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History of Africa Nationalism: African

Additionally, since the creation of boundaries by colonizing nations was done rather arbitrarily and regardless of the indigenous ethnic cultures and tribes, the spirit of unification and nationalism was not allowed to grow organically to the point that the people would wish to form their own nation. Instead, their independence came from rebellion against a larger foe and not a unification of the people. Independent Churches: African Independent Churches are also known as African Indigenous Churches, African Initiated Churches, African Instituted Churches, or AICs. These names all together define more than 10,000 independent churches in Africa, all variations and denominations of Christianity (African). Although these churches are all different and spread out throughout the continent, the one thing that these churches have in common is that they were created by Africans and not by the Christian missionaries who came into Africa in the 18th and 19th centuries. The other component that unites these churches is that they all combine Christian principles with the traditional religions of the African tribes from the area that they are established in. Some of the churches utilize their African traditions more than the others, but all of them feature these characteristics is some form. The AICs, like the European Christians before them, have strong missionary systems in place to further spread their own versions of Christian religion to the rest of the African people. The AICs began to form in the late 19th century in acts of rebellion against the white Christian missionaries and the colonial governments that they represented. One of the primary goals of the initial founders of some of the African Independent Churches was to read the Bible themselves and interpret the scripture through their own analysis and not believing without question the interpretations of the colonial missionaries. Indeed some of the AICs have expanded on the Bible, including their founding into the narrative of their religious beliefs. Additionally, it has been the political position of most AICs to have an open mind with regard to other churches and religions, particularly Christian churches occupying the same geographic locations and Muslims (African). Works Cited: "African Independent Church Origins." Balanced Views of Religion and Spirituality with Faith. www.patheos.com/Library/African-Independent-Churches.html "African Nationalism." Helicon Publishing. 2011. Online. Blumberg, Arnold. Great Leaders, Great Tyrants?. Greenwood Publishing. 1995. 221-222. Print. Guilbert, Armand and Seghers Nimrod. Leopold Senghor. Paris. 2006. Print. Hedges, David. "Samora Machel: A Biography." Journal of Southern…

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African History Film Response in

At the heart of the film is the way that history has rewritten the events of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century in Congo. King Leopold has been written by some historians as a benevolent man whose intentions were purer than those of other imperialists. Christian historians in particular have helped elevate his reputation beyond the reproaches of truthful history and instead celebrate him as an icon, as an individual who tried to spread their version of the word of God to those who were ignorant of it before. If he happened to make money because of the resources available in Congo, then that was a nice addition, but that this was not the focus of the colonial expansion. Obviously, this is the complete antithesis of the truth where the horrors of the truth are echoed still in the modern period. The filmmakers explain this by showing how chocolate hands are a common treat in Belgium today but are modeled after the fact that young children who were late on their rubber deliveries would have their hands cut off. In Congo: White King, Red Rubber, Black Death the truth of African colonialism is made explicit. The filmmakers take what most people assume they know about this period in world history and truly educate them. It is an indictment of colonialism and of the way history tends to rewrite the villains based upon the moral and social perspective of the people writing those histories. What is most disturbing is that Leopold not only faced no serious repercussions for his actions, but that he tried to bury the truth, showing full well that he knew what he was doing was wrong as opposed to the misguided impression of some colonials that because they were white, they were somehow entitled to their atrocities. Works Cited Congo: White King, Red Rubber, Black Death. (2004). YouTube. YouTube, 27……

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Islam in East Africa Analysis

Today, it is active in all three territories. The present head of the mission is Sheikh Mubarah Ahmed, whose first task was to prepare a Swahili translation of the holy Koran with a commentary, then to produce other Islamic literature. Muslims have primarily been involved in conducting village Koranic schools, where the standard of religious and secular learning is low: As many Muslims are afraid of religious pressure if they send their children to Christian schools, the African and Arab communities are apt to be backward and economically handicapped. Nor has the Ahmadiyya mission yet undertaken hospital work of the type undertaken by the Christian missionaries. The Muslims who follow H.H. The Aga Khan, on the other hand, established schools, hospitals, dispensaries and libraries after the end of the First World War. They do not, however, support missionaries, for they believe that conversion should result from the activity of the individual. In the earlier period, missionary work was not an Islamic tradition, and the adoption of Islam was instead "a natural consequence of the intermarriage of Arab and Persian settlers with the coastal populations since the tenth century."? As a rule, the "Arab slave-trader had not in general been a missionary: to have proselytized his victims would indeed have precluded him from enslaving them."? For tribes allied with the Arabs, though, there was evidence of some religious assimilation to Islam before the arrival of Europeans. Bibliography Burke, Fred G. And Stanley Diamond. The Transformation of East Africa: Studies in Political Anthropology. New York: Basic Books, 1966. Duiker, William J. And Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History: Volume I. New York: West Publishing, 1994. Esposito, John L. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Hansen, Holger Bernt and Michael Twaddle. Religion and Politics in East Africa: The Period since Independence. London: James Currey, 1995. Ingham, Kenneth. A History of East Africa. London: Longmans, Green, 1963. Kingsnorth, G.W. And Zoe Marsh. An Introduction to the History of East Africa. Cambridge, 1957. Oliver, Roland. The Missionary Factor in East Africa. London: Longmans Green, 1952. Ramsay, F.J. Global Studies: Africa. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998. G.W. Kingsnorth and Zoe Marsh, An Introduction to the History of East Africa (Cambridge, 1957), 8. John L. Esposito. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 39. F.J. Ramsay, Global Studies: Africa (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998), 95. William J.…

