Essay - Strokes Cerebrovascular Accidents, Often Called Strokes, are Interruptions to the...


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Strokes

***** accidents, often called strokes, are interruptions to the blood flow in the brain. They can be caused by sudden blockage of a blood vessel (ischemic stroke), or rupture of ***** blood vessel (hemorrhagic *****). Strokes are medical emergencies that can cause coma, paralysis, muscle weakness, memory, speech/language or other brain function problems (5). Immediate emergency treatment helps ensure the *****st possible outcome for a patient who has had a stroke. Two thirds of all ***** occur in people over the age of 65 (5), and it is ***** third most common cause ***** death in the Un*****ed States (Dougherty, 1998). ***** ***** a major ***** of disability as well (Byington et. al., 2000).

***** *****s can have sever***** causes. Sometimes an embolism, or blood clot, forms in one part ***** ***** body and travels to the ***** where it blocks a small ***** vessel. Thrombosis, or artery blockage, ***** also cut off blood flow, when a small blood clot f*****ms on ***** arterial plaque. Most thrombotic strokes are caused ***** the combination of blood vessel narrowing and a clot. Hemorrh*****gic strokes occur when a blood vessel in the br*****in ruptures. These strokes can vary from very mild to *****. They may be caused by high blood pressure, a we*****kness in the ***** *****, or a ***** of both (*****).

The risk fac*****rs for stroke can be divided into two groups: controllable and uncontrollable. When a person has several uncontrollable risk factors, it becomes more important for him her to control the ones that can be.

***** risk factors include

*****: The older the *****, the ***** likely they may have a *****.

Gender: more men than women have strokes

Race: African-Americans and Hispanics ***** ***** strokes ***** Caucasians

Family history

Diabetes

***** of a previous stroke

Controll*****ble risk factors:

***** blood pressure

Heart disease, particularly atrial fibrillation. ***** blood collects in the heart the risk of forming a blood clot increases.

***** cholesterol resulting in blood vessel *****

Sleep apnea, which can cause spikes in blood pressure

Smoking, which damages blood vessels and raises blood pressure

Alcohol abuse

Obesity

Symptoms ***** a ***** include sudden we*****kness or feeling of numbness, especially on *****e side of ***** *****; sudden difficulty speaking or confusion; ***** vision disturbance in one or ***** eyes: difficulty walking, loss of balance ***** poor coordination, or a sudden and severe headache (Barker, 2001). Less commonly, the patient ***** develop sudden nausea ***** vomiting marked by rapid onset, which may ***** a fever; or ***** brief loss of consciousness, which can be as mild as an apparent fainting spell ***** as severe as convulsion or coma (5)

Emergency room nurses can provide a valuable first line of evaluation ***** using stroke checklists of symptoms and alerting the triage doctor if ***** suggest the possibility of a stroke. R*****pid diagnosis allows the medical team the most options for ***** whe*****r it is drugs to dissolve the clot or a carotid artery stent (Dougherty, *****) to improve blood

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