Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...


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Sociology - Theorists

According to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists of productive forces and the relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, ***** the means of ***** ***** which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of l***** on which one is working. The re*****ations of production are the social and technical means by which work is carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a p*****rticular society's productive assets, cooperative ***** relations, and specific modes of relation among workers. A ***** ***** may be a relation among different groups, among individuals belonging to a particular group, or between one particular individual ***** a group. This group may be an ethnic group, a social class, a soci*****l institution, a gender, or a nation.

***** Weber defined the ideal ***** as a comparative tool to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when one or more points of view are stressed in a *****-sided fashion. They ***** then blended into a synthesis ***** numerous concrete ***** phenomena, which are ***** arr*****ged according to the one-sided viewpoints into a single *****nalytical construct. While ideal types are clearly an abstraction, *****y are useful in that they help one to understand particular instances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal types. This is what differentiates human behavior ***** physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an individual or a ********** actions described - *****y ***** also interpreted. Weber ***** the four types ***** ideal type ***** as follows: zweckrational (rational me*****s to rational ends), wertrational (rational means ***** ir***** ends), affektual (guided ***** emotion) and traditional (guided by custom ***** habit).

Max ***** considered bureaucracy to be a part of legal domination. ***** he initially ***** that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, he ***** advanced ***** idea that ***** was inefficient w*****n it had to adopt its decisions ***** particular individual cases. Some of the attributes of bureaucracy in the modern era were delineated ***** Weber as *****: impersonality, a concentration of the means of administration, an implementation of an indestructible mode ***** authority, and a leveling effect on social and economic differences. When a business or *****ganization is run bureaucratically, it means that official business ***** continually conducted. Bureaucratic business is carried out according to *****, written documents.

The establishment of ***** social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social ***** is defined ***** encompassing all those cultural values ***** norms and social structures that are external to ***** *****. By studying the correlations between social facts, one discovers laws. Once one has uncovered those laws, the sociologist may then study the ***** structure ***** determine whe*****r or not a society is he*****lthy or sick. In the case of the latter, ***** sociolog*****t may then prescribe remedies for "curing" that ***** ills. One of Durkheim's most famous usages

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