Essay - Strokes Cerebrovascular Accidents, Often Called Strokes, are Interruptions to the...


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Strokes

***** accidents, often called strokes, are interruptions to the blood flow in the brain. They can be caused by sudden blockage of a blood vessel (ischemic stroke), or rupture of ***** blood ***** (hemorrhagic stroke). Strokes are medical emergencies that can cause coma, paralysis, muscle weakness, memory, speech/language or o*****r brain function problems (5). Immediate emergency treatment helps ensure the best possible outcome for a p*****tient who has had a *****. Two thirds of all ***** occur in people over the age of 65 (5), and it is ***** third most common cause of death in the Un*****ed States (Dougherty, 1998). They ***** a major cause of disability as well (Byington et. al., 2000).

Ischemic strokes ***** have several causes. Sometimes an embolism, or blood clot, forms in one part ***** ***** body and travels to the ***** where it blocks a small ***** vessel. Thrombosis, or artery blockage, can also cut off blood flow, when a ***** blood clot f*****ms on ***** arterial plaque. Most thrombotic strokes are caused ***** the combination of ***** vessel narrowing and a clot. Hemorrh*****gic strokes occur when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures. These strokes can vary from very mild to major. They may be caused by high blood pressure, a we*****kness in ***** ***** vessel, or a ***** of both (5).

The risk fact*****s for stroke can ***** divided *****to two groups: controllable and uncontrollable. When a person has several uncontrollable risk factors, it becomes more important for him her to control the ones that can be.

***** risk factors include

Age: The older the *****, the ***** likely they may have a stroke.

Gender: more men than women ***** *****s

Race: African-Americans ***** Hispanics have more strokes than Caucasians

Family history

Diabetes

***** of a previous stroke

Controll*****ble risk factors:

***** blood pressure

Heart disease, particularly atrial fibrillation. When blood collects in the heart ***** risk of *****ming a blood clot incre*****ses.

***** cholesterol resulting in blood vessel blockage

Sleep apnea, which can cause spikes in ***** pressure

Smoking, which damages blood vessels and raises blood pressure

Alcohol abuse

Obes*****y

***** ***** a ***** include sudden weakness or feeling of numbness, especially on one side of the *****; sudden difficulty speaking or confusion; sudden vision disturbance in one or both eyes: difficulty walking, loss of balance or poor coordination, or a sudden and severe headache (Barker, 2001). Less commonly, ***** patient can develop sudden nausea ***** vomiting marked by rapid onset, which may ***** a fever; or a brief loss ***** consciousness, which can be as mild as an apparent fainting spell or as severe as convulsion ***** ***** (5)

Emergency room nurses can provide a valuable first line of evaluation ***** using stroke checklists of symptoms and alerting the triage doctor if ***** suggest the possibility of a stroke. R*****pid diagnosis allows the medical team the most options for treatment whet***** it is drugs to dissolve ***** clot or a c*****rotid artery stent (Dougherty, 1998) to improve blood

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