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American History the United States

This was also the region where black slavery intensified, even regulated for its economic efficiency and benefit to the cotton farmers. The Trans-Mississippi west expansion was accomplished right after the Louisiana Purchase, wherein an expedition headed by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark was conducted to survey the territory bought by the new American government. In this stage of the U.S. expansion, the new government encountered numerous hindrances due to strong opposition from the Indians, specifically the Sioux tribe, who were the first inhabitants of the Americas. Thus, apart from the problem of black slavery, another social problem that the expansion had brought to society was the continued oppression and antagonism against the Indians. The inclusion of Oregon and Texas in the American territory was also another step towards expansion that led to the emergence of greater division between the north and the south. North's opposition to black slavery prevalent in the south caused this social conflict. However, this stage in the U.S. expansion was a necessary move to ensure that America would not meet the same antagonism and territorial vulnerability it had during the British occupation. The last stage of the expansion was culminated through the Mexican War (1846), wherein America forced the country and its citizenry to surrender its territory to the new American government. This occupation of Mexico became America's final step towards establishing United States as a politico-economic superpower through strong and strategic territorial lands.…

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American Revolution New American History

3 Wood, The American Revolution, 126 Equality and the fact that 'all men are created equal' were stressed a lot in the Declaration of Independence. The founders of the nation itself did not go on to act on the words that they had written. In the end, the ultimate result was that people realized that they were not slaves and they were also citizens of the country. Therefore, another reason why American Revolution was important is that it provided the basis on which racial segregation was removed. The American Revolution also gave rise to a cultural and social awareness for the people. It is clear that the people did not want to belong to the British empire. America originally had always been considered a free land. Ironically enough, the British themselves came to the country so they could let go of their own norms and restrictions. 4 We see that the American Revolution did consist of any replacement of ruling class like the Russian Revolution or any reign of terror that occurred in the French Revolution. It was seen that the Revolutionary spirit was present in every American and led to a great change in the societal and cultural ways of the nation. People begin to be more aware of their rights regarding slavery and voting. Religious minorities and women in the country were not afraid to speak for their rights. Even though the changes for women and colored people did not happen instantaneously, the revolution paved way for the start of this abolitionist movement. It was seen that land inheritance e laws were eliminated right then. Prior to independence, English law stated that the land would be passed down to the eldest son of the family. 4 "Paul Johnson Explains America." The American Enterprise, Septemer 22, 2013. Due to this reason, land and wealth in the society was present in the hands of some people in the society. This led to class distributing and the very bad treatment of the poor in the society. As mentioned earlier, the revolution also made it possible for the poor man to get his rights. Also, the religious life also changed such that the Anglican Church did not stay in America. During this time, religious tolerance and an increase in underground religions also changed. It was also seen that American art, architecture and literature all flourished during this time. The concept of family…

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Presidents of USA

American Presidents The United States has had 43 presidents since George Washington took office in 1789. He served until 1797, was married to Martha Washington, and he died in 1799. His vice-president was John Adams for both terms he served. Washington's major contributions were being the first president, and developing a strong sense of foreign policy. He is remembered as "the father of his country" and a Revolutionary war general. Next came John Adams from 1797 to 1801. He was married to Abigail, and he died in 1826. His vice-president was Thomas Jefferson, and his main accomplishments were managing the war between the French and the English without the U.S. becoming involved, building up America's naval defenses, and he is remembered for being the first president to live in the White House. The third president was Thomas Jefferson, from 1801 to 1809. He was married to Martha, but she died before he took office. He died in 1826. His vice-president was Aaron Burr until 1805 and George Clinton during his second term. His main accomplishments were cutting the national debt, acquiring the Louisiana Purchase, and he is remembered for sending Lewis and Clark on their journey to explore the west, and for writing the Declaration of Independence. James Madison served from 1809 to 1817. He was married to Dolly, and died in 1836. His vice-presidents were George Clinton and Elbridge Gerry, who died in office. His main accomplishments were declaring war on Britain, and leading the country to victory and he is remembered as the "father of the Constitution." James Monroe served from 1817 to 1825. He was married to Elizabeth and he died in 1831. His vice-president was Daniel Tompkins. His main accomplishments were choosing a strong cabinet, and for helping create the Missouri Compromise that allowed slavery in certain areas. He is most remembered for the Monroe Doctrine on foreign policy. John Quincy Adams served from 1825 to 1829. He was married to Louisa, and he died in 1848. His vice-president was John Calhoun. His accomplishments included beginning a building program of canals and highways, and for attempting to bring more art and culture to the nation. He is most remembered for serving in the House of Representatives after being president. Andrew Jackson served from 1829 to 1837. He was married to Rachel, and he died in 1845. His nickname was "Old Hickory,"……

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Culture and the United States

Economy, Energy and Infrastructure The United States of America has remarkable mineral and agricultural resources. In the past, the country was almost self-reliant. However, the continuous and escalating consumption of energy has made America reliant on certain imports. Yet, it is the largest producer of both electrical and nuclear energy in the world. It is also recognized as the chief…

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American History, 1820-1920 Five Positive

The doctrine stressed that the United States has the capacity and the right to defend the foreign policy of its neighboring countries as well as its internal affairs from European countries if the interest of the United States so required. The initial motivation behind this doctrine was positive in the sense that the United States offered its support and consideration in case of foreign or domestic disturbance of its neighboring countries. However in time, due to the volatility of international politics the United States where soon seen as interventionists in the internal affairs of its neighboring countries. Therefore cases have been in Mexico or Cuba in which the United States intervened and supported politically or otherwise different factions of the political environment. This approach brought about negative feelings towards the United States, one such example being Mexico. At the same time such an approach provided tensions between the United States and other European countries that had interest in Latin America at that time. The beginning of the First World War in Europe greatly affected the foreign policy of the United States. This is because the United States and the European countries, in particular Great Britain, were important allies to the U.S. The strong commitments between the United States and its European allies demanded that the U.S. support the war effort against Germany throughout the 1914-1918 global war. Furthermore as a result of the First World War the Great Depression affected the United States at the end of the 1920s. Despite the fact that the United States had entered the first world war as a prosperous nation, after the end of the war the European continent was bankrupt and therefore no longer a viable trading partner. Under these conditions the commercial relationship between Europe and the U.S. soon changed and became less advantageous for the American states. In doing this resulted in a decrease of transactions and therefore a decline in trade. Notwithstanding the support provided to the Europeans, the U.S. was unable to regroup and focus on different trading areas and partners, which resulted in part to the Great Depression of the late 30s. The issue of slavery is yet another negative aspect in the American Society of the 19th century. Despite the fact that that slavery was officially abolished as the "peculiar institution" it marked generations of African-American families in discriminatory actions and retaliation for decades. Today race is…

