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Essays on "Animals / Nature / Zoology"  |  Term Papers 1-40

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Mastery Over Nature and the

" (1995 citing Zuckerman, 1979) By the late seventeenth century 'menageries' became popular. Menageries were quite simply caged animals kept in private collections as a status symbol for the owners. Louis XIV is known to have had such a collection know as the Versailles menageries in which a botanical garden was arrange with an enclosure for elephants and lions around his house. The collection of Louis XIV was moved in 1804 to Paris and kept in a zoological garden called Jardin des Plantes in what was a public exhibit of the animals. The animals were kept in Paris and were adherent to "scientific formulations about non-human nature that supported practices of animal confinement." (Anderson, 1995) It is reported that legitimacy to the concept of the menagerie was given by the scientific community and this spread throughout Europe and by 1847 the Zoological Society of London was formed comprising the royal menageries and Windsor Park and the Tower of London. The zoos in the western world are reported to have "evolved historically out of a much older and more general logic and desire for classification and control of the non-human world" described as the 'rationalist' school of thought. However, it is reported that as Christianity and humanism developed that the setting apart of humankind from the animal world was solidified. Dualism and reason were a school of thought that grew to imply "a hierarchy that pitted nature both against and beneath human who was henceforth justified in treating nature as object, as background to -- and instrument of -- human purposes." (Anderson, 1995) Anderson states that it is interesting that "the imaginative act that assimilated those, thinking, sentient, intentional and animate creatures called 'animals' into the blackbox category of nature." (1995) Anderson writes that Descartes stated that animals while having the capacity sensation were mechanical beings which were not aware and as well did not possess a conscious nature. According to Anderson, the zoo in colonial and post-colonial Australia "has been one of the sites through which the confidence and privilege of partial perspective have been encoded and 'naturalized'." (1995) The zoo takes the "raw material of nature" and constructs it into "an iconic representation of human capacity for order and control" as the images of the zoo which are constructed are "one that dramatize, even glorify, this capacity for intervention in nonhuman nature." Summary and Conclusion However one perceives the…

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Zoo Animals Human Beings Have

Therefore, it cannot be assumed that successful breeding programs necessarily mean an increase in animal welfare, but rather that there are more animals of any given species, who may or may not be treated well depending on the specific zoo. The idea that successful breeding programs necessarily mean an increase in animal welfare is so pervasive precisely because it feels…

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How Should a Human Behave Toward the Members of Another Species?

¶ … Human Behave Toward the Members of Another Species The question "How should a human behave toward the members of other species" challenges the conduct and behaviours of human beings towards nature. The question appears four times in the essay, and the author is continually referring to the question and linking human beings and other animals. Through the question,…

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Proof to the Fact That People Have

¶ … proof to the fact that people have lost part of their basic understanding in nature. Because of the evolution experienced by society, humans have gotten accustomed to believing that everything in nature has its equivalent in the world of humans. Thus, animals, plants, and everything that is not human in general has begun to be perceived as having…

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Wildlife Attractions Animal Attractions Such

Indeed many people visit zoos and other wildlife attractions and there is great potential to teach the public about wildlife welfare in conservations (Animal Ethics Clarifier). This can be done through information plaques near animal exhibits and through explanations given by tour guides (Animal Ethics Clarifier). On the other hand those that oppose these attractions assert that even when these…

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Endangered Species Act Most People

With this kind of money, it is very important to ensure that the funds are being distributed property and that no malfeasance is occurring. Hill (1993) goes on to say that, "Taxonomic decisions not to list a species can result in the tragedy of a species' extinction; but poor taxonomic decisions inappropriately listing a species can result in a misallocation…

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Anthropomorphism and Animal Violence Human Beings and

