Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...


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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains the processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation of energy but also defines the direction of time, uniting the physical concepts of ***** and energy. In different interpretations of the second law ***** thermodynamics we would find out that defining the direction of time the law states that energy is becoming denser with time and that ***** initial state ***** the ***** can not be returned as the time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ***** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), ***** which would produce useful work without energy losses. In one ***** the interpretations of the ***** law of ********** it's *****d that after a ***** process there is always less amount of ***** in the volume if compared to the initial amount.

The formulation of the second law of thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it *****came ***** to give scientific ***** rational explanation to ***** work of heat engines such ***** steam engine. There was enough knowledge in the field of classical mechanics and ***** existed ***** of ***** energy-work processes of mechanical machines and *****. But the problem with heat engines remained. The main reason ***** that there was no agreement about the form ***** sense of energy, temperature,nature of ***** processes and heat radiation was not studied *****ll.

***** works ***** Sadi Carnot ***** ***** engines and the concept of ***** heat engine which used heat in order to produce work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat ***** which would ***** as a perpetu*****l motion machine:

***** engine operating between two heat reservoirs ***** be more efficient than a Carnot engine operating ********** the same *****" or it states that ":All reversible engines operating between the same heat reservoirs are equally efficient" (Jaynes, 256)

***** described the w*****k of such heat engine as follows:

***** production ***** motive power is ********** due in steam ***** not to actual consumption of the caloric but ***** its transportation from a warm body to a cold body ***** in the fall of caloric ***** motive ***** evidently increases with the difference ***** temperature ***** the warm and ***** bodies, ***** we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

***** fact Carnot engine is not used on practice and ar considered to be ideal and ***** ***** ***** to explain thermodynamics *****.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics ***** is also known as Kelvin-Plank statement:

***** is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive ***** ***** a single reservoir and produce a net amount of work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the *****ulation of the ***** law ***** thermodynamics ***** became clear that it's impossible ***** transform all caloric into other types of *****. In order to give a physical formulation of ***** phenomenon a new

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