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Globalization's Effect on the United

The United States has been a leader in encouraging the cross-border deals for the advancement of domestic opportunities. While there are numerous opportunities to derive from the inter-relations of business opportunities with other countries, the United States often faces fundamental challenges in balancing the interest of the national security with the national economy. The September 11, 2001 attack has made…

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United States,1776-1786 Previous to 1776,

In the year to follow the British minister decided to send an army in every colony to defeat the revolt. Generals Carleton and Burgoyne commanded the northern army which arrived in St. Lawrence. Their objective was to chase all the colonists in Canada. In the South, the British army was commanded by Generals Clinton and Cornwallis. Their army was defeated in the Charleston, but their commanders managed to escape and joined the main British army. The main army in New York had was commanded by General William Howe. It tried to negotiate with the colonists, but by that time the Americans decided that they want to be independent. "Howe defeated Washington's army on Long Island in August, and captured New York City in September, and pursued Washington's disintegrating army as it fled across New Jersey in November and December." (Stephen Conway, page 4) In the meantime, General Clinton successful conquered Newport from Rhode Island. Although England was celebrating the defeat, Washington did not give up the fight and in 1777 he defeated a British army in Princeton. Germain decided to reapply the plan of 1776 campaigns. New England was seen by the British as the main location for the American resistance. In this new campaign England chase to suppress this region, thinking that like this the rebellion will end. In 1777, Howe decided that to defeat Washington is more important than to help General Burgoyne. He took the main British army, leaving Clinton with almost no defense to go forward to Hudson Valley. Although Howe won the battle at Brandywine Creek, and conquered Philadelphia Burgoyne was defeated by Americans, and he admitted defeat at Saratoga on October 17. This victory gave Americans the trust they needed to go forward and win the war. Also, it brought the French to the colonists' side. One year after France joined the colonists' side, Spanish signed an alliance with the Americans. With the French interfering, the British government was obliged to send its armies to defend the Caribbean colonies. In 1780 the British army conquered Charleston and made peace with the south. But they were soon obliged to march towards north, due to the differences between the Loyalists and Patriots. In the North Washington's army was expecting them and as a result the British needed to surrender. The Declaration of Independence was signed on 4th July 1776 although the war was not finished. The…

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United States Engaged in a World Wide

¶ … United States engaged in a world wide war against terrorism in the wake of September 11th, it is believed that we have become much more isolationist in our economic and foreign policies. Many view this as a reactionary step to the events of September 11th, however this view obscures a longstanding and growing set of dysfunctional relationships that…

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American History Assessment the United States Was

American History Assessment The United States was reluctant to enter World War II. What term have historians used to describe the American position? Separatism Isolationism Federalism Neutrality In his War Message of April 1917, President Woodrow Wilson said, "The world must be made safe for democracy...." To what was he referring? The right for countries to engage in battle The fight for international peace and justice The privilege of people to choose their government The liberation of prisoners of war The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was significant for which reasons? had to fight the war on two fronts The attack caused the U.S. To enter the war The Pacific fleet was seriously damaged All of the above e. A and b f. b and c Why did Italy change sides during World War II? a. Mussolini lost power b. Germans occupied Rome c. The Allies captured Sicily They didn't want to fight in the war e. All of the above f. None of the above Questions 5 -- 31 are from NCDPI North Carolina Test of U.S. History, Form F. Fall 2009 5. What is the significance of Pinckney's Treaty (1795) with Spain? a. It gave the United States the right to navigate the Mississippi. b. It gave the United States most-favored nation status. c. It allowed Lewis and Clark to explore the Louisiana Territory. d. It moved the Shawnee to the Indiana Territory. 6. What impact did the Battle of New Orleans have on the United States in 1815? a. It weakened the strength of the U.S. military. b. It resolved the issue of British impressment of U.S. ships. c. It caused the United States to lose access to the Gulf port. d. It boosted a sense of patriotism and unity among U.S. citizens. Why can the Emancipation Proclamation be seen as a diplomatic document? a. It made it hard for foreign nations to recognize and support the Confederacy. b. It warned European nations to stay out of affairs in the Western Hemisphere. c. It called on England and France to sell weapons to the Union army. d. It encouraged France to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States. 8. Which action abolished slavery in the United States? a. Suspension of habeas corpus b. Passage of the Thirteenth Amendment c. Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 d. Delivery of the Gettysburg Address 9. Which of…

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United States History on April

The perceived need for a more powerful and complete federal government led, in 1787, to the calling of a convention, to consider revising the Articles. That Convention, meeting in Philadelphia, chose, instead, to write a Constitution, which was ratified by eleven States in 1788. In 1789, the Constitution of the United States was put into operation, and George Washington was elected the first President of the United States. Centralization proved difficult for many people to accept. America had been settled in large part by Europeans who had left their homelands to escape religious or political oppression, as well as the rigid economic patterns of the Old World that locked individuals into a particular station in life regardless of their skill or energy. These settlers highly prized personal freedom, and they were wary of any power especially that of government that might curtail individual liberties. The diversity of the new nation was also a formidable obstacle to unity. The people who were empowered by the Constitution in the 18th century to elect and control their central government represented different origins, beliefs, and interests. Most had come from Britain, but Sweden, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Prussia, Poland, and many other countries also sent immigrants to the New World. Their religious beliefs were varied and, in most cases, strongly held. There were Anglicans, Roman Catholics, Calvinists, Huguenots, Lutherans, Quakers, Jews, and many more. Economically and socially, Americans ranged from the land-owning aristocracy to slaves from Africa and indentured servants working off debts. Of all the issues confronting the Constitutional Convention, none was more contentious than the issue of slavery. There had already started to develop a divergence between North and South, based on economic realities. Southern landowners were unwilling to relinquish their prerogatives over the slaves and a compromise was finally reached which prevented Congress from banning the import of slaves before 1808. In that year, Congress acted to ban further imports, and any new slaves would have to be descendants of ones that were currently in the U.S. Two other issues that confronted the early Americans were the fiscal policies, proposed by Alexander Hamilton, and the location of the new capital of the U.S. Hamilton, as Secretary of the Treasury, was frustrated in his attempts to gain acceptance from southern leaders for one the key provisions of his fiscal proposal, assumption of state debts by the federal government, which would doom all…

