Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains the processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation ***** energy but also defines ***** direction of time, uniting the physical concepts of ***** and energy. In different interpretations of the ***** law ***** thermodynamics we would find out that defining the ***** of time the law states that energy is becoming denser with time and that the initial state ***** ***** ***** can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also *****s about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), ***** which would produce useful work without energy losses. In one of ***** interpretations ***** the second law of *****rmodynamics it's stated that after a work process there is always less amount of ***** in the volume if compared to the initial *****.

***** formulation of the second ***** ***** thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it *****came important to give scientific ***** rational explanation to the work of heat engines such ***** steam engine. There was enough knowledge in the field of classical mechanics and *****re existed explanation ***** the energy-work processes of mechanical machines and *****. But the problem w*****h heat *****s remained. The main reason was that there ***** no agreement about the form ***** sense of energy, temperature,nature of heat ***** and heat radiation was *****t studied well.

The works ***** Sadi Carnot ***** heat engines and the concept of ***** heat engine ***** used heat in order to ***** work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat engine which would ***** as a ***** motion machine:

No engine operating between two ***** reservoirs can be more efficient than a C*****rnot engine ***** between the same reservoirs" or it states that ":All reversible ********** operating between the same heat reservoirs are equally efficient" (Jaynes, 256)

***** described the w*****k of such heat engine as follows:

The production ***** motive power is then due in steam engines not ***** actual consumption of the caloric ***** to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body ***** in ***** fall of caloric the motive ***** evidently increases with the difference ***** temperature ***** the warm and cold bodies, but we do not know whether it is proportional ***** this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

***** fact Carnot engine is not ***** on practice and ar considered to be ideal and ***** ***** used ***** explain thermodynamics laws.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the second law ***** thermodynamics which is also known as Kelvin-***** statement:

***** is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive heat ***** a single reservoir and produce a net amount of work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the formulation of the second law ***** thermodynamics it became clear that it's impossible to transform all caloric into other types of *****. In order to ***** a physical formulation of th***** phenomenon a new

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