Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains the processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation of energy but also defines the direction of time, uniting the physical concepts of time and energy. In different interpretations of the second law ***** thermodynamics we would find out that defining the ***** of time the law states ***** energy is becoming denser with time and that the initial state of the energy can not be returned as ***** time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ***** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), machines which would produce useful work *****out energy losses. In one of the interpretations ***** the ***** law of thermodynamics it's *****d that after a work process there is always less amount of energy in the volume if compared to the initial amount.

***** formulation of the second ***** ***** thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it *****came important ***** give scient*****ic and rational explanation to ***** work of heat engines such as steam engine. There w***** enough kno*****ledge in the field ***** classical mechanics ***** ***** existed explanation of ***** energy-work ***** of mechanical machines and *****. But the problem with heat engines remained. The main reason was that there ***** no agreement about the form ***** sense of energy, temperature,nature of ***** processes and heat radiation was *****t studied *****ll.

The works of Sadi Carnot about ***** engines and the concept ***** ***** heat engine which used heat in order to ***** work in cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat ***** which would ***** as a perpetual motion machine:

***** engine operating between two heat reservoirs can be more efficient than a Carnot engine operating between the same *****" or it states that ":All reversible ********** operating ***** the same heat reservoirs are equally efficient" (Jaynes, 256)

He described the work of such heat engine as follows:

***** production of motive power is ********** due in steam eng*****es not to actual consumption of the caloric but ***** its transportation from a warm body to a cold body and in the fall of caloric the motive ***** evidently incre*****es with ***** difference ***** temperature between the warm and ***** bodies, ***** we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

***** fact Carnot engine is not used on practice and ar considered to be ideal and is ***** used to explain thermodynamics laws.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the second law ***** thermodynamics ***** ***** also *****n as *****-***** statement:

***** is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive heat from a single reservoir *****nd produce a net amount of work."(Baz*****ov, 12)

After the formulation ***** ***** second law of thermodynamics it became clear that it's impossible to transform all caloric in***** other types of energy. In order to give a physical formulation of th***** phenomenon a new

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