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Manifest Destiny the United States Has Often

Manifest Destiny The United States has often been accused of promoting the image of exceptional values and moral norms. Indeed, the fact that the U.S. is the result of a historical context in which the forces of imperialism were defeated at the hands of the revolutionary armies offered historians, politicians, journalists, and even common people the base for constructing a…

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Slavery in the United States Was Largely

Slavery in the United States was largely a result of pulling economic factors. When the colonists originally arrived in America and, later, established a new nation, they were faced with needing to find a means of creating both personal and national economic stability. The greatest advantage that this new continent offered was space. With space, large scale agriculture could occur. Yet, in order to operate a large-scale, profitable agricultural venture in a time when technology was limited, there was a demand for cheap labor. Thus, the conditions were set for the use of African slaves. Further, as demand for such agricultural products as tobacco and cotton, which were the main production crops of the south's plantations, the need for slave labor increased. As a result, slavery in the United States was largely a manner of supply, demand, agricultural efficiency and lack of technology. Since large scale agriculture was limited to the south, slavery had the unintended effect of dividing the nation. In the north, industry was the main source of economic income and did……

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American Foreign Policy Since Its Inception

American Foreign Policy In his farewell address, given to Congress on September 17, 1796, the father of the country, George Washington warned his fellow Americans against "the insidious wiles of foreign influence, & #8230;since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of Republican Government." (Washington) When discussing American foreign policy since the inception…

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American History From the Colonial

It was a terrible legacy, killing hundreds of thousands on both sides, and it showed completely new generations of Americans how horrible war could be. However, it also showed how strong the country was, because the country survived a bitter Civil War, and still managed to prosper and grow, affecting the world economy as well as the national economy. The Civil War showed how other countries, such as Great Britain, were dependent on our crops such as cotton, and began to show our influence on the world. The country would be far different had the outcome been different, and the economy of the country probably would not have grown nearly as quickly, because the South was an agrarian society, while the North was more industrialized. If the South had won, American might not have made the technological advances we did in the latter half of the 20th century, and if the war had not happened at all, the South may never have modernized, and it may have taken much longer to free the slaves. Finally, the fourth most important event of this period was the continued immigration of foreigners into our country. Our country is built on not only English traditions, but also the traditions of the millions of immigrants who have come to the country to better themselves. America is truly a melting pot, and the country would be far different if the founders and governors of the country had curtailed immigration and created an isolationist state. Immigrants populated the country from the beginning. They fought in the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, they worked in the factories of the industrial revolution, and in the farmlands of the Midwest, they built the railroads and the cities, and they brought their own unique blend of their culture and beliefs to our American culture. Immigration is the foundation of a country that wants to remain free, and without the immigrants, America would be a bland and unenlightened country. We share food, religion, and outlook with the immigrants in our daily lives, from ethnic restaurants to Chinatowns and other ethnic enclaves across the country. Immigration helped build the country, and without it, our country would be a lot less successful, and a lot less interesting. In conclusion, any one of these events was extremely significant in American history. Each one changed America in numerous ways, and each, if they had not occurred, would…

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American History the Reconstruction Exacerbated

5. The major technologies that helped propel the American economy forward after the Civil War include the railroads and its related industries like steel and coal; and the development of the automobile. The railroad industry linked together otherwise isolated parts of the nation, helping make rural areas more economically prosperous. However, during the initial development of the automobile, roads and cars were not meaningful to the vast majority of Americans. Similarly, the booming textile industry touched Eastern seaboard regions but failed to make an impact on the Western territories. Therefore, although the rapid industrial expansion of the United States was a positive step forward in terms of economic growth and political empowerment, the industrial revolution had negative environmental and social consequences. Farming changed, and some farmers were driven out of business due to the technological developments in agriculture. The rise of big business translated into the demise of small businesses and the end of artisan trades. Regardless, the industrial revolution was a worldwide phenomenon that the United States could hardly ignore. 6. Capitalism has obvious benefits: a free market economy enables any person to become an entrepreneur, to capitalize on his or her creative ideas. On the other hand, the free market economy is inherently exploitative. The most notable problem with capitalism can be seen in the American educational and health care systems. In capitalist America, tax breaks are low for businesses to promote enterprise but social services are likewise low. The European model is in many ways preferable: although taxes are high, individual citizens receive a better deal on education and do not have to face hospital bills on the level of thousands of dollars per day. 7. On the race to Industrial supremacy, the poor people suffered the most. For the most part, the poor were also racial minorities. Therefore, the wealthy whites benefited from industrial growth because of corporate ownership. The trickle-down effect has yet to be observed except in rare cases. The rich do get richer, and the poor remain poor. 8. The growth of American cities is directly related to the rapid rise of industrialism for many reasons. Factories blossomed in regions near urban centers, drawing many citizens from rural areas in the hopes of earning more money. 9. Cities also attracted more minority populations and in the early twentieth century, drew immigrants from abroad. Therefore, the rise of cities substantially changed the American culture,…

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2nd Continental Congress Attempted to

