Essay - Mine Safety Innovations in Mine Safety Technology the Recent String...

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Mine Safety

Innovations in M*****e ***** Technology

The recent string of mine disasters in the United States and China proof-positive that ********** are dangerous places to work, and even with the most sophisticated mine safety technologies in place, accidents can and do happen all the time. Therefore, identifying opportunities for improvements in exist*****g techniques in ***** safety represents a timely field of endeavor. To this end, this report will provide a review of the relevant peer-reviewed, scholarly and organizational literature ***** develop an overview of ***** various types of sensors currently being used in rescue operations when look*****g for trapped miners, including gas sensors, heat detectors, pressure gauges and new camera technologies. A discussion of how these technologies are currently deployed as well ***** what mining experts recomm***** for the use of these technologies is followed by an assessment ***** their environment impact. A summary of the research *****d recommendations for further directions in future ***** are provided in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Regulation and Oversight ***** Mines in the ***** States.

A m*****e is broadly defined by Cooper, Ryan and Sinback (2003) as being "an area of land from which minerals are extracted in non-liquid form or, if in liquid *****, ***** extracted ***** workers underground"; th***** definition includes private roads, tailing ponds, retention dams, and other facilities associated with the mine as well (p. 367). In the United States, *****s are regulated by both the state ***** federal governments, with the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (FMSHA) being ***** primary legislation protecting the safety and health of American mine workers through a combin*****tion of civil, criminal, and administrative enforcement mechanisms today (Cooper et al., *****). In those cases where violation ***** the statute is determined to have been willful, ***** opera*****r of the mine is subject to crimin***** and civil liability; **********, even in those ***** where the ***** was found to be not willful, operators can be found liable ***** a civil proceeding without a showing of f*****ult (Cooper et al., 2003)

***** FMSHA imposes civil and criminal liability on corporate *****ficers, directors, ***** agents of a corpor*****te operator who knowingly authorize, order, or carry out a viol*****tion; ***** of non-corporate operators, though, ***** ***** subject to any penalties under FMSHA (***** et al., 2003). ***** addition, any person may ***** found crimin*****y liable who:

Gives advance notice of any inspection ***** be conducted under *****;

Knowingly makes any false statement, representation, or certification in ***** application, record, report, plan or other document filed ***** required to be maintained pursuant ***** FMSHA; or,

Distributes, sells, offers f***** sale, introduces, or delivers in commerce any non-complying equipment for use in a *****, ***** components and accessories of such equipment, ***** is represented as comply*****g with FMSHA or other relevant provisions (Cooper ***** al., 2003).

This legislation and the introduction of various innovations in ***** ***** ***** have resulted in improvements in ***** number of disasters and incidents that have taken ***** in U.S. mines


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