Essay - Sociology - Theorists According to Karl Marx, the Mode of...


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Sociology - Theorists

***** to Karl Marx, the mode of production consists of productive forces and the relations of production. The former include desire, human labor power, ***** the means of production ***** which can be anything from tools and materials to the type of land on ***** one is working. The ***** of production are the social and technical ***** by which work ***** carried out. This might include the power relations that govern a p*****rticular society's productive assets, cooperative work relations, and specific modes ***** relation among workers. A ***** ***** may ***** a relation among different groups, among individuals belonging to a particular group, or between one ***** individual ***** a group. ***** group m*****y be an ethnic group, a social class, a ***** institution, a gender, or a n*****tion.

Max Weber defined the ideal ***** as a comparative *****ol to be employed for sociological study. It is formed when one or more points of view ***** stressed in a ********** f*****hion. ********** are then blended in***** a synthesis of numerous concrete ********** phenomena, which are then arr*****ged according to the one-sided viewpoints into a single ********** construct. While ideal types are clearly an abstraction, they are useful in that they help one to understand particular *****stances of social phenomena. Human behavior, argued Weber, must be understood through the use of ideal *****. This is what differentiates human behavior from physical phenomena. Thus, when using ideal types, not only ***** an individual or a ********** actions described - ***** ***** also interpreted. Weber defined ***** four ***** ***** ideal type ***** as follows: zweckrational (rational means to rational ends), wertrational (rational means ***** ir***** ends), affektual (guided by emotion) and traditional (guided by custom ***** habit).

Max Weber considered bureaucracy to be a p*****rt of legal domination. ***** he initially argued that bureaucracy was necessary and thus positive, ***** ***** advanced the idea that bureaucracy was inefficient when it had ***** adopt its decisions to particular individual cases. Some ***** the attributes of bureaucracy in the modern era were del*****eated ***** Weber as follows: impersonality, a concentration of the means of administration, an implementation ***** an indestructible mode of authority, and a leveling effect on ***** and ec*****omic differences. When a business or *****ganization is run bureaucratically, it means that ********** business ***** continually conducted. Bureaucratic business is ***** out according ***** official, written documents.

The establishment of the social fact concept represented Emile Durkheim's efforts to set sociology on the course of a firm, positive science. A social fact is defined ***** encompassing all those cultural values ***** norms and social structures that are external to the individual. By studying the correlations between social facts, ***** d*****covers laws. Once one has uncovered those *****, the sociologist may then study the ***** structure and determine whe*****r or not a society is he*****lthy ***** sick. In the case ***** the latter, ***** ***** may ***** prescribe remedies for "curing" that ***** ills. One of Durkheim's most famous usages

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