Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...


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Sociology - Theorists

According to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists of productive forces and ***** relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, ***** the means of production - which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of l***** on ***** one is working. The relations of production are the social and technical ***** by which work is carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a p*****rticular society's productive assets, cooperative ***** relations, and specific modes ***** relation among workers. A ***** ***** may be a rel*****tion among different groups, among individuals belonging ***** a particular group, or between one ***** individual ***** a group. This group m*****y be an ethnic group, a social class, a ***** institution, ***** gender, or a nation.

Max Weber defined the ideal ***** as a comparative tool to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when ***** or more points of view ***** stressed in a one-sided fashion. *****y are then blended in***** a synthesis ***** numerous concrete individual phenomena, which are ***** arranged according to the one-sided viewpoints into a single ********** construct. While ***** types are clearly an abstraction, they are useful in ***** they help one to understand particular instances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal *****. ***** is what differentiates human behavior ***** physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an ***** or a group's actions described - ***** ***** also interpreted. Weber ***** the four types ***** ideal type behavi***** as follows: zweckrational (rational means to rational ends), wertrational (rational means ***** irrational ends), affektual (guided by emotion) and traditional (guided by custom or habit).

Max Weber considered bureaucracy to be a part of legal domination. While he initially argued that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, he ***** advanced ***** idea that ***** was inefficient w*****n it had to adopt its decisions to particular individual cases. Some ***** the attributes of bureaucracy in the modern era were delineated by Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration ***** the means of administration, an implementation of ***** indestructible mode ***** authority, and a leveling effect on ***** ***** ec*****omic differences. When a business or organization is run bureaucratically, it means that official business ***** continually conducted. Bureaucratic business is carried out according ***** official, written documents.

The establishment of the social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social fact is defined ***** encompassing all those cultural values and norms ***** ***** structures that are external ***** the *****. By studying the correlations between social facts, one d*****covers laws. Once ***** has uncovered those *****, the sociologist may then study the social structure and determine whether or not a society is healthy ***** sick. In the case ***** the latter, ***** ***** may then prescribe remedies for "curing" that ***** ills. One of ***** most famous usages

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