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Pre-Historic African Development the Concept of Africa

Pre-Historic African Development The concept of Africa has been of "the dark continent" and this concept has been spread by the European invaders there. At the same time, there is historical evidence to suggest that human civilization developed in Africa much before it developed in Europe. The development of man takes place in a direction that is determined by the…

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Africa Since Independence Review Africa,

South Africa, for example, is becoming a nation that acknowledges its entire history, and is starting to embrace the whole of it. Native tribes and Afrikaaner people alike can be proud of the progress the nation has made (Bauer & Taylor). Legum is very optimistic regarding the future of the continent. He sees the return of those first moments of euphoria that accompanied the original freedom from colonialism (72). He says this because it has been a cultural revolution in which people who were long made to suppress their heritage have now been able to embrace it. He believes that the Africa of the past will spread a new renaissance that the people of the present and future can enjoy. One nation that comes to mind as a similar case is Australia. The indigenous people of that nation are fast realizing a cultural renaissance because they are allowed now, even encouraged to, explore who they are historically. Many South Pacific nations are having the same kind of feelings as they get closer to their roots. The similarities between many of these and Africa as a group of nations is impressive. One issue that Legum does point out is that Africa has a difficult relationship with the West. The countries of the West were worried, when colonialism ended after World War II, how the nations of Africa would align themselves. Legum is worried that many nations of the West treated the post-colonization period like former slaves were treated in the United States after the Civil War. The nations were left on their own, to shift for themselves, and this seemed to cause many to accept forms of government which caused them to devolve to third world nations (Legum 69). But, there seems to a new spirit. Many nations are beginning to prosper with new trade deals, with both the West and the East, and this can be seen as a positive thing. Legum seems to believe that Africa will survive by becoming what it was prior to colonialism. Conclusion Africa is a continent that many in the past saw as a single entity with similar (if not the same) culture, politics, and religion throughout the continent. The European nations that colonized the various areas of Africa regarded the people as primitive and as needing guidance from more advanced societies. Since the nations have regained their independence over the past 70 years,…

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Global Business Cultural Analysis Nigeria

However, the President Obasanjo was removed on May 29, 2007 after that Nigeria came to know about its primary change of authority between national supervision. The new elected leader UmaruYar'Adua took the rule; he was a modest and a valued governor. He was selected from the Katsina state and was brought in the direction of building electoral improvement and bringing…

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Cultural Perceptions of Time in

The regional or ethnic subsets I will examine are: the Bantu-Kongo of modern Nigeria, the Nguni Zulus of modern South Africa, and the Akan of central and southern modern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern modern Cote d'Ivoire,. Additionally I will discuss other regional affiliations of Africa based on the importance of the issue the history of the particular…

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Harmony to Holocaust the Portuguese

As a result their culture flourished, becoming quite well-known for crafting gold/brass items, carving wood, making furniture as well as the famous brightly colored cloth known as kente ("Wonders"). Another important area affected by the slave trade was the Kingdom of Kongo (modern day Republic of Congo) which lay on the Congo River. It was a federation of provinces/cultures and…

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Afrikaners Are the Descendants of the European,

Afrikaners are the descendants of the European, mainly Dutch, settlers who first established permanent settlement at the Southern tip of the African continent in the mid-seventeenth century and later spread inland. The Afrikaners developed their separate identity as, after settling down in Africa, they identified themselves as Africans rather than Europeans, adopted a separate language called Afrikaans -- a dialect…

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West African Kingdoms Ghana, Mali,

European slavery, on the other hand, regarded slaves as property. The status of slavery was hereditary and would continue through life. Slaves in the United States were also forced to adopt the religious customs of their masters. As a result, they lost many aspects of their magic and Islam-based cultures as they adopted the Christian traditions prevalent in the Americas. This context should form the backdrop in studying the role Africans themselves played in the slave trade. Historians like Basil Davidson contend that many African slave traders had no idea about the conditions of the Middle Passage, as well as the significant differences in the European concept of slavery (Davidson 211). They were unaware of the conditions that awaited many of their kin in the Americas. In conclusion, the political and economic life of prominent West African kingdoms contributed to the institution of slavery. However, slavery had a much different meaning for the Africans and the European colonizers. Still, as Davidson observes, this lack of knowledge does not "reduce the inhumanity of the system in itself" (214). Works Cited Davidson, Basil. Africa in History. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1981. Der, Benedict. The Slave Trade in Northern Ghana. Ghana: Woeli Publishing Services, 1998. Harris, Joseph E. Africans and Their History. New York: Penguin, 1998. MacDonald, Kevin. " Songhai Empire," World Book……

