Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains the processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation of energy but also defines the direction of time, uniting the physical concepts of time and energy. In different interpretations of ***** second law ***** thermodynamics we would find out that defining the ***** of ***** ***** law states ***** ***** ***** becoming denser with time and that the initial state ***** ***** energy can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ********** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), machines which would produce useful work *****out energy losses. In one ***** the interpretations of the ***** law of thermodynamics it's stated that after a ***** process there is always less amount of energy in the volume if compared to ***** initial *****.

***** formulation of the second ***** ***** ***** started in the 19th century when it became important to give scientific ***** rational explanation to ***** work of heat engines such ***** steam engine. There was enough knowledge in the field ***** classical mechanics and ***** existed ***** of the *****-work processes of mechanical machines and *****. But the problem w*****h heat engines remained. The main reason was that there was no agreement about the form and sense of energy, temperature,nature of ***** ***** and heat radiation was not studied *****ll.

The works of Sadi Carnot about ***** engines and the concept ***** Carnot heat engine ***** used heat in order to ***** work in cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat ***** which would ***** as a ***** motion machine:

No engine operating between two ***** reservoirs ***** be more efficient than a C*****rnot engine ***** ********** the same *****" or it states that ":All reversible *****s operating between the same heat reservoirs are equally efficient" (Jaynes, 256)

***** described the w*****k of such heat engine as follows:

***** production ***** motive power is then due in steam engines not to actual consumption of the caloric ***** ***** its transportation from a warm body to a cold body and in the fall of caloric ***** motive ***** evidently increases with the difference of temperature between the warm and cold bodies, but we do not know whether it is proportional ***** this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

In fact Carnot engine is not used on practice and ar considered to be ideal and is ***** used ***** explain thermodynamics *****.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the ***** law ***** thermodynamics ***** is also *****n as Kelvin-Plank statement:

***** is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive ***** from a single reservoir *****nd produce a net amount of work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the *****ulation of the second law of thermodynamics ***** became clear that it's impossible ***** trans*****m all caloric into other types ***** energy. In order to give a physical formulation of this phenomenon a new

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