Essay - Mine Safety Innovations in Mine Safety Technology the Recent String...


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Mine Safety

Innovations in M*****e Safety Technology

***** recent string of mine disasters in the United States and Ch*****a proof-positive that ********** are dangerous places to work, and even with the most sophisticated mine safety technologies in place, accidents can ***** do happen all the time. Therefore, identifying opportunities for improvements in exist*****g techniques in mine safety represents a ********** field of endeavor. To this end, this report will provide a review ***** the relevant peer-*****ed, scholarly and organizational literature to develop an overview of ***** various types of sensors currently being used in rescue operations when looking ***** trapped *****rs, including gas sensors, heat detectors, pressure gauges and new camera technologies. A discussion of how these ***** are currently deployed as well as what mining experts recomm***** for the use of *****se technologies is followed by an assessment of their environment impact. A summary of the research and *****endations for further directions in future research are *****d in the conclusion.

***** and Discussion

Regulation and Oversight ***** Mines in ***** ***** States.

A mine is broadly defined by Cooper, Ryan ***** Sinback (2003) as ***** "an area of land from which minerals are extracted in non-liquid form or, if in liquid form, ***** extracted with workers underground"; this definition includes private roads, tailing ponds, retention dams, and other facilities associated ***** the mine as well (p. 367). In the United States, *****s are regulated by both the state ***** federal governments, with the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (FMSHA) being ***** primary legislation protecting the safety ***** health of Ameri***** mine workers through a combin*****tion of civil, criminal, and administrative enforcement mechanisms today (Cooper et al., *****). In those cases where violation of the statute is determined to have been willful, ***** operator of the mine ***** subject to ***** and civil liability; however, even in those ***** where the violation was found to be not willful, opera*****rs can be found liable in a civil proceeding without ***** showing of fault (Cooper et al., 2003)

The FMSHA imposes civil and criminal liability on corporate *****ficers, directors, and agents of a corporate operator who knowingly authorize, order, or carry out a viol*****tion; agents of non-corporate *****s, though, are not ***** to any penalties under FMSHA (***** et al., 2003). In addition, any person may ***** found criminally liable who:

Gives advance notice of any inspection to be conducted under FMSHA;

Knowingly makes any false statement, representation, or certification in ***** application, rec*****d, report, plan or o*****r document filed ***** required to ***** maintained pursuant to FMSHA; or,

Distributes, sells, offers f***** sale, introduces, or delivers in commerce any non-complying equipment ********** use in a *****, including components and accessories of such equipment, ***** is represented as complying with FMSHA or other relevant provisions (Cooper ***** al., 2003).

This legislation and the introduction of various innovations in mining ***** ***** have resulted in improvements in the number of disasters and incidents that have taken ***** in U.S. m*****es

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