In such a setting, it became virtually impossible to modify the Articles, since all members could not agree. Last, the final weakness of the Articles of Confederation is represented by an expansion of the previous limitation, in the meaning that the Congress had the power to create new laws, but could only enforce them upon receiving a majority of 9 votes out of 13 (Kelly). Having recognized the shortages of the Articles of Confederation, representatives of the U.S. states met up to adjust the Articles. However, the delegates ended up creating a new document that would better address the issues identified within the United States. The Constitutional Convention was as such formed from educated men, better educated than the average American citizens, and most of them had a strong background by having fought in the American Revolution. These men shared common visions and the intellectual capacity to see them implemented, but they also encountered differences in beliefs and perceptions. They nevertheless formed the Constitutions, which remains through today, the cornerstone of the American society. In terms of the specific makeup of the framers of the Constitution, these include, it has to be noted that some of the more notable representatives include George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton or Benjamin Franklin. Thomas Jefferson did not attend the Convention, having then been delegated as ambassador in France; upon return, he revealed some concerns regarding specific elements in the Constitution. The priorities of the delegates in the Constitutional Convention were multiple and the delegates emphasized most on the issues in which they believed the most. Some for instance placed an increased emphasis on education, whereas others focused on slavery, the rights to vote, the extent of the power of the government, the individuality of the states, the committee to be advising the president or the freedom of the press. Thomas Jefferson was the leader of the Antifederalists and he militated for the rights of the state, whereas the Federalist, led by Alexander Hamilton, militated for more rights for the government. Thomas Jefferson envisioned a country led by a rather weak government, with the primary concern of representing the United States in foreign affairs; Jefferson's ideal was that of creating an agrarian country, based on production and power of the people. On the other hand, the approach implemented by Hamilton envisioned a strong government, which became involved in all state affairs, both within the…

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American History Should Remind Us

An abuse of power would be the consequence should the United States enforce an Iraqi regime change. Not only would the U.S. acts a world bully; it would abuse the privilege of righteous use of American tax dollars. Too much money is already spent on the military-industrial complex. Perhaps our fair nation should devote these self-same dollars to the eradication of AIDS, to the elimination of poverty, or to the promotion of positive education. Money could be better spent on humanitarian causes instead of on contrived regime changes. A plethora of altruistic organizations need the funding that would be unnecessarily spent on fabricating another puppet world leader. At the core of the problem with United States-backed and orchestrated regime changes is the illusory connection between the current "war on terrorism" and Saddam Hussain. Fear mongering is an effective tactic to spur the American public into supporting military action in Iraq. Ousting Saddam Hussain is appealing on many levels, especially following the disastrous events of September 11, 2001. The general public still recalls the horrors of that day and the media has done an effective job in promoting the idea that Iraq is involved. Perhaps the Iraqi government was and is connected with Al Qaeda. What then? There certainly exists a real and present danger. Not only do terrorist groups like Al Qaeda pose a threat to the United States and sister nations, but also enemy regimes like that in Iraq may possess weapons of mass destruction. These weapons can potentially wipe out the entire human race; their presence threatens the globe. The United States does have the responsibility to take action against nuclear proliferation and the possession of biological weapons. But the United States also has the responsibility to act with caution and conscience, always keeping peace and human rights in the forefront. Democracy and peace can be encouraged without an aggressive and forced regime change. The United States should serve as an example to the world without falling into the arrogance trap.…

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American History Your Highnesses Have

" (Turner 114). Jefferson's brand of Democracy was in many ways a revolt against the former ways imposed by the British. As Americans gradually expanded west they routinely came into conflict with native tribes. "In 1824 President James Monroe wrote congress concerning the notion that all Indians should be 'removed' to the areas west of the Mississippi River." (Brinkley 154). By 1838 the evacuation order was given and federal soldiers were sent in to forcibly remove twenty-thousand Cherokee Indians, among others, from Georgian lands all the way to Oklahoma. The path came to be known as "the trail of tears," for almost a quarter of the Cherokee that set-out died along the way from disease, exhaustion, or even starvation. The former Cherokee lands of Northwest Georgia still retain much of their original beauty, but they still mark the notorious starting point of this terrible incident in American History. Jefferson was one of the first to begin the abolitionist movement in America. Many of the original authors of the Constitution thought that the practice should be banned upon the founding of the country. However, the economic dependence on slavery in the southern states created one of many rifts between the North and the South. Meanwhile, the abolitionist movement gained increasing approval in the northern states. Americans continued to spread westward in search of their fortunes. "Pioneer spirit was endemic by 1841 when John Bidwell shepherded the first wagon train along the Oregon Trail from Independence, Missouri, to California." (Brinkley 170). Many pioneers were later to follow, and in 1850, when California was official granted statehood Bidwell himself became a U.S. congressman. Once gold was discovered in California the Oregon Trail became the primary route for settlers to reach the west. However, the Americans were not the first people of European descent to settle what is now California. "It was the Spanish who began settlements in the state in 1769. Most settlers were religious missionaries sent to try to convert Native Americans to Christianity." (Gutman 19). At their height twenty-one missions dotted the coast of California, and many can still be visited today along what is known as the "El Camino Real," or Royal Highway (Gutman 19). Unfortunately, the thirst for fortune and adventure held by many Americans, and the similarities present in many of their ideals were not enough to hold the divided nation together. The war between the North and…

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American History Sam Adams. Franklin. Jefferson. Alexander

American History Sam Adams. Franklin. Jefferson. Alexander Hamilton. Hancock. Clearly, each of these individuals are related in that they all participated in the drafting of the Declaration of Independence which ultimately led to the American fight for independence from England, and the formation of the new United States Government. They were all instrumental in creating the document and the philosophy behind it, and they were leaders in the new government. Adams and Jefferson served as presidents, Franklin served as a diplomat and patriot, and Hamilton and Hancock served in the government. Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury, and Hancock served as the President of the Continental Congress. The period was before, during, and after the Revolutionary War, and all of these men were key players in the development of the new country and the laws that govern it. In addition, because they were public figures, they motivated others to support American independence. Today, these are some of the most well-known and respected members of early American society. These men all stood up for what they believed in, created a new government, and then made it work, and they are the foundation of American freedom and democracy. Pontiac. Powhatan. Tecumseh. Pequot War. Iroquois. All of these items relate to Native Americans, especially their early treatment by the English settlers, who drove them from their native lands, destroyed their way of life, and led them to revolt in retaliation for their harsh treatment. Chief Pontiac was a leader of an Ottawa band that rebelled against the British in the area around the Great Lakes. Powhatan was the leader of the Powhatan people of Virginia, one of the first tribes to make contact with the white settlers from England, and the father of Pocahontas, who married an Englishman and traveled to England with him. Tecumseh was the leader of the Shawnee and led Tecumseh's War against the United States after he disagreed with massive land sales that took away native lands. The Pequot War was another skirmish between whites and natives, with……

