Essay - Strokes Cerebrovascular Accidents, Often Called Strokes, are Interruptions to the...


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Strokes

Cerebrovascular accidents, often called strokes, are interruptions to the blood flow in ***** brain. They can be caused by sudden blockage of a blood vessel (ischemic stroke), or rupture of a blood ***** (hemorrh*****gic *****). Strokes are medical emergencies that can cause coma, paralysis, muscle weakness, memory, speech/language or other brain function problems (5). Immediate emergency treatment helps ensure the best possible outcome f***** a p*****tient who has had a stroke. Two thirds of all *****s occur in people over the age of 65 (5), and it is the third most common cause of death in ***** United States (Dougherty, 1998). ***** are a major ***** of disability as well (Byington et. al., 2000).

***** strokes ***** have several causes. Sometimes an embolism, or blood clot, forms in one part ***** the body and travels to the ***** where it blocks a sm***** ***** vessel. Thrombosis, or artery *****, can also cut off blood flow, when a *****all blood clot forms on the arterial plaque. Most thrombotic strokes are caused by the combination of ***** ***** narrowing and a clot. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a blood vessel in the br*****in ruptures. These strokes can vary from very mild to major. They may be caused ***** high blood pressure, a weakness in ***** blood vessel, or a ***** of both (*****).

***** risk factors for stroke can be divided *****to two groups: controllable and uncontrollable. When a person h***** several uncontrollable risk *****, it becomes more important for him her to control the ones that can be.

Un*****lable ***** factors include

*****: The older the person, the more likely they may have a *****.

Gender: more men than women have *****

Race: African-Americans and Hispanics have more strokes than Caucasians

Family history

Diabetes

***** of a previous stroke

Controllable risk factors:

High ***** pressure

Heart disease, particularly atrial fibrillation. When blood collects in the heart the risk of *****ming a blood clot increases.

***** cholesterol resulting in blood vessel blockage

Sleep apnea, which can cause spikes in blood *****

Smoking, which damages ***** vessels and raises blood pressure

Alcohol abuse

Obesity

Symptoms ***** a stroke include sudden we*****kness or feeling of numbness, especially on one side of ***** body; sudden difficulty speaking or confusion; ***** vision disturbance in one or ***** eyes: difficulty walk*****g, loss of balance ***** poor coordination, or a sudden and severe headache (Barker, 2001). Less commonly, the patient can develop sudden nausea ***** vomiting marked by rapid onset, which may ***** a fever; or ***** brief loss ***** consciousness, which can be as mild as an apparent fainting spell or as severe as convulsion ***** coma (5)

***** room nurses c***** provide a valuable first line of evaluation by using stroke checklists of symptoms and alerting the triage doctor if ***** suggest the possibility of a stroke. R*****pid diagnosis allows the medical team the ***** options for ***** whet***** it is drugs to dissolve the ***** or a c*****rotid artery stent (Dougherty, 1998) to improve blood

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