Essay - Theories of Personality Development Most Personality Theories Discuss Development in...


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Theories of Personality Development

Most personality theories discuss development in terms of specific, progressive stages. Piaget and Erikson's theories of personality development follow a similar structure. However, the fundamental difference between ***** two theories lies in the fact that while Piaget expla*****ed ***** from a motor and cognitive perspective, Erikson approached the subject ***** the view point of social development (AllPsych, 2004).

Piaget's "Theory ***** Cognitive *****" describes the specific stages that children go through, as their cognitive ability to understand relationships develops. Thus, Piaget's theory explains how personality develops as: infants learn to manipulate objects that are within their current sensory perception and then ***** on to understand the concept of object permanency (sensori***** stage); children begin ***** interact with their environment through the use of words and images though they ***** able to focus only one aspect of a stimulus (preoperational stage); older children begin to develop their ***** ability and learn the concept ***** grouping of concrete objects (***** operations stage); teenagers develop a more abstract ***** of the world, using concepts such as conservation, reversibility and ***** idea of ca***** ***** effect (formal operations stage). In *****, Piaget explained the processes ***** which personality is formed. *****'s work is valu***** as it enables parents and teachers ***** facil*****ate and monitor a child's cognitive *****, thereby laying the foundation for a he*****lthy adult personality.

***** contrast, ***** "***** of Psychosocial Development" concerns itself with how ***** socialize and ***** this affects ***** sense ***** self. According to Erikson, a child's person*****lity ***** through eight distinct stages, each of which involves a different psychosocial crisis and has two possible outcomes. The successful completion of ***** stage results in a healthy personality whereas failure to negotiate any ***** particular ***** leads ***** a reduced ********** to complete other stages and, therefore, a less ***** personality and ***** ***** self. The eight psychosocial crises or ***** that Erikson def*****ed are: trust versus mistrust; autonomy ***** shame and doubt; initiative versus guilt; industry versus inferiority; identity versus role confusion; intimacy ***** isolation; generativity versus stagnation; and ego integrity versus despair. Like Piaget, *****'s theory also explains the factors that influence ***** *****ment albeit through a fr*****me***** of psychosocial factors. Thus, this *****ory too is immensely *****able as it enables ***** and ***** to help a child *****ly negoti*****te each psychosocial crisis ***** thereby develop a he*****lthy sense ***** *****.

Piaget and Erikson's work is valuable but is limited since the focus is on explaining the process through ***** pers*****ality develops. Thus, both ***** s*****p short of explaining final personality outcomes ***** their functioning. For this reason, I agree with Carl Jung's personality theory ***** than ***** other ***** it offers an explanation of how the individual psyche works, by *****, and in terms of its relation to ***** universe. In fact, I find that Jung's personality typology explains my own personality accurately as a "ESFJ" or "Extroverted Feeling with Sensing" type. With a score of extroverted 56%, Sensing 22%, Feeling 56%,

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