Essay - Role of Staff Education in Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Long-term...

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Statement of the Problem

***** ulcers (PUs), also known as bed sores, decubitus ulcers, or pressure sores, are formed where skin and tissue are squeezed between bone and an outside surface for long periods of time, ********** due to immobility ("Pressure Ulcer," 2002). The development of PUs is a common problem in ***** term care of the elderly. A recent report by a n*****tional pressure ulcer org*****ization estimates ***** prevalence of ***** in acute ***** at about 15%, with ***** a 7% *****cidence after admission (National Pressure Ulcer *****dvisory Panel, 2001).

Because PUs are so common, cause distress ***** the patient and their family, and can form the basis for litigation, it is important for the long-term medical care community to find ways ***** reduce their prevalence and incidence. Two commonly suggested solutions to the PU problem include identifying patients at r*****k using risk assessment methods and initiating preventive measures (Ayello & Braden, *****). In order for long term ***** staff to identify patients at risk they must be educ*****ed in assessment ***** the risk ***** develop*****g PUs. One risk assessment method used in this area is the Braden Scale, developed in 1987 by Drs. Barbara Braden and Nancy Bergstrom. The scale attempts to ***** r*****k factors that increase the chance that patients will develop PUs in the future and assigns a numeric value to the risk for any particular patient (Bergstrom, *****, Laguzza, & Holman, *****).

Rationale for the Study

This study will attempt ***** evaluate the effect of training staff in a long-term care facility in the use of ***** Braden Scale on ulcer incidence. It will do ***** by examining three ***** before and after ***** in the use ***** the ***** Scale: (1) the overall ***** of ulcers, (2) the average ulcer ***** time, and (3) the ***** ulcer healing time.

Definiti***** of Terms

Braden Scale -- a risk assessment method for ***** *****ment ***** ***** ********** that examines various factors ***** assigns a numeric value of the potential risk.

Retrospective Data ***** data concerning events occurring before a subject is enrolled in a *****.

Prospective Data -- data concerning events occurring after a subject is enrolled in a study.

Qu*****si-Experimental -- a ***** of qu*****ntitative research design that ***** causality; it does not include random selection ***** subjects or control groups.


Chronological presentation of the theoretical and research basis for the study

***** Braden Scale is a r*****k assessment method for the development of pressure ulcers that was formulated in 1987 (Bergstrom et al.). S*****ce that *****, a large number ***** studies have been done to try ***** determine if ***** sc*****e is reliable (consistent) and valid (accurate) in predicting those *****s ***** ***** develop pressure *****. Wo***** by Braden herself indicates that the scale ***** have clinical utility, predictive utility, and extends to various healthcare settings (Braden & Bergstrom, 1989; Bergstrom, Braden, Kemp, Champagne, &


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