Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...


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Sociology - Theorists

***** to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists of productive forces and the relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, ***** the means of production ***** which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of land on ***** one is working. The relations of production are the social and technical ***** by which work ***** carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a p*****rticular society's ***** assets, cooperative work relations, and specific modes of relation among **********. A ***** ***** may be a relation among different groups, ***** individuals belonging to a particular group, or between one particular individual and a group. This group ***** be *****n ethnic group, a social class, a social institution, a gender, or a n*****tion.

Max Weber defined the ideal ***** as a comparative *****ol to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when ***** or more points of view ***** stressed in a one-sided fashion. They are then blended in***** a synthesis ***** numerous concrete ***** phenomena, which are then arranged accord*****g to the ***** viewpoints into a single analytical construct. While ideal types are clearly an abstraction, *****y are useful in ***** they help one to understand particular *****stances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal *****. ***** is what differentiates human behavior ***** physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an individual or a *****'s actions described - they ***** also interpreted. Weber defined the four ***** of ideal type behavi***** as follows: zweckrational (rational me*****s to ***** ends), wertrational (rational means to ir***** ends), affektual (guided by emotion) and traditional (***** by cus*****m or habit).

Max Weber considered bureaucracy to be a part of legal domination. ***** he initially ***** that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, ***** ***** advanced ***** idea that ***** was inefficient when it had ***** adopt its decisions to particular individual cases. Some ***** the attributes of bureaucracy in ***** modern era were delineated ***** Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration ***** the means of administration, an implementation of ***** indestructible mode of auth*****ity, and a leveling effect on ***** and ec*****omic differences. When a business or *****ganization is run bureaucratically, it means that official business ***** continually conducted. Bureaucratic business is ***** out according to *****, written documents.

The establishment of ***** social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social ***** is defined ***** encompassing all those cultural values and norms and ***** structures that are external ***** the *****. By studying the correlations between social facts, one discovers laws. Once one has uncovered those laws, the sociologist may then study the ***** structure and determine whe*****r or not a society is he*****lthy ***** sick. In the case ***** the latter, the ***** may then prescribe remedies for "curing" that ***** ills. One of ***** most famous usages

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