Essay - The Second Law of Thermodynamics is One the Most Important...

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The second law of thermodynamics is one the most important natural laws which explains ***** processes in physical world. It not only postulates the conservation of energy but also defines ***** direction ***** time, uniting the ***** concepts of ***** and energy. In different interpretations of the second law of thermodynamics we would find out that defining the ***** ***** time ***** law states that energy ***** becoming denser with time and that the initial state of the energy can not be returned as ***** time doesn't go backward. This usual observation also ***** about the impossibility of constructing perpetual motion machines (perpetum mobile), ***** which would produce useful work *****out energy losses. In one of ***** interpretations ***** the second law of *****rmodynamics it's *****d that after a ***** process there is always less amount of ***** in the volume if compared to ***** initial amount.

The formulation of the second ***** of thermodynamics started in the 19th century when it became ***** ***** give scient*****ic and rational explanation to the work of heat engines such as steam engine. There w***** enough knowledge in ***** field of classical mechanics ***** ***** existed explanation ***** the energy-work processes of mechanical machines and *****s. But the problem w*****h heat engines remained. The main reason was that there ***** no agreement about the form and sense of energy, temperature,nature of ***** processes and heat radiation was not studied *****ll.

The works ***** Sadi Carnot ***** heat engines and the concept of Carnot ***** engine ***** used heat in order to ***** work ***** cyclic process proved the impossibility of constructing a heat engine which would work as a ***** motion machine:

***** engine operating between two heat reservoirs can be more efficient than a ***** engine oper*****ting *****tween the same reservoirs" or it states that ":All reversible engines operating between the ***** heat reservoirs are equally *****" (Jaynes, 256)

***** described the work of such heat engine as follows:

The production of motive power is *****n due in steam engines not to actual consumption ***** the caloric but to its transportation from a warm body to a cold body ***** in the fall of caloric ***** motive ***** evidently incre*****es with the difference ***** temperature between the ***** and ***** bodies, but we do not know whether it is proportional to this difference" (Kroemer, 22)

In fact Carnot engine is not used on practice and ar considered to be ideal and ***** ***** ***** to explain thermodynamics laws.

Later Kelvin (in 1865) and Plank introduced another interpretation of the second law ***** thermodynamics which is also known as *****-Plank statement:

***** is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive ***** ***** a single reservoir *****nd produce a net amount of work."(Bazarov, 12)

After the formulation of ***** ***** law ***** thermodynamics it became clear that ********** impossible ***** transform all caloric into other types of energy. In order to give a physical formulation of this phenomenon a new


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