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American History Final Exam Stages

Turner lived at a time before a large middle class existed or the U.S. had become a consumer society, so he naturally thought of pioneers as farmers and ranchers who moved the agricultural frontier to the West. In his era, even though the country was rapidly industrializing, the majority of people still lived on farms and in small towns. For…

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United States, at the Beginning

South Carolina did not want to act alone, however, which caused them to move forward somewhat cautiously, and with ample planning. Before Lincoln could even take office, secession rallies began erupting across the Southern states. Because of their immense supporters, the elected secession delegates of South Carolina decided to move ahead earlier than planned, on December 20, 1860 (451). The following year in February, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Texas and Louisiana followed suit (451). Lincoln's Presidential Inaugural Address was meant to calm the fears of Southerners, along with smooth over the immediate threats to peace, while buying time in the hopes that a resolution could be worked out (454). He attempted to calm a fear that "seems to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a Republican Administration their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered...never been any reasonable cause for such" (Inaugural Address). He continued declaring that, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists...I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so" (Inaugural Address). In his closing statements, Lincoln stated that In 'your' hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in 'mine', is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail 'you'. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. 'You' have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect, and defend it." (Inaugural Address) which was seen to some southerners as a threat of violence against their secession. Many felt it was a "potent mixture of firmness and generosity" while others chose to interpret his speech as further evidence that the secessions must continue (454). Regardless of how it was construed, Lincoln's election was no sooner declared official before the breakdown of America as it was known began. Again, there were many contributing factors to the Civil War. Slavery was the hot topic, and the citizenship of "free slaves," or other African-Americans was the cause for much animosity between the Northern states and the Southern states from 1855 until the Civil War, and beyond. The Dred Scott case, the Kansas conflicts that were always making headlines, and the raid on Harper's Ferry - each of these events added to the rising tensions…

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Gamut of Subjects Related to

While the film addresses race, the filmmakers also touch upon class and gender issues as well. In Chapter 11 of A People's History, Zinn discusses the robber baron phenomenon and the beginnings of what would become an essentially corrupt system of capitalism in the United States. Workers' unions and labor movements impacted ideologically by the writings of Karl Marx helped to raise awareness of worker exploitation and the need for organization as self-empowerment (Zinn). One of the reasons Americans continue to fear words like socialism is because the corporate oligarchy that began with the robber barons has systematically controlled the media, thus casting a negative shadow on labor rights movements. Magazines like Mother Jones overtly embrace a socialist ideology that provides intelligent counterpoint to unbridled capitalism, but such periodicals are deemed fringe in spite of their astute attention to detail and scholarship. For example, Gilson charts exactly who in America earns income in the top one percent bracket. According to Gilson, "most Americans have flatlined," whereas the superrich grow exponentially richer due to their crafty use of market economics (1). In a different chart for Mother Jones, Drum and Gilson debunk myths that are perpetuated by the mainstream media. Because the mainstream media are owned by corporate conglomerates, it is in the best interest of the editorial staff to promote ideologies that support the success of its senior management team. As with the corporate control of textbooks, the control of the media restricts Americans' access to real information. The Internet contains too many sources, including too many unreliable sources, for the average person to sort through. Relying on what textbooks and the media provide means continuing to be brainwashed. Chapter 7 in Lies My Teacher Told Me is about the myth of the "Land of Opportunity." Sure, there are still immigrant success stories even today. The vast majority of Americans, no matter where they were born, remain stuck at a certain tier of society. Getting ahead is not about hard work. There is a myth of meritocracy, which is promulgated by American textbooks (Loewen). This myth is particularly damaging, in that it sends the message that anyone who is not rich is somehow not worthy of consideration. Indeed, the "little people," as Leona Helmsley calls them, are the ones footing the American tax bill and are still reminded that their efforts working two jobs for minimum wage was not good…

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Foreign Policy of the United States

¶ … United States Digressions with Current American Foreign Policy Our Nation's cause has always been larger than our Nation's defense. We fight, as we always fight, for a just peace -- a peace that favors liberty. We will defend the peace against the threats from terrorists and tyrants. We will preserve the peace by building good relations among the…

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United States Government Is a Republic, Formed

United States Government is a Republic, formed on democratic principles. This means that the United States operates under a system of democracy that is "for the people, by the people." Citizens of the United States are participants in their democracy by way of the electoral processes that allow them to elect members to the House of Representatives, the United States Senate, and the president and his vice president. The president's term is limited to two four-year terms, to ensure that no elected official ever has such a taste of power for the office of the President of the United States - an office that has come to represent one of the most powerful people not just in the United States, but in the world; such that he, or she, might succumb to the forces of evil and attempt to hold that office forever as a dictator or absolute ruler. At the same time, those officials elected to the House of Representatives and to the United States Senate can serve for unlimited lengths of time, so long as they are elected by their constituents in the states they represent. There are branches to the United States Government; the Executive Branch, which serves as the law enforcement branch, having under its auspices the United States military forces. It is comprised of the office of the president, vice president and his staff at the White House. The Legislative Branch, which is the law making branch of the government comprised of the House of Representatives and the United States Senate; and the Judicial Branch, which is inclusive of the court systems throughout the country, culminating in the final authority of the Supreme Court for those cases for which appeals have been successfully perfected to that level of decision. The judicial branch is the final decision in the legislative and enforcement processes begun under the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Government. The Supreme Court has the final authority in reviewing and striking down legislation that stands in conflict with the rights enumerated under the Constitution of the United States. Justice are appointed to the Supreme Court by the President, although they must……

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United States Manifest Destiny

Manifest Destiny United States: Manifest Destiny Comment on the relationship seen in the growth of U.S. borders against the backdrop of the siege of native people's land. Was this siege of native land at the expense of native people survival and identity? Is this a justified price for progress? Although the United States never had a formal empire, like England or Rome, it could be argued that the doctrine of Manifest Destiny was a kind of imperialism, as the native people living in what became the U.S. Western and Southwestern states saw their culture systematically eradicated by the military and political power of the U.S. federal government. Ironically, the faith in the right of the United States to acquire new territory, regardless of who was living it on before, was expressed in the language of freedom and the U.S.'s special quality, in contrast to past, European systems of government: "our national birth was the beginning of a new history...we are the nation of progress, of individual freedom, of universal enfranchisement (O'Sullivan, 1839) But this belief that America's unique democratic spirit was used to justify colonizing the Mexican province of Texas with North American populations, because of American "enterprise and……