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Ethical Issues of South Africa's Black Economic Empowerment Program Bee

Ethical issues of South Africa's Black Economic Empowerment Program (BEE) Across the formerly colonized African territory, South Africa's turbulent history and multifaceted makeup is not unique. However, the country remains unique in light of the particulars. First, the nation has a direct experience with the leading violent eras across African history. My interest to cover this topic has emerged from…

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Colonization of Africa

Colonization of Africa: The occupation and control of one nation by another is defined as colonialism. Various European countries have colonized many areas of the world including North and South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the small islands around the world. Africa was colonized by different European nations between the late 19th century and late 20th century. Prior to the…

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Africa My Favorite Place in the World

¶ … Algeria to Zimbabwe, Africa is the most incredible and compelling continent on the planet. African history is the history of humanity itself, as the first human beings came from Africa. The continent has had a tumultuous history and recent turmoil can be traced to the effects of colonization. In spite of the troubles that affect many African nations, the continent remains one of my favorite places in the world to travel and to live. Africa's cultures and cuisines are incredibly varied. Its ecosystems are equally as diverse, ranging from arid deserts to lush rainforests. Because of its diversity of cultural traditions, its rich and varied foods, and its wonderful ecosystems, Africa is my favorite place on the planet. Africa is a huge continent comprised of over fifty countries, and has an even greater number of different religions, languages, and cultural traditions. Northern Africa is a world unto itself. The countries of Northern Africa including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt have been strongly influenced by Muslim and Arabic cultures. Also, the history of North Africa is especially fascinating because of ancient Egypt. One of the reasons why I love Africa is because of this rich ancient civilization that built the pyramids. A large portion of the North African desert is home to semi-nomadic people too, making that region of Africa fascinating to visit. On the other hand, large portions of Africa are still represented by stationary tribes people who practice age-old dances, religious rites, and social customs. Much of Africa was divided into kingdoms such as the Ashanti. West Africa has a strong and varied tradition that includes the Yoruba religion that informed so many of the Caribbean cultures. South Africa has its own distinct culture and history and has been influenced strongly by the European settlers. Ethiopia also differs significantly from the rest of Africa, as does Kenya. The diversity of……

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Global Inequality South Africa

Global Inequality South Africa is a large nation comprising the southern tip of the African continent. Its capital city is Pretoria, but Johannesburg and Cape Town both have larger populations. The region is rich in natural resources including precious metals, gems, and salt. Mining is the nation's largest industry and South Africa is the world's largest producer of platinum, gold, and chromium (CIA 2009). South Africa is a Republic that consists of nine provinces: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North-West, and Western Cape. South Africa shares borders with six other nations: Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. Although South Africa enjoys an expansive coastline, the nation has few sources of fresh water. The nation has no major lakes or rivers; its lands are dry and semi-arid and droughts are common. Only 12% of South Africa's land is classified as arable (CIA 2009). The total population of South Africa is estimated at about 50 million as of this year. The largest ethnic group by far in South Africa is indigenous black African people, who comprise about 80% of the nation's population. Less than 10% of the population of South Africa is white. During the British colonization of India, laborers from the subcontinent migrated to South Africa and currently comprise about 2.5% of the population there (CIA 2009). The majority of South Africans would define themselves as Christian, although no one sect of Christianity is a majority religion. South Africa is linguistically and culturally diverse: the most common first language spoken is IsiZulu but it is spoken by less than a quarter of the population. English is the first language of less than 10% of the population. South Africa has eleven official languages (BBC 2009). South African history has been indelibly characterized by colonization. Dutch Boers first settled South Africa in 1652, establishing the city of Cape Town as a "stopover point" for trade between Europe and Asia (CIA 2009). Great Britain seized the Cape of Good Hope in 1806, which drove the Boers north where they founded new republics (CIA 2009). The British continued to pressure the Boers, however, resulting in the Boer War between 1899 and 1902. South Africa's rich natural resources became even more important than its geographic position during the nineteenth century, which is why European colonial powers held fast to the region. The Boer War did not drive out the Dutch.…

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African Studies Log What Does Africa Mean?

