Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...


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Sociology - Theorists

According to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists of productive forces and the relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, ***** the means of production ***** which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of land on ***** one is working. The ***** of production are the social and technical ***** by which work ***** carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a particular society's productive assets, cooperative ***** relations, and specific modes of relation among workers. A social ***** may be a rel*****tion among different groups, among individuals belonging ***** a particular group, or between one ***** individual and a group. ***** group m*****y be an ethnic group, a social class, a social institution, a gender, or a n*****tion.

***** Weber defined the ideal type as a comparative tool to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when one or more points of view are stressed in a one-sided fashion. They are then blended *****to a synthesis ***** numerous concrete ***** phenomena, which are ***** arranged according to the one-sided viewpoints into a single analytical construct. While ***** types are clearly an abstraction, they are useful in ***** they help one to understand particular *****stances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal *****. This is what differentiates human behavior ***** physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an individual or a group's actions described - they are also interpreted. Weber ***** the four types of ideal type behavi***** as follows: zweckrational (rational means to ***** ends), wertrational (rational means to irrational ends), affektual (guided ***** emotion) and traditional (***** by custom or habit).

***** Weber considered bureaucracy to be a p*****rt of legal domination. ***** he initially argued that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, he ***** advanced t***** idea that bureaucracy was inefficient when it had to adopt its decisions ***** particular individual cases. Some ***** the attributes of ***** in ***** modern era were del*****eated ***** Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration of the means of administration, an implementation of ***** indestructible mode ***** authority, and a leveling effect on social ***** ec*****omic differences. When a business or *****g*****nization is run bureaucratically, it means that official business is continually conducted. Bureaucratic business ***** carried out according to *****, written documents.

The establishment of ***** social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social fact is defined as encomp*****sing all those cultural values and norms ***** ***** structures that are external ***** ***** *****. By studying the correlations between social facts, one discovers laws. Once ***** has uncovered those *****, the sociologist may then study the ***** structure and determine whether or not a society is healthy ***** sick. In the case ***** the latter, ***** ***** may ***** prescribe remedies for "curing" that society's ills. One of Durkheim's most famous usages

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