Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...


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Sociology - Theorists

According to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists ***** productive forces and ***** relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, ***** the means of ***** - which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of l***** on ***** one is working. The re*****ations of production are the social and technical ***** by which work ***** carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a particular society's ***** assets, cooperative ***** relations, and specific modes ***** relation among workers. A ***** ***** may ***** a rel*****tion among different groups, among individuals belonging ***** a particular group, or between one particular individual and a group. ***** group may be an ethnic group, a social class, a social institution, a gender, ***** a nation.

Max Weber defined the ideal type as a comparative tool to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when ***** or more points of view ***** stressed in a one-sided fashion. *****y are then blended into a synthesis of numerous concrete individual phenomena, which are ***** arr*****ged according to the ***** viewpoints into a single analytical construct. While ***** types are clearly an abstraction, they are useful in ***** they help one to understand particular instances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal types. This is what differentiates human behavior ***** physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only is an ***** or a group's actions described - ***** are also interpreted. Weber defined the four types of ideal type behavi***** as follows: zweckrational (rational means to ***** ends), wertrational (rational means to ir***** *****), affektual (guided by emotion) and traditional (guided by custom or habit).

***** ***** considered bureaucracy to be a p*****rt of legal domination. While he initially argued that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, ***** also advanced ***** idea that ***** was inefficient when it had to adopt its decisions to particular individual cases. Some ***** the attributes of bureaucracy in the modern era were delineated ***** Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration ***** the means of administration, an implementation of ***** indestructible mode ***** auth*****ity, and a leveling effect on ***** and ec*****omic differences. When a business or org*****nization is run bureaucratically, it means that official business is continually conducted. Bureaucratic business is ***** out ***** ***** official, written documents.

The establishment of ***** social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social ***** is defined ***** encompassing all those cultural values ***** norms and ***** structures that are external ***** ***** individual. By studying the correlations between social facts, one discovers laws. Once one has uncovered those *****, the sociologist ***** then study the ***** structure ***** determine whe*****r or not a society is healthy ***** sick. In the case ***** the latter, ***** ***** may then prescribe remedies for "curing" that ***** ills. One of Durkheim's most famous usages

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