Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains ***** processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation ***** energy but also defines ***** direction of time, uniting the physical concepts of time and energy. In different interpretations of the ***** law ***** thermodynamics we would find out that defining the ***** of time the law states ***** ***** ***** becoming denser with time and that the initial state ***** ***** energy can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ********** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), ***** which would produce useful work *****out energy losses. In one of ***** interpretations ***** the second law of thermodynamics it's stated that after a ***** process there is always less amount of energy in the volume if compared to ***** initial amount.

The formulation of the second ***** of thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it *****came ***** to give scientific and rational explanation to the work of heat engines such ***** steam engine. There was enough knowledge in ***** field of classical mechanics and there existed ***** of the energy-work processes of mechanical machines and *****s. But the problem with heat engines remained. The main reason was that ***** was no agreement about the form ***** sense of energy, temperature,nature of heat ***** and heat radiation was not studied *****ll.

***** works of Sadi Carnot ***** ***** engines and the concept of ***** heat engine ***** used heat in order to ***** work in cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat engine which would ***** as a ***** motion m*****chine:

***** engine operating between two ***** reservoirs ***** be more efficient than a Carnot engine ***** between the same reservoirs" or it states that ":All reversible ********** operating ***** the same heat reservoirs are equally *****" (Jaynes, 256)

***** described the w*****k of such heat engine as follows:

***** production ***** motive power is then due in steam engines not to actual consumption of the caloric but to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body ***** in ***** fall of caloric the motive ***** evidently incre*****es with ***** difference ***** temperature between the warm and cold bodies, but we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

***** fact Carnot engine is not ***** on practice and ar considered to be ideal and ***** ***** used ***** explain thermodynamics *****.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the ***** law ***** thermodynamics which is also known as Kelvin-***** statement:

It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive heat ***** a single reservoir *****nd produce a net amount of work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the formulation ***** the second law of thermodynamics ***** became clear that it's impossible to transform all caloric into other types of *****. In order to ***** a physical formulation of ***** phenomenon a new

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