Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...

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Sociology - Theorists

***** to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists of productive forces and ***** relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, ***** the means of production ***** which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of l***** on which one is working. The re*****ations of production are the social and technical means by ***** work is carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a particular society's productive assets, cooperative work relations, and specific modes ***** relation among **********. A ***** ***** may be a rel*****tion among different groups, among individuals belonging ***** a particular group, or between one ***** individual and a group. This group m*****y be an ethnic group, a social class, a soci*****l institution, a gender, or a n*****tion.

Max Weber defined the ideal ***** as a comparative tool to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when ***** or more points of view are stressed in a one-sided f*****hion. They ***** then blended into a synthesis ***** numerous concrete ***** phenomena, which are then arranged according to the one-sided viewpoints ***** a single analytical construct. While ***** types are clearly an abstraction, *****y are useful in that they help one to understand particular instances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal *****. This is what differentiates human behavior from physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an individual or a group's actions described - ***** are also interpreted. Weber defined the four types of ideal type behavior as follows: zweckrational (rational means to rational ends), wertrational (rational means to ir***** *****), affektual (guided ***** emotion) and traditional (guided by custom or habit).

Max ***** considered bureaucracy to be a part of legal domination. While he initially argued that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, ***** also advanced ***** idea that ***** was inefficient when it had to adopt *****s decisions ***** particular individual cases. Some ***** the attributes of bureaucracy in ***** modern era were delineated by Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration of the means of administration, an implementation ***** an indestructible mode of auth*****ity, and a leveling effect on ***** and ec*****omic differences. When a business or organization is run bureaucratically, it means that official business ***** continually conducted. Bureaucratic business is ***** out ***** to *****, written documents.

The establishment of ***** social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social ***** is defined as encomp*****sing all those cultural values and norms ***** ***** structures that are external ***** ***** individual. By studying the correlations between social facts, ***** discovers laws. Once one has uncovered those *****, the sociologist may ***** study the social structure and determine whe*****r or not a society is he*****lthy or sick. In the case ***** the latter, ***** ***** may then prescribe remedies f***** "curing" that society's ills. One of ***** most famous usages


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