Essay - Role of Staff Education in Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Long-term...


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ROLE OF STAFF EDUCATION IN PRESSURE ULCER INCIDENCE IN LONG-TERM CARE RESIDENTS

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

INTRODUCTION

Statement of the Problem

Pressure ulcers (PUs), also known as bed sores, decubitus ulcers, or pressure sores, are formed where skin and tissue are squeezed between bone and an outside surface for long periods of time, often due to immobility ("Pressure Ulcer," 2002). The development of PUs is a common problem in long term care of the elderly. A recent report by a national pressure ulcer org*****ization estimates ***** prevalence of ***** in acute care at about 15%, with about a 7% incidence *****fter admission (National ***** Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2001).

Because PUs are so common, cause distress ***** the patient and their family, and can form the basis for litigation, it is important for the *****-term medical care community to find ways ***** reduce their prevalence ***** *****. Two commonly suggested solutions to the PU ***** include identifying patients at r*****k using risk assessment methods and initiating preventive measures (Ayello & Braden, 2002). In order for long term ***** staff to identify patients at risk they must be educated in assessment ***** the risk for developing *****. One ***** assessment method used in this area is the ***** Scale, developed in 1987 by Drs. Barbara Braden ***** Nancy Bergstrom. The scale attempts to identify risk factors that increase the chance that patients will develop PUs in the future and assigns a numeric value to the risk for any particular patient (Bergstrom, *****, Laguzza, & Holman, 1987).

Rationale for the Study

This study will attempt ***** evaluate the effect of tra*****ing ***** in a long-term care facility ***** the use of ***** Braden Scale on ulcer incidence. It will do ***** by examining three factors be*****e and after training in the use of the Braden Scale: (1) the overall incidence of ulcers, (2) the average ulcer ***** time, and (3) the ***** ulcer healing time.

Definition of Terms

Braden Scale -- a risk ***** method for the development of ***** ********** that examines various ***** ***** ***** a ***** value of the potential risk.

***** Data -- data concerning events occurring before a subject is enrolled in a study.

Prospective Data -- data concern*****g events occurring after a subject is enrolled in a *****.

Qu*****si-Experimental -- a method of qu*****ntitative research design that examines causality; it does not include random selection of subjects or control groups.

REVIEW ***** THE LITERATURE

Chronological presentation of the theoretical and ***** basis for the study

***** Braden Scale is a risk assessment method for the development of pressure ulcers that was formulated in ***** (Bergstrom et al.). Since that time, a l*****rge number of studies have been done to try to determine if ***** sc*****e is reliable (consistent) and valid (accurate) in predicting those *****s ***** ***** develop pressure *****. Work by Braden herself indicates that the scale does have clinical utility, predictive utility, and extends ***** various healthcare settings (***** ***** Bergstrom, 1989; *****, Braden, Kemp, Champagne, &

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