African Studies Log What does Africa mean? What is Africa to the millions of black Americans who were brought to the United States in captivity? What is it to those who live in European nations, to those who still live on the content? What has Africa contributed to the literature, art, theology, and philosophy of the East and West? And…

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Apartheid From 1948 to 1994, the System

Apartheid From 1948 to 1994, the system of apartheid ruled the lives of everyone living in South Africa, including all individuals of every race (Eades, 3). This separation of races was an extension of the concepts of segregation, and went far further in breaking apart the entire region along racial lines. While the system of apartheid was certainly created to…

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Africa's Political Crisis Most African

Africa is in need of improved political leadership, but not a stronger or bigger state. For Africa to succeed in its post-independent state, it needs leaders who can rise above their ethnic origins and who will create a sense of fair play and rules that apply to all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Democratic processes would accommodate the development of this…

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Healers Much Has Been Said

The river is a source, and metaphor for life, and of the healing power of the Gods. Fresh from the competition, Densu and Anan sit in the river, and gaze at the bottom of the clear waters. All is peaceful for the two, and the author is seemingly setting the contrast for the entire book. When the people fight, either themselves or each other, they miss out on the simple treasure of understanding the great mystery of the life giving waters. They seek to find power or status for themselves, and never are able to find the peace they seek, because they try to find it through war. Densu introduces the reader to another character, his friend, and possible love interest Jesiwa. Jesiwa has been married before, and thought the circumstances of here singlehood are not disclosed, she is marred from a history of 4 miscarriages. The first happened as the result of an accident, but the 2-4 were spontaneous. Jesiwa tortures herself mentally over her inability to have children, until she spends time with a healer named, Damfu. Through a long, scene, and many days, Damfu helps Jesiwa see that it is within her power to conceive again, she only has to want to. When she complains, and responds that "there is something too strong for me . . . An evil force that over powers me . . . so that I cannot conceive" Damfu replies, in somewhat oriental philosophy "If it is a power within you that is more powerful that you are, then it has to borrow power from your real self. When you gather all your scattered energy, then you can see your own strength, and see if you are really too weak, or too strong." Again, Armah is making a metaphor for the African people. Scattered and sectarian, they are weak, and the white men can conquer them at will. Since Armah is writing in retrospect, he is identifying one of the reasons for Africa's vulnerability. The African tribe's own disunity created their weakness, and thereby gave the power to the colonizing white men. The book continues to illustrate the tribal infighting, and mistrust among the peoples which typified the African tribes, until the end, when the healer Asamoa is summoned for a council. The Healer is told that the white men are invading the region, with the intent of taking control of a…

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Africa and Its Diaspora the

As the document nears its end, it turns more toward a call for the African people to stop allowing this kind of thing to happen, and to stop simply going along with what others have said about them or with the way others think that they should be acting. This is not a call for rebellion or overthrow, but rather a call to equality and a deeper understanding of their history and heritage. Analyzing this document in a critical fashion is somewhat difficult. This is due to the fact that whether one is of African descent could strongly affect the feelings that are invoked when this document is read. Of course, this is just a generalization of the way that races and cultures feel, and not everyone will share that view. However, it seems that there might be a difference between the way Africans and Europeans view this article. From a European point-of-view, in general, the article might appear very inflammatory and might sound as though the African people are being asked to rise up against the oppression of others and change the history that has been created for them. In this way, the article would read as a call to arms and would sound dangerously deviant and problematic. However, for those of an African descent, and those that are willing to look beyond their own beliefs and suspend the prejudices that they seem to have toward the African people, the document can be seen as a cry for equality and justice. There is a strong desire expressed in the document to be equal and to be recognized for the accomplishments that the African people have in their own right, instead of being tacked onto the history of other individuals such as Europeans. The desire of the African people to have their own history and to embrace their own beliefs is a strong one, and it can only happen if there are those who are willing to speak up and work to make changes that can benefit all of the African people in their history and for the future as well. There are many conclusions that can be drawn from a careful reading of this document, but the most obvious one is that it appears that the African people are still dealing with oppression and the pain that comes from feeling that they really do not belong to any one…

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Colonialism and the African Experience

Colonialism and the African Experience The author of this document is . This document is a chapter in a textbook-like history book. It was written in. The intended audience appears to be people learning about colonialism in Africa. The audience seems to be expected to have a basic understanding of world history, but no specific understanding of African history. Therefore, it appears safe for one to assume that the audience is a history class or history students, who are seeking to learn about how European colonialism impacted Africa. The document was written in order to inform people about the nature and impact of European colonialism in Africa. First, it explains why Europeans would want to colonize Africa. Modern depictions of Africa make it seem like a resource-poor and violent country, making it difficult for a modern audience to understand why anyone would want to colonize Africa in the first place. However, by contrasting the absolute vastness of Africa's territory with the relative minuteness of lands in Europe, the author is able to convey the fact that European countries were able to gain tremendous prestige by having vast holdings in colonies. The author also explains how strategic positioning in Africa enabled European countries to establish superior military positions, so that African holdings could and did impact political and military struggles in Europe. Of course, the land itself was only one benefit that European countries received from colonization. Africa was, and continues to be, a land with vast natural resources, and controlling the land put the imperial colonists in control of the resources. The most obvious of those resources may have been the African people. While most are familiar with the idea that European countries used the Africans in the slave trade, what they may not realize is how that practice had long-lasting effects on military power. For example, in World War I, approximately 1 million people of African descent fought on the side of the allies, a number that doubled by World War II (p.116). After explaining why the Europeans wanted to colonize Africa, the author goes on to explain how the Europeans used the missionaries and the idea of spreading Christianity to further secular goals in colonization. The author also discusses what these secular goals of colonization were. For example, Europeans honestly believed themselves to be culturally superior to colonized people. Therefore, the considered it a moral obligation to "civilize"…

