Essay - Strokes Cerebrovascular Accidents, Often Called Strokes, are Interruptions to the...


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Strokes

Cerebrovascular accidents, often called strokes, are interruptions to the blood flow in the brain. They can be caused by sudden blockage of a blood vessel (ischemic stroke), or rupture of a blood ***** (hemorrhagic stroke). Strokes are medical emergencies that can cause coma, paralysis, muscle weakness, memory, speech/language or other brain function problems (5). Immediate emergency treatment helps ensure the *****st possible outcome for a p*****tient who has had a stroke. Two thirds of all strokes occur in people over the age of 65 (5), and it is ***** third most common cause ***** death in the Un*****ed States (Dougherty, 1998). ***** ***** a major ***** of disability as well (Byington et. al., 2000).

***** strokes can have several causes. Sometimes an embolism, or blood clot, forms in one part of the body and travels to the brain where it blocks a small ***** vessel. Thrombosis, or artery blockage, ***** also cut *****f blood *****, when a sm*****ll blood clot ***** on the arterial plaque. Most thrombotic strokes are caused by ***** combination of ***** ***** narrowing and a clot. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a blood vessel in the br*****in **********. These strokes can vary from very mild to major. They may be caused by high blood pressure, a weakness in ***** blood vessel, or a ***** of both (*****).

***** risk fac*****rs f***** stroke can be divided *****to two groups: controllable and uncontrollable. When a person has several uncontrollable risk factors, it *****comes more important for him her to control the ones that can be.

Uncontrollable ***** factors include

Age: The older the person, the ***** likely they may have a stroke.

Gender: more men than women ***** *****

Race: African-Americans ***** Hispanics have more *****s ***** Caucasians

Family history

Diabetes

***** of a previous stroke

Controll*****ble risk *****:

High ***** pressure

Heart disease, particularly atrial fibrillation. When blood collects in the heart the ***** of *****ming a blood clot increases.

High cholesterol resulting in blood vessel blockage

Sleep apnea, which can cause spikes in ***** pressure

*****, which damages blood vessels and raises blood pressure

Alcohol abuse

Obes*****y

Symptoms of a stroke include sudden we*****kness or feeling of numbness, especially on one side of ***** *****; sudden difficulty speaking or confusion; sudden vision disturbance in one or ***** eyes: difficulty walking, loss of balance ***** poor coordination, or a sudden and severe headache (Barker, 2001). Less commonly, the patient can develop sudden nausea and vomiting marked ***** rapid onset, which may ***** a fever; or ***** brief loss ***** consciousness, which can be as mild as an app*****nt fainting spell or as severe as convulsion ***** coma (5)

Emergency room nurses can provide a valuable first line of evaluation by using stroke checklists of symptoms and alerting the triage doctor if ***** suggest the possibility of a stroke. Rapid diagnosis allows the medical team the most options for ***** whe*****r it is drugs to dissolve the ***** or a c*****rotid artery stent (Dougherty, *****) to improve blood

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