Essay - Student Centered Teaching Progressivism, Social Reconstructionism and Existentialism Vs.' Essentialism...

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Student Centered Teaching

Progressivism, Social Reconstructionism and Existentialism vs." Essentialism and Perennialism

The face of the American educational system has been changing dramatically over the past several decades. Since the inception of standardized education in ***** US, the fabric of society itself has undergone dramatic changes. Yet, ***** *****al system continues to promote the paradigms that prevailed since ***** systems very beginning. It can be argued that the system is in need of some dramatic changes if we are ***** compete in a world where globalization means coping with increasing competition. This research will explore teacher centered and student centered philosophies. It will support ***** hypothesis that student ***** philosophies benefit the ***** more than teacher centered philosophies.

St*****ardized education was developed on *****-centered *****. Ho*****ver, recent trends suggest that student centered philosophies would better prepare student's to meet ***** demands of *****day's job market. Teacher centered philosophies do not consider the student's active role in ***** learning process. Students are treated as ********** to be acted upon a head to ***** filled with facts. However, student centered philosophies consider the whole student and the needs ***** the student in ***** ********** process. These are the key differences between teacher ***** ***** student centered philosophies.


***** ***** Philosophies

There are two primary types of teacher-centered philosophies. They are essentialism and perennialism. Essentialists believe that the subject matter is ***** center of the curriculum. Many of them feel that greater educational opportunities are the reason for lowered standards in ***** schools. One of their key criticism of student centered philosophies is they place the emphasis on ***** child and teaching utilizing a v*****rieties and activities. ***** criticize progressives ***** allowing the ***** too much freedom in choosing their curriculum (Cliff, 1996.).

Teacher centered methods of treating include rote ***** methods that have been proven to be minimally effective at *****st. One of the key problems ***** ***** learning is that the students fail to integrate the material into *****ir daily lives. They might do well on the tests, but ***** ***** difficulty making real life descripti***** ***** taught in this manner might receive good grades, due to their ability to memorize material. Therefore, the teacher would look *****, as *****ir students appear ***** be high achievers.

However, in ***** case, the num*****rs do ***** tell the entire picture. Essentialist philosophies, with their curriculum-centered basis, hold students to high academic *****. Standardized testing in one ***** the key elements of ***** teacher centered essentialist viewpoint. One of the key advantages of standardized ***** is ***** it provides specific benchmarks for evaluation purposes. One ***** easily determine if the student has met the prescribed *****.

However, there are those that feel this advantage is underscored by the many arguments against standardized testing. For instance, there are some ***** feel standardized ***** increases drop-out rates (Amrein & Berliner, 2002). Teacher centered philosophy holds that if a child performs poorly on the tests, *****n they need to work a little harder for the next


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