Anthropomorphism and Animal Violence Human beings and animals exist in a state of uncomfortable cohabitation. We have historically been outliers to an ecological system that depends on a great many hierarchical rules. In our independence from this ecology, we have not only placed ourselves at the top of the food chain through any number of technological artifices, but we have also channeled our understanding of animals through our needs and our experiences. The work by Stephen Jay Gould (1982) demonstrates man's need to contextualize all things according to his own experiences, offering an illustration in the way that we characterize the behaviors of animals. While a certain degree of scientific understanding tells us that the impulses and motives for animals are inherently driven by survival, as opposed to desire, there is a tendency to perceive acts of violence or destruction in nature as indicative of evil or ill-will. According to Gould, this is a characteristic attributed for example to the parasitic tormet imposed by the family of flies and wasps called inchneumon. Gould likens this to drawing and quartering in human terms, telling that "as the king's executioner drew out and burned his client's entrails, so does the inchneumon larvae eat fat bodies and digestive organs first, keeping the caterpillar alive by preserving intact the essential heart and central nervous system. Finally, the larvae completes its work and kills its victim, leaving behind the caterpillar's empty shell. Is it any wonder that ichneumons, not snakes or lions, stood as the paramount challenge to God's benevolence during the heyday of natural theology?" (Gould, p. 2) Prominent Incidences: In one sense, this perception does appear to be a fundamental misunderstanding of the objectivity of nature. However, some recent incidences in the headlines illustrate are tendency to employ this anthropomorphism in our characterizations. When famous Las Vegas performer Roy Horn of Siegfried and Roy was mauled during a performance by one of their trademark white tigers, such characterization underscored this human tendency. According to Sigfriend, speaking on behalf of his critically injured partner, "every living thing goes crazy. Every species,'" (Marquez, p. 1) The attribution of insanity is at once a decidedly human way of perceiving the species in question and, additionally, suggests that the tiger had no rational motive for the mauling, which is something that we simply can't assume to know. The Timothy Treadwell story is another illustration of how the…

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Human Nature, Difference Between Man

(Aquinas xiii) But all the reviewers of Aristotelian and Thomas philosophies with regard to human nature are have a unity on in disagreeing with Saint Thomas, by declaring his view incompatible and in collision with by Aristotle and Plato view of human nature and more of middle ground between the two. Thomas's view point had its root and inspiration from Christian theology and that is why his view point regarding the difference between human nature and animal is if not outright rejected but is daunted. Aristotle and St. Thomas point out that some things are said to be one (in animals and humans) because their genus is one, as a man, a horse; and a dog are one because they agree, or are one, in the genus animal…but are distinguished by diverse differences which are, as it were, diverse forms. (Crowley and Redpath 4) Conclusion: But both Aristotle and Aquinas agree on philosophical argument which is, "Man differs radically from other things because of the it's ability to make choice because of free will which other plants and brutes do not posses to a level which the humans posses" (Adler 54) Both the viewpoints ultimately try to acquire one common ground but theological as well as different outlook on human nature has bounded both the philosophies in a way that it cannot accept each other without contradicting each other. Works Cited Adler, Mortimer Jerome. The Difference of Man and the Difference It Makes. New York: Fordham University Press, 1993. Aquinas, Saint Thomas. On human nature. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1999. Crowley, Charles B. And Peter A Redpath. Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy of measure and the international system of Units (SI system). Maryland: University Press of America, 1996. Hoekema, Anthony. Created in God's Image. Wm. B. Eerdmans……

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Animal Welfare Assurance Organizations Animal

The ASPCA does not oppose the use of animals in entertainment, "provided that all of the animals' physiological and behavioral needs are fully met and that no cruel practices are used in raising, training and maintaining the animals, including when their period of useful service is over' (ASPCA Position statement 5.16). The ASPCA also stresses the need for consideration of the environment and for nature, keeping with its concerns about the ethical treatment of wild animals. It does not oppose animal control of wildlife in all instances, but stresses that, like all forms of euthanasia, it should only be practiced as a last resort (ASPCA Position statement 6.1). The ASPCA is not a conservation group such as, for example, Greenpeace, but sees its support of healthy environment for all animals, wild as well as tame, as keeping with its mission of cruelty prevention. The ASPCA is an extremely large not-for-profit organization and releases an annual report detailing its successes. This is necessary, given the extensive corporate as well as individual sponsorship solicited by the organization, to demonstrate that its funds are being put to good use. Its annual report contains a wide variety of examples of how the ASPCA has exerted its influence to improve conditions for animals, as in the case of NYC's carriage horses, as well as its financial statements. A complete copy of the audit can be obtained by the organization's CFO (Chief Financial Manager) (Annual report, ASPCA, 2010: 56-57). It is difficult to compare a large organization such as the ASPCA with a national platform to a small, local organization like Manes and Tails which does not conduct a formal audit. Because of its specific focus upon horses in need, Manes and Tails has the potential to address specific issues of interest to the horse community, such as natural shoeing and health-promoting care of horses for all owners, offering low-cost board for horse owners in need, and acting as a vocal advocate against horse slaughter. The ASPCA has superior funding and its 'net' is wider-reaching, but it cannot monitor the treatment of all animals, particularly given the special needs of horses in terms of care and rehabilitation. Ultimately, both types of organizations -- specific and general, national and local -- are needed to improve conditions for animals within the United States. The guidelines issued by Manes and Tails are actually more detailed and radical in terms…

