Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...


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Sociology - Theorists

According to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists of productive forces and ***** relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, ***** the means of ***** - which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of land on ***** one is working. The ***** of production are the social and technical means by which work ***** carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a p*****rticular society's productive assets, cooperative work relations, and specific modes of relation among workers. A social relation may ***** a relation among different groups, ***** individuals belonging to a particular group, or between one particular individual ***** a group. ***** group m*****y be an ethnic group, a ***** class, a social institution, a gender, or a n*****tion.

Max Weber defined the ideal ***** as a comparative *****ol to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when ***** or more points of view ***** stressed in a one-sided fashion. They are then blended *****to a synthesis of numerous concrete individual phenomena, which are then arr*****ged according to the one-sided viewpoints into a single *****nalytical construct. While ideal types are clearly an abstraction, *****y are useful in ***** they help one to understand particular *****stances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal *****. This is what differentiates human behavior ***** physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an ***** or a ********** actions described - ***** are also interpreted. Weber ***** ***** four ***** of ideal type ***** as follows: zweckrational (rational means to rational ends), wertrational (rational means to ir***** *****), affektual (guided by emotion) and traditional (***** by custom ***** habit).

Max ***** considered bureaucracy to be a p*****rt of legal domination. While he initially argued that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, he also advanced the idea that bureaucracy was inefficient when it had ***** adopt *****s decisions to particular individual cases. Some of the attributes of ***** in the modern era were del*****eated by Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration ***** the means of administration, an implementation ***** an indestructible mode of authority, and a leveling effect on ***** ***** ec*****omic differences. When a business or *****ganization is run bureaucratically, it means that *****ficial business is continually conducted. Bureaucratic business ***** carried out ***** to official, written documents.

The establishment of ***** social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social fact is defined as encompassing all those cultural values and norms and social structures that are external ***** ***** individual. By studying the correlations between social facts, ***** d*****covers laws. Once one has uncovered those *****, the sociologist may then study the social structure ***** determine whe*****r or not a society is he*****lthy ***** sick. In the case ***** the latter, the ***** may ***** prescribe remedies for "curing" that society's ills. One of Durkheim's most famous usages

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