Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...

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Sociology - Theorists

***** to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists of productive forces and ***** relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, and the means of production - which can be anything from tools ***** materials to the type of land on which one is working. The ***** of ***** are the social and technical ***** by ***** work ***** carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a p*****rticular society's productive assets, cooperative ***** relations, and specific modes ***** relation among workers. A ***** relation may be a rel*****tion among different groups, among individuals belonging ***** a particular group, or between one ***** individual ***** a group. ***** group ***** be an ethnic group, a social class, a social institution, a gender, ***** a n*****tion.

Max Weber defined the ideal type as a comparative tool to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when ***** or more points of view are stressed in a one-sided fashion. *****y ***** then blended ********** a synthesis of numerous concrete ***** phenomena, which are then arr*****ged according to the ***** viewpoints into a single *****nalytical construct. While ***** types are clearly an abstraction, they are useful in that they help one to understand particular instances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal types. This is what differentiates human behavior ***** physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only is an individual or a group's actions described - ********** are also interpreted. Weber ***** the four types ***** ideal type ***** as follows: zweckrational (rational means to ***** ends), wertrational (rational means ***** ir***** ends), affektual (guided by emotion) and traditional (guided by custom ***** habit).

***** Weber considered bureaucracy to be a part of legal domination. While he initially ***** that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, ***** ***** advanced ***** idea that bureaucracy was inefficient when it had to adopt its decisions to particular individual cases. Some ***** the attributes of ***** in the modern era were delineated by Weber as *****: impersonality, a concentration ***** the means of administration, an implementation ***** an indestructible mode of authority, and a leveling effect on social and economic differences. When a business or *****g*****nization is run bureaucratically, it means that ********** business ***** continually conducted. Bureaucratic business is ***** out according ***** official, written documents.

The establishment of the social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social ***** is defined ***** encompassing all those cultural values ***** norms and ***** structures that are external ***** ***** individual. By studying the correlations between social facts, one d*****covers laws. Once ***** has uncovered those laws, the sociologist may ***** study the social structure ***** determine whe*****r or not a society is healthy or sick. In the case of the latter, the ***** may then prescribe remedies for "curing" that society's ills. One of ***** most famous usages


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