Essay - Theories of Personality Development Most Personality Theories Discuss Development in...


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Theories of Personality Development

Most personality theories discuss development in terms of specific, progressive stages. Piaget and Erikson's theories ***** ***** development follow a simil*****r structure. However, the fundamental difference between the two theories lies in the fact that while ***** expla*****ed development from a motor and cognitive perspective, Erikson approached the subject from ***** view point of social development (AllPsych, 2004).

Piaget's "Theory of Cognitive Development" describes the specific stages that children go through, as their cognitive ability to understand relationships develops. Thus, Piaget's theory explains how personality develops as: infants learn to manipulate objects ***** are within their current sensory perception and then ***** on to understand the concept of object permanency (sensori***** stage); children begin to interact with their environment through the use of words and images though they ***** able to focus only one aspect of a stimulus (preoperational stage); older children begin to develop ***** ***** ability and learn the concept ***** grouping of concrete ***** (***** operations stage); teenagers develop a more abstract ***** of the world, using concepts such as conservation, reversibility and ***** idea of cause ***** effect (formal operations stage). In *****, Piaget explained the processes through which personality is formed. Piaget's work is valu***** as it enables parents and teachers ***** facil*****ate and monitor a child's cognitive *****ment, thereby laying the foundation for a healthy adult *****.

***** contrast, Erikson's "Theory of Psychosocial Development" concerns itself with ***** ***** socialize and how this affects their sense of self. According to Erikson, a child's person*****lity ***** ***** eight distinct stages, each of which involves a different psychosoci*****l crisis and has two possible outcomes. The successful completion of ***** stage results in a healthy personality whereas failure ***** negotiate any ***** particular ***** leads to a reduced ***** to complete other stages and, therefore, a less healthy personality and sense of self. The eight psychosocial crises or ***** that Erikson defined are: trust versus mistrust; autonomy ***** shame and doubt; initiative versus guilt; industry versus inferiority; identity versus role confusion; intimacy ***** isolation; generativity versus stagnation; and ego integrity versus despair. Like Piaget, ***** theory also explains the factors that influence ***** development albeit through a fr*****me***** of psychosocial factors. *****, this *****ory too is immensely valuable as it enables ***** and ***** to help a child ********** negotiate each psychosocial crisis and thereby develop a healthy sense ***** *****.

Piaget and *****'s work is valuable but is limited since the focus ***** on explaining the process through which pers*****ality develops. Thus, both ***** stop short of explaining final personality ***** and their functioning. For ***** re*****on, I agree with Carl Jung's personality theory more than any other since it offers an expl*****ation of how the individual psyche *****s, by *****, ***** in terms of its relation to the universe. In fact, I find ***** ***** personality typology explains my own personality accurately as a "ESFJ" or "Extroverted Feeling with Sensing" type. With a score of extroverted 56%, Sensing 22%, Feeling 56%,

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