Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...


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Sociology - Theorists

***** to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists ***** productive forces and the relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, and the means of ***** ***** which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of l***** on ***** one is working. The re*****ations of production are the social and technical ***** by which work is carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a p*****rticular society's productive assets, cooperative work relations, and specific modes of relation among workers. A social ***** may ***** a relation among different groups, ***** individuals belonging to a particular group, or between one particular individual and a group. ***** group m*****y be an ethnic group, a social class, a ***** institution, a gender, ***** a nation.

***** Weber defined the ideal type as a comparative *****ol to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when one or more points of view ***** stressed in a ********** fashion. They are then blended ********** a synthesis ***** numerous concrete ***** phenomena, which are then arr*****ged according to the one-sided viewpoints into a single ********** construct. While ideal types are clearly an abstraction, *****y are useful in ***** they help one to understand particular *****stances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal types. This is what differentiates human behavior ***** physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an individual or a *****'s actions described - ***** ***** also interpreted. Weber ***** the four types ***** ideal type ***** as follows: zweckrational (rational means to rational ends), wertrational (rational means ***** ir***** ends), affektual (guided ***** emotion) and traditional (guided by custom or habit).

Max Weber considered bureaucracy to be a p*****rt of legal domination. ***** he initially argued that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, he ***** advanced ***** idea that ***** was inefficient when it had to adopt ********** decisions ***** particular individual cases. Some of the attributes of bureaucracy in ***** modern era were delineated ***** Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration of the means of administration, an implementation ***** an indestructible mode of authority, and a leveling effect on ***** ***** ec*****omic differences. When a business or *****g*****nization is run bureaucratically, it means that official business ***** continually conducted. Bureaucratic business is carried out according to official, written documents.

The establishment of the social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social fact is defined ***** encompassing all those cultural values and norms and social structures that are external to ***** individual. By studying the correlations between social facts, one discovers laws. Once ***** has uncovered those laws, the sociologist may ***** study the ***** structure and determine whether or not a society is he*****lthy ***** sick. In the case of the latter, the ***** may then prescribe remedies for "curing" that ***** ills. One of Durkheim's most famous usages

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