Essay - Mine Safety Innovations in Mine Safety Technology the Recent String...

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Mine Safety

Innovations in Mine ***** Technology

The recent string of mine disasters in the United States and China proof-positive that mines are dangerous places to work, ***** even with the most sophisticated mine safety technologies in place, accidents can and do happen all the time. Therefore, identifying opportunities for improvements in existing techniques in mine safety represents a ********** field of endeavor. To this end, this report will provide a review ***** the relevant peer-reviewed, scholarly and organizational literature ***** develop an overview of ***** various types of sensors currently being used in rescue operations when look*****g for trapped *****rs, including gas *****, heat detectors, pressure gauges and new camera *****. A discussion of how these technologies are currently deployed as well ***** what mining experts recomm***** for the use of these ***** is followed by an assessment ***** their environment impact. A summary of the research *****d recommendations for further directions in future research are provided in the conclusion.

***** and Discussion

Regulation and Oversight ***** Mines in ***** United States.

***** m*****e is broadly defined by Cooper, Ryan ***** Sinback (2003) as ***** "an area of land from which minerals are extracted in non-liquid form or, if in liquid form, ***** extracted with workers underground"; th***** definition includes private roads, tailing ponds, retention dams, and other facilities associated ***** the mine as well (p. 367). In the United States, ***** are regulated by both ***** state and federal governments, with the Federal Mine Safety ***** Health Act of 1977 (FMSHA) being ***** primary legislation protecting the safety and health of Ameri***** mine workers through a combination of civil, criminal, and administrative enforcement mechanisms today (Cooper et al., *****). In those cases where violation of the statute is determined to have been willful, ***** opera*****r of the mine is subject to ***** and civil liability; **********, even in those cases where the violation was found to be not willful, opera*****rs can be found liable ***** a civil proceeding without a showing ***** f*****ult (Cooper et *****., 2003)

The FMSHA imposes civil and criminal liability on corporate officers, directors, and agents of a ***** operator who knowingly authorize, order, or carry out a violation; ***** of non-corporate *****s, though, ***** not subject to any penalties under FMSHA (Cooper et al., 2003). ***** addition, any person may ***** found criminally liable who:

Gives advance notice of any inspection to be conducted under *****;

***** makes any false statement, representation, or cert*****ication in any application, record, report, plan or other document filed ***** required to be ma*****tained pursuant to FMSHA; or,

Distributes, sells, offers for sale, introduces, or delivers in commerce any non-complying equipment for use in a mine, ***** components and accessories of such equipment, ***** is represented as complying with FMSHA or other relevant provisions (Cooper et al., 2003).

This legislation and the introduction of various innovations in mining saf*****y ***** have resulted in improvements in ***** number of disasters and incidents that have taken ***** in U.S. m*****es


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