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US Patriot Act

USA Patriot Act The purpose of this paper is to research the "USA Patriot Act" and examine exactly what the implications are in the implementation of this act should another terrorist event such as 911 occur. Restrictive laws have been passed at crucial times in the history of the United States before the passing of the U.S.A. Patriot Act. Although the laws within this Act are intrusive upon the privacy of United States Citizens, there are those who do not mind the restrictiveness of the Act in exchange for safety. This is understandable to a certain extent however one must keep in mind that the Constitutional rights vested in each individual in the United States has been tread upon to a great extent by the U.S.A. Patriot Act. Disempowerment of the U.S. Constitution: One example is the steps that have been taken in searching homes and offices without rendering prior notice, the use of roving wiretaps listening in on telephone conversations, monitoring computers and mail and all of this being done without the benefit of a warrant signed by a judge who has been convinced that there is a need of this type action in a specific case. The random violation of the rights of privacy vested in the individual's Constitutional rights has never seen the scope of what the U.S.A. Patriot Act has deemed to be legal. For the sake of security the minor liberties being taken with our liberty may culminate in larger compromises than the individual originally conceived to be worth the giving up of. II. Centralization of Law Enforcement The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, or the U.S.A. Patriot Act was passed on October 26, 2001 by Congress and signed by President Bush the exact same day. The Act is written in ten parts and exceeds 300 pages in length. The Justice Department stated the following regarding the Act: Within hours of passage of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, we made use of its provisions to begin enhanced information sharing between the law-enforcement and intelligence communities. We have used the provisions allowing nationwide search warrants for e-mail and subpoenas for payment information. And we have used the ACT to place those who access the Internet through cable companies on the same footing as everyone else." III. Expansion of Scope: Terrorism & Domestic Terrorism While assuring…

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Geography of the United States Is One

Geography of the United States is one of the most diverse of any continent or country of the world. It has become the focus of many songs, from "This Land is Your Land," to "America," in a way that topography seldom is in national anthems and patriotic hymns. The beauty and richness of the land's diversity is matched, of course,…

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Environmental Ethics US Government and

The 1930s brought about a strange environmental phenomenon called the Dust Bowl, which spread over several states that had been agriculturally important to the United States, and wreaked havoc on the country at a time when many people were suffering due to the Great Depression. The Department of Agriculture created for the promotion of farming in 1862, had become much…

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How the United States Can Mitigate the Growing Influence of China on the African Continent

China's Influence In Africa Though the United States remain the sole true global superpower following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, over the subsequent two decades China has risen to fill some of the subsequent power vacuum, particularly in regions where the United States has never maintained a substantial presence. This is nowhere…

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United States Should Be Against Immigration

Immigration: Why the United States Should Be Opposed to It Today, the U.S. plays host to millions of both legal and illegal immigrants. Those who oppose the current levels of immigration include but they are not limited to labor advocates and nativists. While labor advocates are concerned that some U.S. citizens could lose their jobs to immigrants, nativists are convinced…

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Mill and U.S. Constitution None

By the beginning of the Civil War, there were over four million slaves in the U.S. And this institution was more profitable than ever. Even after it was officially destroyed in 1865, it continued in everything but name, usually in the form of sharecropping and tenant farming in the South that left most blacks in absolute poverty. Although Thomas Jefferson…

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United States of America Initially

When Washington left the post as President he urged his fellow countrymen to remain free from any other country, to prevent any influential rise of any political parties that could ruin all that the American people had fought and died for, the run of isolationism continued for many years until America was strong enough to defeat any country that attempted to have an influence upon its affairs (Cole, 1991) Furthermore they withdrew from any political arena in the official capacity, it must be remembered that American Privateers still helped the French during the Peninsula Wars with Great Britain (Cole, 1991) When the United States of America decided to take on an Isolationist role they took it upon themselves to step out of the world, they took a non-involvement attitude towards all affairs that concerned the Old world of Europe, its wars and petty entanglements. (Cole, 1991) The United States felt that their interests as seen above were to remain at home to look after themselves and remain in many ways aloof from the children of Europe, this view they believed would lead them to freedom and a true democratic stance that would be seen to through peaceful means rather than the abject force of militaristic involvement (Cole, 1991) It is seen that America became isolationists after the revolution yet it is clear that this view was clearly a part of their life when the old settlers came to the New world (Cole, 1991) References Anonymous (2002) The American Revolution[online] accessed at http://ragz-international.com/american_revolution.htm Cole W.S. (1991) My History is America's History……

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American History From the Origins

The Company's monopoly on the imported tea coming to America had infuriated American businessmen and traders, and this again resulted to a resistance, this time in the form of the Boston Tea Party 9 led by Samuel Adams), a group that expressed their opposition by attacking the cargo ships of the British India Company, and throwing out the cargos of tea into the sea. This rebellious and courageous act had disturbed the British government greatly, and indeed, the over taxation and unequal treatment between the Americans and the British had resulted to a greater resistance by the Americans, and the Revolution against British invasion began. It is evident that before the Revolution, the major problem of the Americans had been economic and social in nature, which is illustrated in the problems of over-taxation (economic), and inequality and injustice to Americans (social). After the Revolution, Americans began re-building their nation through the implementation and enforcement of governmental regulations to maintain peace and stability in the country. In this phase of the American reconstruction, political problems arose as a result disputes between after the formation, development, and enforcement of the new American Constitution. However, the main problem encountered in this phase is the conflict between two political parties, between Alexander Hamilton's Federalist Party and Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican (or Anti-Federalist) Party. This political conflict will later result to a bigger problem, since the conflict between the Federalists (which strongly supports Great Britain) and anti- Federalists will result to the War of 1812, which is a war between the Americans and Great Britain one again, in the latter's effort to exert control over American territory. Although neither the British nor the Americans had won the war, America had prevented another invasion from coming through the 1812 War, and after this event, America had once again reconstructed their country's social, political, and economic organization. However, as the War of 1812 has come to a close, Americans had experienced another problem, this time in the social aspect of the people's lives, as the number of Americans practicing the Christian religion lessened, while new, emerging religions had become the newest forms of philosophies and beliefs of the citizens, such as Mormons and evangelical religions such as Seventh Day Adventists, Methodists, and Baptists. Social transformation is under way, and evidently, America had experienced a social revival and dichotomy after the War of 1812. It is evident that the…

