Essay - Strokes Cerebrovascular Accidents, Often Called Strokes, are Interruptions to the...


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Strokes

Cerebrovascular accidents, often called strokes, are interruptions to the blood flow in ***** brain. They can be caused by sudden blockage of a blood vessel (ischemic stroke), or rupture of a blood vessel (hemorrh*****gic *****). Strokes are medical emergencies that can cause coma, paralysis, muscle weakness, memory, speech/language or other brain function problems (5). Immediate emergency treatment helps ensure the best possible outcome for a patient who has had a stroke. Two thirds of all ***** occur in people over the age of 65 (5), and it is the third most common cause of death in ***** Un*****ed States (Dougherty, 1998). ***** are a major cause of disability as well (Byington et. al., 2000).

Ischemic *****s can have several causes. Sometimes an embolism, or blood clot, forms in one part of the body and travels to the ***** where it blocks a sm***** blood vessel. Thrombosis, or artery blockage, ***** also cut ********** blood flow, when a small blood clot f*****ms on the arterial plaque. Most thrombotic strokes are caused ***** the combination of blood ***** narrowing and a clot. Hemorrhagic strokes ***** when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures. These strokes can vary from very mild to major. They may be caused by high blood pressure, a weakness in the ***** *****, or a ***** of both (5).

The risk factors for stroke can ***** divided ********** two groups: controllable and uncontrollable. When a person has several uncontrollable risk *****, it becomes more important for him her to control the ones that can be.

Uncontrollable ***** factors include

Age: The older the *****, the more likely they may have a *****.

Gender: ***** men than women ***** strokes

*****: African-Americans ***** Hispanics have more strokes ***** Caucasians

Family history

Diabetes

***** of a previous stroke

Controllable risk factors:

***** blood pressure

Heart disease, particularly atrial fibrillation. ***** blood collects in the heart ***** risk of *****ming a blood clot increases.

High cholesterol resulting in blood vessel *****

Sleep apnea, which can cause spikes in ***** *****

*****, which damages blood vessels and raises blood pressure

Alcohol abuse

Obes*****y

***** of a ***** include sudden we*****kness or feeling of numbness, especially on one side of the *****; sudden difficulty speaking or confusion; sudden vision disturbance in one or both eyes: difficulty walk*****g, loss of balance or poor coordination, or a sudden *****nd severe headache (Barker, 2001). Less commonly, the patient ***** develop sudden nausea and vomiting marked ***** rapid onset, which may ***** a fever; or a brief loss of consciousness, which can be as mild as an apparent fainting spell ***** as severe as convulsion or ***** (5)

Emergency room nurses c***** provide a valuable first line of evaluation by using stroke checklists of symptoms and alerting the triage doctor if ***** suggest the possibility of a stroke. Rapid diagnosis allows the medical team the most options for ***** whet***** it is drugs to dissolve ***** ***** or a carotid artery stent (Dougherty, 1998) to improve blood

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