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Animal Testing Negatives of Animal

Abusing animals in testing laboratories is unavoidable even if the researchers take utmost care to prevent them. Numerous studies by scientists and ethicists have shown that animal testing leads to pain, emotional distress, and post-traumatic stress syndrome due to invasive procedures, deprivation of basic physiological and environmental needs, disease, and social isolation. The loss of ability to fulfill natural needs…

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Nature Is Being Apart From Humanity

Nature Is Being Apart From Humanity Nature and Humanity Together and Yet Apart Purpose: The purpose of this work is to explore the destruction of nature and how that is separating humanity and nature even though all exist on the same planet and each are dependent on one another in the maintenance of a delicate balance that is necessary for…

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What Information Can Be Learned From Nonhuman Animal Studies

¶ … Nonhuman Animal Studies? Animal testing represents an important subject for debate and confrontation between those that support the medical testing on animals especially from the point-of-view of the added value it brings and those that argue the rights of animals as beings with rights and in need of equal treatment as humans. There are numerous arguments suggesting that…

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Should Animals Have the Same Rights as People

¶ … Animals have the same rights as people? The argument presented while in support of animal rights does not assert that animals should have the same exact rights as people. However, animals do have feelings, they have emotions, and there is empirical science to back up the contention that animals to grieve like humans. It is the position of this paper that animals' emotions are closer to human emotions than has been previously known, and that animals should have more rights and more respect than they do now. Animals Deserve Respect and Should Have Rights So many instances of animal cruelty are available in the news these days, from the gruesome slaughter of millions of animals on "factory farms" (where chickens, cows, and pigs stand in their own excrement and are pumped full of antibiotics to keep them healthy enough to be slaughtered) to the brutal, inhumane use of animals in testing labs that do research for cosmetics and other frivolous products. Specifically, one point that can be made that links animals' emotions with human emotions is the fact that animals do grieve. Journalist Courtney Langley writes an interesting story in the Virginia Gazette regarding animal research by anthropology professor Barbara King at the College of William and Mary. King's recent book, How Animals Grieve, points to a poignant story about two ducks. These ducks has been rescued from a foie gras factory; foie gras is a controversial method of force-feeding ducks with far more food than they would ever eat normally and the point is to fatten up the liver of the duck for people to eat. King reports that these rescued ducks were "…decimated and traumatized" but they bonded with each other in a farm animal sanctuary. Their names were Harper and Kohl, and with loving treatment they lived for a few years. But eventually Kohl became seriously ill and had to be euthanized. The supervisors at the rescue farm allowed Harper to be present while Kohl was put down. "When his friend was lying still, dead, on the ground, Harper came over to his friend and put his neck over top of his friend and laid there, and just sat with the body" (Langley, 2013). But that was only part of this sad scene; for weeks, Harper had what King called a "sorrow response," because Harper would not eat, he avoided other ducks and "became afraid…

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Guns: Artistotle's History of Animals

