Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains the processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation of energy but also defines the direction ***** time, uniting the physical concepts of time and energy. In different interpretations of ***** ***** law ***** thermodynamics we would find out that defining the direction of ***** the law states ***** ***** is becoming denser with time and that ***** initial state of the energy can not be returned as ***** time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ***** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), machines which would produce useful work *****out energy losses. In one of ***** interpretations ***** the second law of thermodynamics it's *****d that after a work process there is always less amount of energy in the volume if compared to the initial amount.

The formulation of the second ***** ***** ***** started in the 19th century when it *****came important ***** give scientific and rational explanation to the work of heat engines such ***** steam engine. There was enough knowledge in the field ***** classical mechanics ***** ***** existed explanation of the *****-work processes of mechanical machines and *****. But the problem w*****h heat *****s remained. The main reason was that there was no agreement about the form and sense of energy, temperature,nature of heat ***** and heat radiation was not studied *****ll.

***** works of Sadi Carnot about ***** engines and the concept ***** Carnot heat engine ***** used heat in order to ***** work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat engine which would ***** as a perpetual motion machine:

No engine operating between two heat reservoirs ***** be more efficient than a ***** engine oper*****ting between the same *****" or it states that ":All reversible *****s operating between the same heat reservoirs are equally *****" (Jaynes, 256)

***** described the work of such heat engine as follows:

***** production ***** motive power is ********** due in steam eng*****es not to actual consumption of the caloric but ***** its transportation from a warm body to a cold body ***** in the fall of caloric the motive ***** evidently incre*****es with ***** difference of temperature between the ***** and ***** bodies, ***** we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

In fact Carnot engine is not ***** on practice and ar considered to be ideal and ***** only used ***** explain thermodynamics *****.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the ***** law ***** thermodynamics ***** is also *****n as *****-Plank statement:

It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive he*****t ***** a single reservoir and produce a net amount of work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the *****mulation of the second law ***** thermodynamics ***** became clear that it's impossible ***** transform all caloric into other types of energy. In order to give a physical formulation of ***** phenomenon a new

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