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Apartheid Can Be Seen as the Conglomeration

Apartheid can be seen as the conglomeration of the Afrikaner-dominated government in the 1940s with the tradition of British colonialism primarily in South Africa. The notion of apartheid stems from an idea that means apartness or separateness. Apartheid is no doubt oppressive and discriminatory in every sense of the word and, looking back, seems to be an outlandish idea that…

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Since 1800

Africa Since 1800 is primarily a survey text of the recent history of the continent of Africa. However, even a survey history of a region still has a clear ideological point-of-view in terms of what the authors chose to include and exclude. This text, although factually correct and valuable in its treatment of often uncovered areas of African history and territory, tends to deemphasize the immorality of the colonialist impulse, and locate anti-colonial resistance as part of a larger history of a region characterized by frequent struggles for dominance by a variety of political leaders. Authors Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore in no way defend colonialism, but they wish to present what they believe to be balanced and fairly dispassionate overview of the region. The book begins by giving a short history of the beginnings of colonialism, chronicles various anti-colonialist movements, and provides a final survey the present day. Given its relatively short length for a subject of such breadth, the book perhaps inevitably sacrifices some depth. However, in its sweep, it does include some important reminders of the cultural diversity of the African Continent. The first chapters of the book divide African geography into north and south of the equator, and traces how the ideology of Islam impacted Northern African development. Addressing the influence of Islam in Africa, and showing the differences between the cultures of West, East, and Central Africa is one of the most valuable contributions of the book, especially for readers who are unfamiliar with the region. However, the authors occasionally make broad, sweeping statements about Africa such as: "By the end of the eighteenth century, people in the Muslim world as a whole had lost much of the energy and sense of purpose that had driven them to produce such a brilliant culture in the early centuries of Islam. They had failed to keep abreast of the new inventions and techniques being discovered in Western Europe, particularly in military affairs and transport" (5-6). To measure the brilliance of a culture according to its technical excellence is a moral, rather than an objective, historical judgment. Later, when chronicling British influence in Nigeria, the authors assert that there were "people who gained from colonial rule. Those who suffered from it were, by contrast, those who, through ill-luck or ill-judgment, or simply from an excess of patriotism, challenged the colonial power and were overthrown" (162). To call resistance…

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Apartheid South Africa

APARTHEID Annotated Bibliography Clark, Nancy L. And William H. Worger. South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid. New York: Longman Publishing, 2004. This excellent book by noted historians Nancy L. Clark and William H. Worger discusses in great depth the system known as apartheid which existed in South Africa during the last half of the 20th century. Historically, South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid begins by covering the dismal and dangerous years of the late 1940's when the Nationalists reigned supreme over all of South Africa by keeping African blacks segregated from white society, much like that in the American South during the 1950's and 1960's. It then portrays the events that led up to the collapse of apartheid in the early 1990's with a focus on the activities and bravery of Nelson Mandela. South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid also examines in detail the history and conflicts linked to white supremacy; the political and social movements by anti-apartheid groups and individuals to bring an end to white rule in South Africa and explores the overall legacy of apartheid as it relates to the historical foundations of South Africa. In addition, South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid provides a series of letters and other documents written by those who experienced the terrors of apartheid at its peak during the 1980's. As an historical work, South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid superbly addresses the horrors of segregation and how possesses the power to destroy not only nations but also the people themselves. Coombes, Annie E. History After Apartheid: Visual Culture and Public Memory in a Democratic South Africa. NC: Duke University Press, 2003. In her exemplary work History After Apartheid, art historian Annie E. Coombes concentrates on the history of South Africa's new visual and material culture which came about after the collapse of apartheid in 1994 when Nelson Mandela was elected as President of South Africa after a century of white rule and segregation. Overall, Coombes attempts to illustrate how apartheid still evokes its influence over various artistic projects and works in such areas as painting, sculpture, public art works and architecture. According to the editors of History After Apartheid, Coombes "explores the dilemmas posed by a wide range of visual and material culture" in many South African public sites that commemorate the collapse of apartheid and the resulting desegregation of…

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Why Does the World Ignore Africa?

AFRICA THE WORLD'S FORGOTTEN STEPCHILD This paper presents a detailed examination of Africa and its issues with a focus on why the world seems to ignore many of its needs for assistance. The writer explores financial and political issues that have an impact on the nation and provides insight as to why the world seems to have Africa on "ignore."…

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Urbanization and Foreign Aid Africa

