Essay - Role of Staff Education in Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Long-term...

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***** of the Problem

***** ulcers (PUs), also known as bed sores, decubitus ulcers, or pressure s*****es, are formed where skin and tissue are squeezed between bone and an outside surface for long periods of time, often due to immobility ("Pressure Ulcer," 2002). The development of ***** is a common problem in ***** term care of the elderly. A recent report by a national pressure ulcer org*****ization estimates ***** prevalence of PUs in acute ***** at about 15%, with about a 7% incidence *****fter admission (National ***** Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2001).

Because PUs are so common, cause distress to the patient and their family, and can form the basis for litigation, it is important for the long-term medical care community to find ways ***** reduce their prevalence ***** *****. Two commonly suggested solutions to the PU problem include identifying patients at r*****k using risk as*****sment methods and initiating preventive measures (Ayello & Braden, 2002). In order ***** long term care staff to identify patients at risk ********** must be educated in assessment ***** the risk for developing *****. One ***** assessment method used in this area is the ***** Scale, developed in 1987 by Drs. Barbara Braden ***** Nancy Bergstrom. The scale attempts to ***** r*****k factors that increase the chance that patients will develop PUs in the future and assigns a numeric value to the risk for any particular patient (Bergstrom, *****, Laguzza, & Holman, 1987).

Rationale for the Study

This study will attempt ***** evaluate the effect of training ***** in a long-term care facility in the use of the Braden Scale on ulcer incidence. It will do ***** by examining three factors *****fore and after ***** in the use of ***** ***** Scale: (1) the overall incidence ***** ulcers, (2) the average ulcer ********** time, ***** (3) the average ulcer healing time.

Definition of Terms

***** Scale -- a ***** assessment method for the development ***** pressure ulcers that examines various ***** and assigns a numeric value of the potential risk.

***** Data -- data concerning events occurring before a subject is enrolled in ***** *****.

Prospective Data ***** data ***** events ***** after a subject ***** enrolled ***** a study.

Quasi-Experimental -- a method ***** quantitative research design that examines causality; it does not include random selection of subjects or control groups.


***** presentation of the theoretical and research basis for the study

***** Braden Scale is a risk assessment method ***** the development of pressure ***** that was formulated in ***** (Bergstrom et al.). Since that *****, a l*****rge number of studies have been done to try to determine if the scale is reliable (consistent) and valid (accurate) in predicting those patients ***** will develop pressure ulcers. Work by ***** herself indicates that the scale does have clinical utility, predictive utility, ***** extends to various healthcare settings (Braden & *****, 1989; Bergstrom, *****, Kemp, Champagne, &


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