Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains the processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation ***** energy but also defines ***** direction of time, uniting the physical concepts of time and energy. In different interpretations of ***** ***** law ***** thermodynamics we would find out that defining the ***** of time ***** law states that ***** ***** becoming denser with time and that the initial state ***** the energy can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also *****s about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), machines which would produce useful work *****out energy losses. In one of the interpretations of the second law of ********** it's stated that after a ***** process there is always less amount of ***** in the volume if compared to ***** initial amount.

***** formulation of the second ***** of thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it *****came important to give scient*****ic ***** rational explanation to ***** work ***** heat engines such as steam engine. There was enough knowledge in the field of classical mechanics and ********** existed ***** of the energy-work ***** of mechanical machines and *****. But the problem with heat *****s remained. The main reason was that there was no agreement about the form and sense of energy, temperature,nature of heat processes and heat radiation was *****t studied well.

***** works of Sadi Carnot ***** heat engines and the concept ***** Carnot ***** engine ***** used heat in order to ***** work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat ***** which would work as a perpetual motion machine:

No engine operating between two heat reservoirs ***** be more efficient than a ***** engine ***** ********** the s*****me *****" or it states that ":All reversible *****s operating between the same heat reservoirs are equally *****" (Jaynes, 256)

He described the w*****k of such heat engine as follows:

***** production of motive power is then due in steam engines not ***** actual consumption ***** the caloric ***** to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body ***** in ***** fall of caloric the motive ***** evidently increases with the difference ***** temperature ***** ***** warm and ***** bodies, but we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

***** fact Carnot engine is not ***** on practice and ar considered to be ideal and ***** only used to explain thermodynamics *****.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the ***** law of thermodynamics ***** is also *****n as Kelvin-***** statement:

***** is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive ***** from ***** single reservoir and produce a net amount ***** work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the *****mulation of the second law ***** thermodynamics it became clear that it's impossible to transform all caloric in***** other types of energy. In order to give a physical formulation of ***** phenomenon a new

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