This practice enabled Aristotle to describe phenomena such as the embryological development of a chick, to distinguish dolphins from fish and to describe the chambered stomachs of ruminants. He was also able to examine the social organization of bees, and he noticed that some sharks give birth to live young. Indeed, Aristotle's keen interest in sea life led him to his extensive studies of dolphins, which he classified as mammals after observing their reproduction practices. Aristotle's successors however were slow to accept this fact, and it was only two thousand years later that biologists began to confirm Aristotle's observations of the dolphin. Another observation of sea life is the fact that the torpedo fish stuns its prey. Knowledge at the time was too limited for Aristotle to realize that this was done by means of an electric shock. Aristotle's study was pioneering work at the time, since Plato, his master, and all other philosophers considered only abstract thought as worthy of their time. Aristotle himself however took great pleasure in examining the natural world around him, and described five hundred different animals in his work. The philosopher's contribution to zoology however lasted unrefuted for more or less 2,000 years. The concept of the "final cause" is one embedded in the mindset of Aristotle's time; everything was seen to have a higher purpose, or design. According to this philosophy, living creatures are placed on the earth for a specific purpose. And this purpose was unique for each species. Of course this concept is absent from zoological and scientific studies today. It is however part of Aristotle's concept that there is progress in the development and hierarchy of animals, which is the basis for Darwin's evolution theory. This idea was echoed by Greek philosophers of the time, but in-depth knowledge of the evolution mechanism lacked during this time. It was only 2,200 years later when Darwin was able to use the accumulated scientific knowledge of his time to arrive at an empirical evolution theory. While many of his observations were accurate, Aristotle also made some fundamental errors. He for example believed that the heart was the center of life, whereas the brain functioned only as a cooling mechanism. It is however clear that Aristotle has made a significant contribution to our scientific knowledge and study methodology of animals. He was obviously far ahead of his time, as he was considered the authority…

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Animal Rights Over the Past Several Decades,

Animal Rights Over the past several decades, the media and pro-animal groups have paid increasing attention to what Singer called in his 1983 book the "animal liberation movement." The issue of animal rights has been argued from both sides for some time. Singer and similar activists advocate for the continued well being of all sentient beings that are conscious and…

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Zoo Animal Technology Program I

I enjoy the sciences, as well, and I think that it is important when choosing a degree program. In addition, I have volunteered at local animal shelters to work around animals, and I find I enjoy the work. What I don't enjoy is when people have to give up their pets, or dump them off. I find it very disturbing that so many pet owners don't take their obligations seriously. That is another reason I want to join the Zoo Animal Technology Program. I want to work in an environment that is more positive for the animals and their long-term welfare, because the animal shelters can be quite depressing at times, and that is definitely not where I want to spend my career working with animals. I realize the program is competitive and demanding, and that there is a sequence to the courses and their completion. I am prepared for that, and to work hard to gain my degree so I can find the career of my dreams. Specifically, I would like to work in marine rehabilitation, or in one of the successful breeding programs. I would like to work at a prestigious park, such as San Diego, but I would also enjoy working in a smaller facility that offered more interaction with visitors. It has always been my goal to work with animals, because I enjoy taking care of them and interacting with them. They are fun, but more than that, they rely on us for their existence, and they give unequivocal and undying love for only affection and care in return. They are loyal, they are loving, and they are affectionate. While I know that all zoo animals don't share those qualities (and they shouldn't), I know that these animals are dependent on us for their existence, and that I enjoy making sure they have the best existence they possibly can. To see animals mistreated or abused is extremely disturbing to me, that's why I want to work where they are valued and well cared for, and that's why I would like to enter your Zoo Animal Technology Program. Thank you and I look forward to……

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Scientific Research With Animals, and the Scientific

¶ … scientific research with animals, and the scientific purpose of the research. Scientific research with animals has been controversial for decades. Animal rights activists violently oppose it in any form, believing it is cruel to the animals and unnecessary. Scientists and others, such as psychologists, believe it is necessary in many cases, and that animal research can prevent human…

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Animals Generally Are an Example of How