Entities such as the South African Local Economic Development Network of Africa pour foreign funds into the country and assist with its economic situation. Lastly, the influence of foreign aid and urbanization has helped South Africa to become recognized at the international level. One of the most severe problems caused by urbanization in South Africa is the high unemployment rate. As of October of 2013, the unemployment rate in the country was at nearly 25% (van Vyck, 2013). However, it is worth noting that this rate represented a decline in unemployment. This decline in unemployment can be attributed to the efforts of foreign investors in programs such as the Local Economic Development Network (LED) of South Africa, which established funds into local businesses to help promote job opportunities and reduce the incidence of unemployment. LED's relationship with government entities at both the national and local level are fairly comprehensive, particularly in relation to helping South Africa solve its unemployment problem -- which is intrinsically related to the incidence of urban crime in the area. The subsequent quotation emphasizes this fact. "Local governments are usually given a general mandate to undertake economic development, which includes developing local strategies, coordinating with local private sector and civil society actors, enhancing the local environment for business and attracting investment" (LEDNA, 2013) As previously denoted, Led is financed by investors in Germany and Switzerland. At this point in the history of South Africa, it is far too early to attribute success to the influence of foreign aid in the form of urbanization. One would actually have a better case of demonstrating the opposite. It was largely due to the influence of foreign aid that urbanization took place within the country whatsoever. The principle effect of urbanization was the implementation of the brutal, inhumane system of apartheid which governed the country for nearly 50 years. In the wake of the overthrow of this system, rampant unemployment and crime have taken place. Therefore, it would be inaccurate to state that the foreign aid has been enough to counteract the problems stemming from urbanization within this country. All one has to do is look at the most recent percentage of unemployment within South Africa to see this point: The Africa Report (2013) states that this percentage for the third quarter of the year was 24.7% (van Vyck, 2013). By comparison, the unemployment rate in the U.S. (can source),…

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China Is the New Neo-Imperialist Power in Africa Discuss

China, The New Neo-Imperialist Power in Africa Perhaps the most obvious sign of China's growing influence in Africa was its so-called "Year of Africa" in 2006, but even this ostentatious display of neo-imperial influence only serves to obscure the true extent of China's interests in the region or its rising power directed at protecting those interests. Like so many contemporary…

Pages: 8  |  Essay  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 8


Poverty in Zaire 'The Democratic

Life expectancy is only forty-five for both men and women and has in fact lowered slightly over the past several years. Other indicators of poverty such as: infant mortality and fertility rate are also among the highest, or worst, in the already poor continent. Four percent of the population has HIV, and literacy rates are so low that statistics are unavailable. While the citizens of the democratic Republic of Congo suffer, their leaders have prospered immensely. Poverty in the Democratic Republic of Congo is therefore a political issue. Moreover, the nation cannot expect much help from outside sources. Like many underdeveloped and poor nations, the Democratic Republic of Congo is severely indebted to creditor nations: the value of the debt according to the World Bank in 2003 was $7.8 billion. Poverty in the Democratic Republic of Congo is a deep-rooted problem that requires long-term, long-range and visionary solutions. While aid does come in from international organizations, it is not enough. Something must be done to curb the political corruption that has ravaged the nation since its independence from Belgium. In addition to a total political transformation of the nation, care must be taken to provide for the immediate needs of the people: for land, food, shelter, and clothing. Education is also a major factor in the renewal of nations like Zaire, which have high illiteracy rates. Education means empowerment. In a country as rich in natural resources and land mass as the democratic Republic of Congo, poverty should become a vestige of the past. Among potential solutions include increasing funding for infrastructures that would promote local development, small business growth, tourism, Internet usage, and farming cooperatives. The Democratic Republic of Congo has the potential to be a wealthy African nation, given its abundance of natural resources, but internal division prevents such an ideal from becoming real. While interventionism is often a distasteful and imbalanced means to help nations like the democratic Republic of Congo, some forms of intervention, and debt relief, are absolutely necessary. Works Cited "Congo, Democratic Republic of." CIA World Factbook. 2005. Online at < http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/cg.html>. 'Congo (Zaire) Information." 1998. Art and Life in Africa. < http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/toc/countries/Congo_(Zaire).html>. 'Democratic Republic of Congo Data Profile." 2003. World Bank. Online at . Forests Monitor. 2001. "Democratic Republic of Congo." Sold Down the River. Online at < http://www.forestsmonitor.org/reports/solddownriver/drc.htm>. Gibbs, David N. The Political Economy of Third World Intervention. Chicago:…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Apartheid the Very Structure of

