Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...

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Sociology - Theorists

***** to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists ***** productive forces and the relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, and the means of ***** ***** which can be anything from tools ***** materials to the type of land on which one is working. The ***** of production are the social and technical means by which work is carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a p*****rticular society's productive assets, cooperative ***** relations, and specific modes ***** relation among workers. A social relation may be a rel*****tion among different groups, ***** individuals belonging to a particular group, or between one particular individual and a group. This group m*****y be an ethnic group, a ***** class, a social institution, a gender, or a nation.

Max Weber defined the ideal ***** as a comparative *****ol to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when one or more points of view ***** stressed in a one-sided fashion. They are then blended into a synthesis ***** numerous concrete ***** phenomena, which are ***** arranged according to the ***** viewpoints ***** a single analytical construct. While ideal types are clearly an abstraction, they are useful in ***** they help one to understand particular instances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal *****. This is what differentiates human behavior from physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an individual or a group's actions described - they ***** also interpreted. Weber ***** the four ***** ***** ideal type ***** as follows: zweckrational (rational means to rational ends), wertrational (rational means ***** irrational *****), affektual (guided by emotion) and traditional (guided by custom or habit).

***** ***** considered bureaucracy to be a part of legal domination. ***** he initially argued that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, he ***** advanced t***** idea that ***** was inefficient when it had ***** adopt *****s decisions to particular individual cases. Some of the attributes of bureaucracy in the modern era were del*****eated ***** Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration ***** the means of administration, an implementation ***** ***** indestructible mode of auth*****ity, and a leveling effect on social and ec*****omic differences. When a business or org*****nization is run bureaucratically, it means that official business is continually conducted. Bureaucratic business is ***** out ***** to official, written documents.

The establishment of the social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social fact is defined as encompassing all those cultural values and norms ***** ***** structures that are external ***** the *****. By studying the correlations between social facts, ***** discovers laws. Once one has uncovered those *****, the sociologist may then study the ***** structure and determine whe*****r or not a society is healthy or sick. In the case of the latter, ***** ***** may ***** prescribe remedies for "curing" that society's ills. One of ***** most famous usages


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