Essay - Role of Staff Education in Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Long-term...

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Statement of the Problem

***** ulcers (PUs), also known as bed sores, decubitus ulcers, or pressure s*****es, are formed where skin and tissue are squeezed between bone and an outside surface for long periods of time, *****ten due to immobility ("Pressure Ulcer," 2002). The development of ***** is a common problem in long term care of the elderly. A recent report by a n*****tional pressure ulcer organization estimates the prevalence of PUs in acute care at about 15%, with ***** a 7% incidence after admission (National Pressure Ulcer ********** Panel, 2001).

Because PUs are so common, cause distress to the patient and their family, and can form the basis for litigation, it is important for the long-term medical care community ***** find ways to reduce their prevalence ***** incidence. Two commonly suggested solutions to the PU problem include identifying patients at r*****k using risk as*****sment methods and initiating preventive measures (Ayello & Braden, 2002). In order for long term ***** staff to identify patients at risk they must be educated in assessment of the risk for developing *****. One ***** assessment method used in this area is the Braden Scale, developed in 1987 by Drs. Barbara Braden ***** Nancy Bergstrom. The scale attempts to identify r*****k factors that increase the chance that patients will develop PUs in the future and assigns a numeric value to the risk for any particular patient (Bergstrom, Braden, Laguzza, & Holman, *****).

Rationale for the Study

This study will attempt ***** evaluate the effect ***** training staff in a ***** care facility in the use of the ***** Scale on ulcer incidence. It will do this by examining three ***** be*****e and after ***** in the use of the Braden Scale: (1) the overall ***** ***** ulcers, (2) the average ulcer development time, ***** (3) the ***** ulcer healing time.

Definiti***** of Terms

***** Scale -- a ***** assessment method for ***** development of pressure ulcers that examines various factors and assigns a numeric value ***** the potential risk.

***** Data ***** data concerning events occurring before a subject is enrolled in ***** study.

Prospective Data -- data ***** events ***** after a subject is enrolled ***** a study.

Quasi-Experimental -- a ***** of quantitative research design that examines causality; it does not include random selection ***** *****s or control groups.


***** presentation of the theoretical and research basis for the study

***** Braden Scale is a r*****k assessment method ***** the development ***** pressure ulcers that was formulated in *****987 (Bergstrom et al.). S*****ce that time, a l*****rge number of studies have been done to try to determine if the scale is reliable (consistent) and valid (accurate) in predicting those *****s that ***** develop pressure *****. Wo***** by ***** herself indicates that the scale does have clinical utility, predictive utility, ***** extends ***** various healthcare settings (Braden & Bergstrom, 1989; Bergstrom, *****, Kemp, Champagne, &


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