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Japan and the United States

The result was a rapid growth in GNP and a swift rise as a major world economic power (CIA, 2004a). However, Japan must import much of its basic needs. It does not have the land to grow all the food needed for its population and has few natural resources for raw materials and fuel (CIA, 2004a). The United States is the most significant world economic force (CIA, 2004a) but has built its economic base more gradually, over several centuries. It has a wider range of incomes among the population with significant number of both wealthy and poor families (CIA, 2004a). Politically, the two countries have some similarities and some significant differences. They both use a parliamentary form of government. However Japan also has an emperor by birthright (CIA, 2004a), who exerts significant influence on the country's policies. Japan is a relatively new democracy, having adopted its Constitution in 1947 (CIA, 2004a). By comparison, the United States adopted its Constitution in 1789, giving the country well over 200 years of experience with representational democracy as a form of government (CIA, 2004b). The two countries' histories are markedly different. Japan existed for centuries as a band of feudal states, founded as a country in 660 BC. The country has a long history of relative isolation, which allowed the country to focus in on itself, its culture, its heritage, and develop a common collective view of what it meant to be Japan and Japanese. However, once Japan opened its doors to the West, it rapidly adopted some facets of Western culture, so today's Japan is a meld of very old and relatively new ideas (CIA, 2004a). The land that is now the United States was of course populated for many centuries before Europeans came, but its identity as a country began with the American Revolution (1776-1783). The United States had an entirely different response to contact with other cultures and encouraged people to emigrate, resulting in a country with many cultural heritages and influences (CIA, 2004b). Finally, environmentally both countries face significant challenges because both countries rely on manufacturing for a significant portion of their economy. Japan, for instance, is dealing with acid rain and the resulting changes in the pH of bodies of water (CIA, 2004a). In addition, Japan uses large amounts of timber, and the traditional diet emphasizes consumption of seafood. As a result, both forestry and fishing industries face depletion…

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Legal Immigration Is Good for

However, as I have highlighted elsewhere in this text, legal immigrants benefit the economy on a number of fronts i.e. In terms of contribution to the nation's tax revenues and GDP, in terms of provision of cheap labor which in turn benefits consumers and in terms of provision of specialist skills and capabilities relating to technology, entrepreneurship etc. Further, there are those who feel that the influx of immigrants in the recent past has put a strain on the nation's social and government services. However, this assertion in Isidore's (2006) view is largely misplaced as according to economists, such an occurrence "is outweighed by the increased economic activity." Lastly, since the September 11 terrorist attack, there are those who have time and again expressed their fears over the influx of immigrants - most particularly those of Muslim descent. This in my opinion should be regarded as a stereotype fed by misplaced perceptions. Indeed, as Arnold (2011) notes, none of the terrorists involved in the September 11 attack can fit the definition of an immigrant. As a matter of fact, the author notes that those individuals involved in the attack "were all visitors" (Arnold, 2011). Based on this, I am convinced that the terrorist threat posed by legal immigrants is almost nil. Conclusion In conclusion, it is clear from the above arguments that legal immigration has a number of distinct key benefits and hence is good for the U.S. The vast majority of those who legally immigrate to the U.S. do so for valid reasons and are therefore ready to work hard and live harmoniously with the rest of the populace. With that in mind and given the above arguments in favor of legal immigration, proper policies should be adopted to encourage the same while discouraging undocumented immigration. References Arnold, K.R. (2011). Anti-Immigration in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia. California: ABC-CLIO. Estrom, P. (2007, June 7). Immigration: Google makes Its Case. Retrieved February 12th, 2012, from Business Week website: http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/jun2007/db20070606_792054.htm Geigenberger, J. (2008). The lasting Value of Legal Immigration for the United States of America. Norderstedt Germany: GRIN Verlag. Griswold, D. (2009, July 21). As Immigrants Move in, Americans Move Up. Retrieved February 14th, 2012, from CATO Institute website: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=10650 Isidore, C. (2006, May 1). Illegal Workers: Good for U.S. Economy. Retrieved February 12th, 2012, from CNN Money website: http://money.cnn.com/2006/05/01/news/economy/immigration_economy/index.htm Shally-Jensen, M. (2010). Encyclopedia of Contemporary American Social Issues (4…

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American History X An Exercise in and

American History X An exercise in and a meditation upon subversion, the film American History X is at once making a bold social and political commentary on the inherent destructiveness of racism and bigotry. At the same time, one could argue it's a tragic ballad for a family riddled with loss. Simultaneously, the film is a subversive series of photographs that illuminate a defiant culture and renegade civic identity. Just as iconic photographs can work to "reflect social knowledge and dominant ideologies; they shape understanding of specific events and periods…" (Hariman & Lucaites, 2002), the successive images of American History X works to reflect ideologies unwelcome to idealistic American sensibilities and rattle one's understanding of America today. If an iconic photo like the Flag Raising at Iwo Jima can reaffirm an individual's sense of collective pride, and shape collective beliefs about world events, than the subversive visual images which appear throughout American History X, have similar but far more disturbing effects. This paper will treat the connected images of American History X as having a comparable impact as that of the iconic photograph as described by Hariman and Lucaites, in this case, however, the influence is mutinous and subverted. The renegade still images in the film have the impact of shedding light on the disturbing underbelly of American culture and particular American beliefs systems that flourish throughout parts of the country. If certain iconic photographs shape our understanding of particular events and periods, than subversive photography such as that which flourishes throughout American History X illuminates not only the unpleasant fact that racism and bigotry is still alive in America today, but that the average non-bigoted American is resistant to such illumination. A pervasive image, one which appears in the film American History X and on the movie poster is a defined and muscled Derek Vinyard (Ed Norton), bare-chested, with a massive swastika over his left pectoral muscle, and his right hand placed gently there, over his heart, in rapt devotion and reverence, tinged in hostility, to his bigoted beliefs. Such an image denies the pride that Americans can have about their often bloody and shameful collective history: that slavery and segregation have been abolished, as well as racist legislation like Jim Crow Laws, the Chinese Exclusion Act and skewed, corrupt ruling of cases like Plessy vs.……