Conclusion This discussion has thoroughly explored the South African apartheid. We found that the apartheid created a nation that is deeply segregated amongst racial and social lines. We also found that the affects of apartheid reeked havoc with South Africa's economy. We concluded that the very structure of Apartheid was corrosive and thus led to the demise of the South African economy. Works Cited Apartheid," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003 http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Informative article on the definition of apartheid and the key players in the implementation of the system. A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=43131060 Contesting Apartheid: U.S. Activism, 1960-1987. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999. This source discussed the ways in which individuals and groups chose to protest the apartheid in South Africa. A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=11275319 Davis, R. Hunt, ed. Apartheid Unravels. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1991. Hunt takes a look at Mandela's release from prison and the end of apartheid in South Africa. A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=15076530 Eades, Lindsay Michie. The End of Apartheid in South Africa. Ed. Miller, Randall M. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. This source discusses the history of the Apartheid and the demise of the apartheid system. Ferreira, M., Kinsella, K. August 1997. "International Briefing: Aging Trends South Africa." U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of the Census. 12 April 2003. http://www.census.gov/ipc/prod/ib-9702.pdf. Report completed by the Bureau of the Census discusses the impact of Aids and HIV in South Africa. This is an informative report that includes statistics. Fielding, David. 2001. "Human rights, political instability and investment in South Africa: a note." Department of Economics, University of Leicester and Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford. http://www.econ.ox.ac.uk/CSAEadmin/workingpapers/pdfs/2001-04text.pdfInformative report on the risks involved in investing in South Africa. A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=98122096 Khan, Haider. The Political Economy of Sanctions Against Apartheid. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publications, 1989. This source discussed the economic impact that the apartheid had on South Africa. The book also goes into great detail about the structure of the apartheid system. Stals, Chris. 25 January 1999, "South Africa's financial and economic prospects for the next five years." Omega Investment Research. http://www.bis.org/review/r990205a.pdf Dr. Chris Stals is the Vice President of the South African Reserve Bank. This report was an overview of the South African economy and discussed economic trends in the nation. A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=8104898 Villa-Vicencio, Charles. Apartheid Is a Heresy. Ed. Gruchy, John W. De. Grand Rapids, MI W.B. Eerdmans,…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Somalia Social Perspective

Somalia- Social Perspective On the east cost of the African continent lays a strip of ground surrounded by the Indian Ocean, on one side and by exotic lands like Kenya and Ethiopia on the continental side. This is Somalia and, when hearing about it, most of us would be tempted to refer to the present situation and attributes that best…

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Country of Sudan Dependency Theory vs. Modernization

Country of Sudan Dependency theory vs. modernization theory Religion and Politics Ethnic-cultural divisions Women and development Agrarian reform and the politics of rural change Rapid urbanization and the politics of the urban poor The political economy of third world countries The African continent is considered to be one of the most important regions in the world at the moment in…

Pages: 10  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 6


Mau Mau Revolt in Kenya

¶ … Mau Mau - Contrasting Views of an African Rebellion John Lonsdale writes in the Journal of African History that while the legacy of the Mau Mau has lived in British memory "...as a symbol of African savagery," modern Kenyans are divided over whether the Mau Mau represented a "militant nationalism" against England, or just a kind of "tribalist…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Chicago  |  Sources: 7


Arts and Tanzania People

¶ … Art to Tanzania people There is much that goes into this perspective. Before the twentieth century, very few of African natives considered themselves as 'Africans'. The inception of the saying itself can be found in the interactions of civilizations of ancient times in the then Mediterranean. Greeks were among the first to imagine a three-pronged division of the…

Pages: 14  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Zulu Culture

Zulu Culture The past 200 years have been eventful ones for the Zulu people of southern Africa. From their modest origins in the early 19th century, the Zulus, under the leadership of Shaka, became the dominate force in southern Africa with more than half a million loyal followers. This rise to power was achieved through several wars of conquest that…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


South Africa Economy History of South Africa

South Africa Economy History of South Africa Political Situation of the Country South African Economy Key Macroeconomic Variables Justice/Judiciary System of the Country Environmental Concerns Health Concerns in South Africa Society/Family/Culture of the Nation Religion practiced in South Africa Education History of South Africa South Africa has been a land of people with multiple cultural backgrounds since it was inhabited.…

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African Art the Trade Center/Royal

Although this has all been proven false by more recent archeological investigations, it is a telling history of Britain's attempt to take indigenous peoples out of the historical mix. The people who built the Great Zimbabwe lived at the site and built it up from approximately 1100-1450 AD (Ampim). It is divided, primarily, into two different areas. These are the Hill enclosures and those in the valley. It is believed by many that the hill enclosures were the first seats of the kings, but they eventually moved to the Great Enclosure which is in the valley. This is a picture looking down on the valley enclosure. The Great enclosure iint he valley is also thought to have housed the harem of the king (Tyson) as the hill enclosures are thought to be the seat of religious importance and where the foundry and iron smelting took place. Another function of the area besides ruling the people of the region was to provide trade for those who came from different areas of the world to visit. It is not known if the city itself had traders that went to the far reaches of the East or if they received traders, probably a little bit of both, but there have been some interesting articles found at the site. Trade relates that "Celedon pottery from early in the period of the Chinese Ming Dynasty (1384-1644) is one of the most frequent imports found at Great Zimbabwe," and others have seen goods from other parts of the world. However, most of the artifacts that have been found in the area are from local artisans. These are more difficult to date (Trade) and they make it more difficult to find out exactly when events occurred at the site. Some have been noted though for their religious significance. This picture shows a soapstone bird, which is thought to be a religious symbol. Most of these types of artifacts are found in the hill enclosures, but there have been some found along the outer wall of the Great Enclosure. It is difficult to estimate the importance of the site to the people of the region. Because the zimbabwe's are unique in both their construction and mysterious purpose, they have a kind of mystical presence and provide a great deal of pride for the people of Zimbabwe (Ampim). The Shona-speaking residents of the country understand that they have occupied…

