Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains ***** processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation of energy but also defines ***** direction of time, uniting the physical concepts of ***** and energy. In different interpretations of the second law of thermodynamics we would find out that defining the direction of time ***** law states ***** energy ***** becoming denser with time and that the initial state ***** the energy can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also states about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), ***** which would produce useful work *****out energy losses. In one of the interpretations of the second law of *****rmodynamics it's stated that after a ***** process there is always less amount of ***** in the volume if compared to ***** initial amount.

***** formulation of the second law ***** thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it became ***** ***** give scient*****ic ***** rational explanation to ***** work of heat engines such ***** steam engine. There was enough knowledge in the field ***** classical mechanics and ***** existed ***** of the energy-work ***** of mechanical machines and *****. But ***** problem w*****h heat engines remained. The main reason was that there was no agreement about the form and sense of energy, temperature,nature of ***** processes and heat radiation was *****t studied *****ll.

The works ***** Sadi Carnot ***** ***** engines and the concept of Carnot heat engine which used heat in order to ***** work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat ***** which would ***** as a ***** motion m*****chine:

No engine operating between two ***** reservoirs can be more efficient than a ***** engine oper*****ting *****tween the same *****" or it states that ":All reversible engines operating between the ***** heat reservoirs are equally efficient" (Jaynes, 256)

***** described the w*****k of such heat engine as follows:

***** production ***** motive power is ********** due in steam ***** not ***** actual consumption of the caloric but to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body and ***** ***** fall of caloric the motive power evidently increases with the difference ***** temperature between ***** ***** ***** cold bodies, but we do not know whether it is proportional ***** this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

***** fact Carnot engine is not ***** on practice and ar considered to be ideal and ***** only used ***** explain thermodynamics laws.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the ***** law of thermodynamics ***** is also known as Kelvin-Plank statement:

It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive ***** ***** a single reservoir and produce a net amount ***** work."(Baz*****ov, 12)

After the *****ulation of ***** second law ***** thermodynamics ***** became clear that it's impossible to transform all caloric in***** other types of energy. In order to ***** a physical formulation of this phenomenon a new

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