Essay - Student Centered Teaching Progressivism, Social Reconstructionism and Existentialism Vs.' Essentialism...


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Student Centered Teaching

Progressivism, Social Reconstructionism and Existentialism vs." Essentialism and Perennialism

The face of the American educational system has been changing dramatically over the past several decades. Since the inception of standardized education in ***** US, the fabric ***** society itself has undergone dramatic changes. Yet, ***** ***** system continues to promote the paradigms that prevailed since ***** systems very beginning. It can be argued that the system is in need of some dramatic changes if we are ***** compete in a world where globalization means coping with increasing competition. This research will explore teacher centered and student centered philosophies. It ***** support the hypothesis that student centered philosophies benefit the ***** more than teacher centered philosophies.

St*****ardized ***** was developed on ********** philosophies. Ho*****ver, recent trends suggest that student centered philosophies would better prepare student's to meet the demands of *****day's job market. Teacher centered philosophies do not consider the student's active role in ***** learning process. Students are treated as ********** to be acted upon a head to ***** filled with facts. However, student centered ***** consider the whole student and the needs of the student in ***** educational process. These are the key differences between teacher centered and student centered philosophies.

Introduction

Teacher ***** Philosophies

***** are two primary types of *************** philosophies. They are essentialism and perennialism. Essentialists believe that ***** subject matter is the center of the curriculum. Many ***** them feel that greater educational opportunities are the reason for lowered standards in ***** schools. One of their key criticism of student centered philosophies is they place the emphasis on the child and teaching utilizing a v*****rieties and activities. They criticize progressives ***** allowing the ***** too much freedom in choosing ***** ***** (Cliff, 1996.).

Teacher centered methods of treating include rote ***** ***** that have been proven to be minimally effective at *****st. One of the key problems with rote learning is that the students fail to integrate the material in***** their daily lives. They might do well ***** the tests, but ***** ***** difficulty making real life description ***** taught in this manner might receive good grades, due to their ability to memorize material. Therefore, the teacher ***** look good, as their ***** appear ***** be high achievers.

*****, in this case, the num*****rs ***** ***** tell the entire picture. Essentialist philosophies, with ***** curriculum-centered basis, hold students to high academic standards. Standardized testing in one of ***** ***** elements of the teacher centered essentialist viewpoint. One of the key advantages ***** standardized ***** is ***** it provides specific benchmarks for evaluation purposes. One can easily determine if the student has met the prescribed benchmarks.

However, there are those that feel this advantage is underscored by the many arguments against standardized testing. For instance, there ***** some ***** feel standardized ***** increases drop-out rates (Amrein & Berliner, 2002). Teacher centered philosophy holds that ***** a child performs poorly on the tests, *****n they need to work a little harder for the next

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