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US Supreme Court Orff v. United States 545 U.S. 596 2005

¶ … United States: 545 U.S. 596 (2005) Was the United States in breach of its 1963 contract with Westlands Water District and liable for money damages by reducing the delivery of water? Were the Petitioners intended third-party beneficiaries of the 1963 contract? Did the Reclamation Reform Act of 1982 waive the United States' sovereign immunity from breach of contract suits? Rules Reclamation Reform Act (1982): Section 390uu of the Act which waives the United States' sovereign immunity for certain purposes. H.F. Allen Orchards v. U.S. (1984)- a case in which the Federal Circuit held that farmers were "true parties in interest" to the irrigation district's water contract with the Reclamation Bureau since the district has no real stake in the water contract as opposed to the farmers, who actually use and pay for the water. Klamath Water Users Protective Assn. v. Patterson (1999): A 9th Circuit ruling that members of the public who benefit from a government contract are "generally assumed" to be incidental rather than intended beneficiaries. Terms of the 1963 Contract between Westlands Water District and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Analysis The case involves a 1963 Contract between Westlands Water District and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for supply of water to the District. When the Bureau restricted water supplies in 1993, the action was challenged in a suit by the District that was joined by Californian farmers (end-users of the water) as plaintiffs. Even though the District eventually withdrew its suit, the farmers persisted with their claims. The District Court heard the case in 2000, in which the plaintiffs cited the Federal Circuit court's ruling in H.F. Allen v U.S. (1984) that farmers were "true parties in interest" to the irrigation district's water contract with the Reclamation Bureau. However, the District Court ruled that sovereign immunity bars the farmers' claims because they had no "direct right to sue" or "enforcement rights"……

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Management Response the United States Response to

Management Response The United States response to an emergency such as the situation in Surat would probably be one of widespread panic as well. Of course, social and political culture play a role in panic and disaster management. After the 9/11 attacks, the nation rallied together because of strong governmental support and an appearance that after initial panic, things were at least under control. However, the mass exodus during Hurricane Katrina from New Orleans and then later from Houston shows what a catastrophe disaster planning can be at its worst. There was mass panic and anger after the refugees ended up in the Superdome without any food or water, and there was mass panic when the people had to try to flee Houston and the roads were clogged with traffic and accidents. If people are faced with death, panic is a natural reaction. Many of the healthcare professionals and government officials stayed behind in these cases; however, they did not abandon their patients (although some certainly did). Culturally, it seems……

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Frontier in American History in What Is

¶ … Frontier in American History In what is believed to be the "single most important document in the history of America," Frederick Jackson Turner presented his Frontier thesis. The document, which is popularly known with the title 'The Significance of Frontier in American history' delineates the role played by frontier in the development of American history. The thesis was presented in Chicago in 1893, three years after the U.S. Census Bureau announced the closing of American Frontier. Turner saw this as an opportunity to express his views on the impact of frontier on development of American history and character. Turner defined American frontier as "...the outer edge of the wave-- the meeting point between savagery and civilization." He argued that while frontier was important in various aspects, its significance in the development of American society, culture and character had been essentially ignored by academics. Turner explained that American development as initiated by having open frontier "begins with the Indian and the hunter; it goes on with the disintegration of savagery by the entrance of the trader... The pastoral stage in ranch life; the exploitation of the soil by the raising of unrotated crops of corn and wheat in sparsely settled farm communities; the intensive culture of the denser farm settlement; and finally the manufacturing organization with the city and the factory system." He contended that having an advancing frontier meant American people were regularly treated to a glimpse of the uncivilized world. Generations after generations were taken to uncharted territories every time America decided to expand just a little further. While Turner's frontier thesis was regarded as the single most influential document by some, modern academics have largely argued……

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United States & United Kingdom

The fact is that the close ties between the United States and Great Britain are deeply rooted in common language as well as a long-running and deeply connected historical base of strongly tied economic as well as militaristic cooperation that has spanned since the era of World War II. Also the commonly held values of democracy and the inherently held beliefs in the freedom of speech, human rights as well as a very similar legal system are the ties that bind the two countries inevitably together. The ties between the two countries is based on much more than merely common values but on a deep and lasting mutual trust and mutual cooperation that a time of stress does not have the power to diminish. Bibliography: "U.S. -- U.K. Appear Split on Iraq Body Power" United Press International Hore, Peter (2003) "U.S. -- U.K. Tie Will Endure but With a Chill. Newsday Report 11-30-2003 Lister, Richard (2001) U.S. And the U.K: Special Relationship? BBC News [Online] at: http://bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1185177.htm 'U.S. -- U.K. Alliance Shows Strain (2003) United Press International Analysis 3-31-2003 Gardiner, Nile (2003) The Anglo-U.S. Special Relationship and the Coalition of the Willing. The Heritage Foundation Policy Research and Analysis #228-3002 Mar 19 [Online] at: http://www.heritage.org/Research/MiddleEast/wm228.cfm Cornwell, Susan (1997) No Changes in the U.S. -- U.K. Relations Forseen. Denver rocky Mountain News -05-04-1997. Book, Elizabeth (2003) National Defense Report 04-01-2003. Gardiner (2003) "The Anglo-U.S. Special Relationship and the Coalition of the Willing" #228 Heritage Foundation Policy and Research Analysis Cornwell (1997) "No Changes in U.S. -- U.K. Relations Seen" Denver Rocky Mountain News Cornwell (1997) "No Changes in U.S. -- U.K. Relations Seen" Denver Rocky Mountain News U.S. -- U.K. Discuss Future Joint Research into Lang Mines on Military Routes Defense Daily News Report Vol. 223, Issue: 59. 2004 September 23 Book (2003) National Defense…

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