Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...


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Sociology - Theorists

According to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists ***** productive forces and ***** relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, ***** the means of production ***** which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of land on ***** one is working. The relations of ***** are the social and technical ***** by which work is carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a particular society's ***** assets, cooperative ***** relations, and specific modes of relation among workers. A ***** relation may be a rel*****tion among different groups, among individuals belonging ***** a particular group, or between one particular individual and a group. ***** group m*****y be an ethnic group, a social class, a social institution, a gender, ***** a n*****tion.

Max Weber defined the ideal ***** as a comparative tool to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when one or more points of view are stressed in a ********** fashion. They are then blended into a synthesis of numerous concrete individual phenomena, which are ***** arranged according to the one-sided viewpoints into a single analytical construct. While ideal types are clearly an abstraction, *****y are useful in that they help one to understand particular ********** of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal *****. This is what differentiates human behavior from physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an ***** or a *****'s actions described - ***** are also interpreted. Weber ***** the four types ***** ideal type behavi***** as follows: zweckrational (rational means to rational ends), wertrational (rational means to irrational *****), affektual (guided ***** emotion) and traditional (guided by custom or habit).

***** Weber considered bureaucracy to be a p*****rt of legal domination. ***** he initially argued that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, ***** also advanced the idea that ***** was inefficient when it had to adopt its decisions ***** particular individual cases. Some ***** the attributes of bureaucracy in ***** modern era were delineated ***** Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration of the means of administration, an implementation ***** an indestructible mode of authority, and a leveling effect on ***** ***** economic differences. When a business or org*****nization is run bureaucratically, it means that official business is continually conducted. Bureaucratic business ***** carried out according to official, written documents.

The establishment of the social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on ***** course of a firm, positive science. A social ***** is defined ***** encompassing all those cultural values and norms ***** ***** structures that are external ***** the *****. By studying the correlations between social facts, ***** d*****covers laws. Once one has uncovered those *****, the sociologist may then study the social structure and determine whe*****r or not a society is he*****lthy ***** sick. In the case ***** the latter, the ***** may ***** prescribe remedies for "curing" that society's ills. One of Durkheim's most famous usages

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