempt ***** evaluate the effect of tra*****ing staff in a long-***** care facility in the use of the Braden Scale on ulcer incidence. It will do ***** by examining three ***** be*****e and after training in the use ***** ***** ***** Scale: (1) the overall ***** of ulcers, (2) the average ulcer development time, ***** (3) the ***** ulcer healing time.

Definition ***** Terms

Braden Scale -- a risk ***** method for ***** ***** of ***** ********** that examines various factors and ***** a numeric value ***** the potential *****.

Retrospective Data ***** data concerning events occurring before a subject is enrolled in ***** *****.

Prospective Data -- data ***** events ***** after a subject is enrolled ***** a study.

Qu*****si-Experimental -- a method of quantitative research design that ***** causality; it does not include random selection ***** subjects or control groups.


Chronological presentation of the theoretical and research ***** for the study

The Braden Scale is a r*****k assessment method for the development ***** pressure ulcers ***** was formulated in ***** (Bergstrom et al.). Since that time, a large number of studies have been done to try to determine if ***** sc*****e is reliable (consistent) and valid (accurate) in predicting those ***** ***** will develop pressure *****. Work by ***** herself indicates that the scale ***** have clinical utility, predictive utility, and extends to various healthcare settings (Braden ***** *****, *****989; Bergstrom, *****, Kemp, Champagne, &


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