Essay - Student Centered Teaching Progressivism, Social Reconstructionism and Existentialism Vs.' Essentialism...

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Student Centered Teaching

Progressivism, Social Reconstructionism and Existentialism vs." Essentialism and Perennialism

The face of the American educational system has been changing dramatically over the past several decades. Since the inception of standardized education in ***** US, the fabric ***** society itself has undergone dramatic changes. Yet, ***** educational system continues to promote the paradigms that prevailed since the systems very beginning. It can be argued that the system is in need of some dramatic ***** if we are to compete in a world where globalization means coping with increasing competition. This research will explore teacher centered and student centered philosophies. It ***** support ***** hypothesis that student ***** philosophies benefit the ***** more than ***** centered philosophies.

Standardized education was developed on teacher-centered *****. Ho*****ver, recent trends suggest that student centered philosophies would better prepare student's ***** meet ***** demands of today's job market. Teacher ***** philosophies do not consider the student's active role in ***** learning process. Students are treated as something to be acted upon a head to be filled with facts. However, student centered ***** consider the whole student and the needs ***** the student in ***** educational process. These are the key differences between teacher centered ***** student centered philosophies.


***** ***** Philosophies

There are two primary types of *****-***** philosophies. They are essentialism and perennialism. Essentialists believe that the subject matter is ***** center of the curriculum. Many ***** them feel that greater educational opportunities are the reason for lowered standards in the schools. One of their key criticism of student centered philosophies is they place the emphasis on the child and teaching utilizing a v*****rieties and activities. ***** criticize progressives ***** allowing the ***** too much freedom in choos*****g ***** curriculum (Cliff, 1996.).

Teacher centered methods of treating include rote learning methods that have been proven to be minimally effective at *****st. One of the key problems ***** ***** learning is that the ********** fail to integrate the material into their daily lives. They might do well on the tests, but ***** ***** difficulty making real life description Students taught in this manner might receive good grades, due to their ability to memorize material. Therefore, the teacher would look good, as their students appear to be high achievers.

However, in ***** case, the num*****rs do not tell the entire picture. Essentialist philosophies, with ***** curriculum-centered basis, hold students to high academic standards. Standardized testing in one of the key elements of ***** teacher centered essentialist viewpoint. One of the key advantages of standardized testing is ***** it provides specific benchmarks for evaluation purposes. One ***** easily determine if the student has met the prescribed *****.

*****, there are those that ***** this advantage is underscored by the many arguments against standardized testing. For instance, there are some ***** feel standardized testing increases drop-out rates (Amrein & Berliner, 2002). Teacher centered philosophy holds that if a child performs poorly on the tests, ********** they need to work a little harder for the next


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