Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains the processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation of energy but also defines the direction of time, uniting the physical concepts of time and energy. In different interpretations of the second law ***** thermodynamics we would find out that defining the direction of time ***** law states ***** energy ***** becoming denser with time and that the initial state ***** ***** energy can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ********** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), ***** which would produce useful work without energy losses. In one of ***** interpretations of the ***** law of thermodynamics it's stated that after a ***** process there is always less amount of energy in the volume if compared to the initial *****.

***** formulation of the second ***** ***** ***** started in the 19th century when it became important ***** give scient*****ic and rational explanation to the work of heat engines such as steam engine. There was enough knowledge in ***** field of classical mechanics ***** there existed explanation of the *****-work processes of mechanical machines and *****. But the problem with heat engines remained. The main reason was that there ***** no agreement about the form ***** sense of energy, temperature,nature of heat processes and heat radiation was *****t studied *****ll.

The works of Sadi Carnot ***** heat engines and the concept ***** ***** heat engine which used heat in order to produce work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat engine which would work as a perpetu*****l motion machine:

No engine operating between two heat reservoirs ***** be more efficient than a C*****rnot engine operating *****tween the same *****" or it states that ":All reversible *****s operating between the ***** heat reservoirs are equally *****" (Jaynes, 256)

***** described the w*****k of such heat engine as follows:

The production ***** motive power is ********** due in steam engines not to actual consumption of the caloric ***** to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body and in the fall of caloric ***** motive ***** evidently increases with the difference ***** temperature ***** the warm and ***** bodies, but we do not know whether it is proportional ***** this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

***** fact Carnot engine is not used on practice and ar considered to be ideal and ***** only used ***** explain thermodynamics *****.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the ***** law of thermodynamics which is also *****n as *****-***** statement:

It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive he*****t ***** a single reservoir *****nd produce a net amount ***** work."(Baz*****ov, 12)

After the *****mulation of ***** second law of thermodynamics ***** became clear that it's impossible ***** transform all caloric into other types ***** energy. In order to ***** a physical formulation of ***** phenomenon a new

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