Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains the processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation of energy but also defines the direction of time, uniting the physical concepts of time and energy. In different interpretations of the second law of thermodynamics we would find out that defining the ***** of ***** ***** law states ***** ***** is becoming denser with time and that the initial state ***** the energy can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also states about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), ***** which would produce useful work without energy losses. In one ***** ***** interpretations of the ***** law of ********** it's stated that after a work process there is always less amount of energy in the volume if compared to ***** initial amount.

***** formulation of the second law ***** thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it became important to give scient*****ic ***** rational explanation to ***** ***** of heat engines such as steam engine. There was enough knowledge in the field ***** classical mechanics and there existed ***** of the *****-work ***** of mechanical machines and engines. But ***** problem with heat engines remained. The main reason was that ***** ***** no agreement about the form ***** sense of energy, temperature,nature of ***** processes and heat radiation was not studied *****ll.

***** works ***** Sadi Carnot about heat engines and the concept of ***** ***** engine which used heat in order to produce work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat ***** which would work as a ***** motion machine:

No engine operating between two heat reservoirs ***** be more efficient than a C*****rnot engine operating between the same reservoirs" or it ***** that ":All reversible engines operating ***** the same heat reservoirs are equally *****" (Jaynes, 256)

***** described the ***** of such heat engine as follows:

The production of motive power is *****n due in steam eng*****es not ***** actual consumption ***** the caloric but to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body ***** in the fall of caloric ***** motive ***** evidently incre*****es with the difference ***** temperature between the warm and cold bodies, but we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

***** fact Carnot engine is not used on practice and ar considered to be ideal and is only used to explain thermodynamics laws.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the ***** law of thermodynamics which ***** also *****n as *****-***** statement:

It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive he*****t from a single reservoir and produce a net amount of work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the *****mulation ***** ***** second law of thermodynamics ***** became clear that it's impossible to transform all caloric into other types ***** energy. In order to ***** a physical formulation of th***** phenomenon a new

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