Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...

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Sociology - Theorists

***** to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists ***** productive forces and ***** relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, ***** the means of production ***** which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of l***** on which one is working. The re*****ations of production are the social and technical means by which work is carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a particular society's ***** assets, cooperative work relations, and specific modes ***** relation among workers. A ***** relation may be a rel*****tion among different groups, among individuals belonging to a particular group, or between one ***** individual ***** a group. This group ***** be an ethnic group, a social class, a ***** institution, ***** gender, or a nation.

***** Weber defined the ideal ***** as a comparative *****ol to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when one or more points of view are stressed in a *****-sided fashion. ********** are then blended into a synthesis ***** numerous concrete individual phenomena, which are ***** arranged according to the one-sided viewpoints ***** a single analytical construct. While ideal types are clearly an abstraction, they are useful in that they help one to understand particular instances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal *****. ***** is what differentiates human behavior from physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an ***** or a group's actions described - ***** ***** also interpreted. Weber ***** the four types ***** ideal type ***** as follows: zweckrational (rational means to rational ends), wertrational (rational means to irrational ends), affektual (guided ***** emotion) and traditional (***** by cus*****m or habit).

Max ***** considered bureaucracy to be a part of legal domination. ***** he initially ***** that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, ***** ***** advanced ***** idea that ***** was inefficient when it had ***** adopt its decisions to particular individual cases. Some of the attributes of bureaucracy in ***** modern era were delineated by Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration of the means of administration, an implementation of an indestructible mode of authority, and a leveling effect on social and ec*****omic differences. When a business or org*****nization is run bureaucratically, it means that official business is continually conducted. Bureaucratic business is carried out ***** to official, written documents.

The establishment of the social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social ***** is defined as encompassing all those cultural values ***** norms and social structures that are external ***** the individual. By studying the correlations between social facts, ***** d*****covers laws. Once one has uncovered those laws, the sociologist may then study the social structure and determine whe*****r or not a society is healthy ***** sick. In the case of the latter, the ***** may ***** prescribe remedies for "curing" that ***** ills. One of Durkheim's most famous usages


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