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Colonialism, Violence, Religion, Struggle for Liberation, Etc. In South Africa

South Africa Colonialism, Racism, and Violence: The History of the Struggle for Liberation in South Africa The colonialism that began to take over the world in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and that still arguably exists in certain economic as well as overtly political schemas today has had an enormous impact on the cultural and political development of much of the world. Colonial powers, generally European or "Western" in origin, have instilled systems of racial, religious, ethnic, and gender-based distinctions in countries that did not know this type of institutional prejudice prior to colonial periods, often making the native inhabitants of countries "others" in the span of a few generations. When the culture that is actually tied to a piece of land and the people that have occupied it for millennia suddenly becomes the minority culture, and/or is perceived as the inferior and improper culture, that culture and the people associated with it will necessarily warp and likely chafe. When the chaffing gets bad enough, revolutions result, and this is precisely what occurred in many African countries in the decades following the Second World War. The history of South Africa and its struggle for liberation makes for an especially interesting examination, given the many perspectives and groups that ultimately had stakes in the country's future. Different groups of European colonialists that didn't get along with each other, and much less with the black natives of the country, made for a long and complex struggle for true liberation that has only recently begun to demonstrate true signs of success. Colonial Influence The impact of colonialism on the cultures in South Africa is all but impossible to overstate. Certain native populations were decimated by successive waves of colonial conquerors and encroachers, or were relegated to mere shadows of what they once were and forced to live a life completely alien to that of a generation prior (USDOS 2011; Boddy-Evans 2011). Violence was an extremely common, vicious, and long-running part of colonialism and its resonating forces in the country that is now South Africa, comprised of an area that combines the ancestral homelands of a number of different peoples and cultures (USDOS 2011). As Frantz Fanon asserts in his book the Wretched of the Earth (2004), violence can have a unifying effect on otherwise disparate groups of people, and this occurred in South Africa to some extent up until the middle of the…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Slave Trade in and Between Europe and Africa Before and After 1550

¶ … Slave Trade in and Between Europe and Africa Before and After 1550 The objective of this work is to answer the questions of: (1) 'How was the slave trade practiced in Europe and Africa before 1550, in comparison to the slave trade in and between the two regions after 1550?' And (2) 'What were the main differences between…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 15


Africa's Armies Robert B. Edgerton Provides a

Africa's Armies Robert B. Edgerton provides a multi-faceted review of Africa's potential for discovery. The author explores from an "anthropological" perspective (supposedly) the "cultural and historical land of Africa" (Shaw, 2005), focusing primarily on the many armies of Africa and their role during many wars. These include the British and Zulu wars that took place during the 19th century and the Crimean War, the rebellion of Mau Mau and the warriors of the Asante that lived in West Africa (Shaw, 2005). In many instances Edgerton reviews each of these with regard to the "primitive" societies that engaged in these controversies, noting that Africa's military forces must explore "possible pathways to the future well-being" of the country (p. 8). The author notes that during colonial times and previous to this, many of the great warriors of Africa fought for honorable and courageous causes, however the author then suggests that after West Africa recaptured its freedom and independence from British settlers and other colonial settlers, the "African militias selfishly grabbled power" and because of this the country faced "catastrophic" and miserable results (p. vii; Shaw, 2005). Edgerton is a powerful anthropologist that explores the reasons for war during pre and post colonial times and compares them with the meaningless wars that followed and that still ravage Africa today. The author suggests that the militias in Africa would do better to support the people, their right to freedom and their right to basic human rights than to fight for causes that include ownership of land or power over other groups in Africa. Many of the modern wars and rebellions are more egotistical in nature, or that is what Edgerton leads the reader to believe. He suggests the militias of Africa are now no better than any other army of the world interested in dividing and conquering for selfish rather than for realistic reasons. Edgerton provides a very brief review of the culture of Africa and the reasons Africa went to war prior to its independence. Following this, the work offers a detailed description of the resistance African militia men have offered against other groups that would settle within the country. Topics that are covered are the same subjects one would expect from any anthropologist interested in understanding the cultural and historical reasons for the status of people living in Africa today. Edgerton fails to provide the reader with information that would define who…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Chicago  |  Sources: 1


South African: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle

South African: The Rise, Fall, And Struggle During South African Apartheid The political map of the African continent can be considered to be the result of the centuries of imperial colonialism expressed especially through the continuous pressures of the British, the French, or the 16th century Portuguese. Despite this background, most of the African societies developed in time a distinct…

Pages: 11  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Turabian  |  Sources: 7


South Africa Sources Of, Developments In, and

South Africa Sources of, Developments in, and Responses to National and Transnational Threats in Modern South Africa The second half of the twentieth century was a period of major development and progress for the African continent and many of the individual nations located on that continent. As colonial rule came to an end with World War II or shortly thereafter…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7

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