Animals generally are an example of how nature works instinct work because of their unique features of developing and adapting in a world full of unknown and adversities. The evolution of humanity had also brought negative effects for the animal reign because of the fast growing urban areas and the intensive agricultural activities. The Amur Leopard is one of nature's priceless creations and it is an impressing member of the animal reign as a big cat. The species is even more priceless compared to others due to the fact that it is one of the most endangered species with an estimate of only 30 individuals still living in the wild. It is also known as the Far Eastern Leopard, the Manchurian Leopard, or the Korean Leopard and it is generally found West of Vladivostok near the border between Russia and China. According to recent studies, there are ten living leopard subspecies and it stands out from the rest of the subspecies because of its pale coat and due to the fact that it is very well adapted for living in cold areas. The perfect place for the Amur leopard to flourish is within the forests from the Far East. Humans are responsible for most of the circumstances that lead to the endangering of the species. Despite the fact that in the recent years endangered species have received more attention, it takes a supernatural effort to recover what was lost. The Amur leopard population has suffered the most during the second half of the 20th century as people were striking the full hit of industrialization and forests were cut out with no regards to the effects of their reckless behavior. Moreover, entire forests are destroyed every year on purpose because farmers are setting fires to get a more fertile soil. The case of the Amur leopard is similar to its bigger relative, the Siberian (Amur) tiger, which is also an endangered species. The fact that people are more familiar with the situation of the Siberian tiger also helps to prevent the extinction of the Amur leopard because from the wildlife reserves and the favorable conditions created for the natural world to flourish would benefit more than one species. As most felines, the Amur leopard is carnivorous and it usually feed on deer, which are widespread across the territory inhabited by the leopard. The Amur leopard is also known to prey on…

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Animal Research Following the Precedent Established for

Animal Research Following the precedent established for the past hundred years of using sentient beings for laboratory modeling, animals should continue to be used in biomedical research because the scientific knowledge gained far outweighs any ethical and moral considerations. Animal research has always been a contentious subject, but within the past few decades the debate has risen to critical levels,…

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Animal Rights Introduction Right, Properly Understood, Is

Animal Rights Introduction right, properly understood, is a claim, or potential claim, that one party may exercise against another' (Roger, 2003), the rights are granted and are ought to be respected towards the grieved party, and other party towards which the actions are performed. In general, when we talk about rights, we concentrate on the human rights, but the terminology…

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Should Animals Be Used in Sports and Entertainment

¶ … circus without animals, imagine if there was no lion show, no ring master, no flying monkeys, or dancing bears. There are many entertainment venues and sports venues that use animals as part of their show, but this does not necessarily make them abusive or corrupt. Just as human beings, whether they are athletes or clowns, are used as part of entertainment, so are animals. They are neither treated cruelly as a rule, nor neglected. Therefore, their use in sports and entertainment should continue as long as they are being treated with kindness and respect. Animals should be allowed within entertainment and sports because they serve a specific purpose of entertainment. Many opponents such as members of PETA say that using them in such a way is cruel and demeaning. However, circuses, entertainment venues, and sporting events rarely treat their animals with cruelty. Rather the majority of animals working within the entertainment profession are carefully guarded and treated because they are an important part of the act themselves. Sea World for instance, expand over 30% of their annual revenue on animal maintenance, providing the best facilities for their animals and caring for them with extremely precision. Therefore, animals within……

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Why Animals Should Have Rights

¶ … animal cruelty and animal rights have been a several theme in recent media and public sentiments, few people really understand what it means to give animals the rights that they deserve. Instead, we are harming animals both directly and indirectly on a daily basis to satisfy our basic needs. This implies that human beings still look to animals as if they have no righs whatsoever, and more than that, it is completely legitimate to kill, maim and destroy their livelihood at will. Animals are not only treated with complete disregard, but humanity has deemed them fit to be genetically altered, manipulated and changed. All of these actions seem to fit the portfolio of God, rather than our own human species. In the following analysis I will thoroughly examine animal rights, and clarify through conceptual frameworks, why it is necessary for us to have animal rights. There are many conceptual reasons why philosophers do not accept an egalitarian comparison between humans and animals. Kant, Descartes, Aquinas, and many other philosophers rejects the claim of animal rights because they view them purely as organic equivalents to machines. They argue that animals are driven by coarse instincts and thus are unable to experience pain. This is the fundamental underpinnings of their social and political argument. Their assertions however are unwarranted and unjustified. Close examination of animals have shown that they do indeed have feelings, moreover, they have sophisticated mechanism by which they express and feel pain. Biology has taught us that animals are just as sophisticated anatomically as human beings, and that they have evolved through natural selection to be primary candidates within their species. Therefore to assume that animals not only are only servants to mankind, but also mere machines……

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Animal and Plant Domestication

Animal and Plant Domestication One of the most difficult and interesting questions posed to researchers and students alike is the longitudinal development of man. Within this question is one that is often called the basis or beginning for modern man and development overall and this is the domestication of plants and animals. It is said that the point at which humans adopted domesticated practiced of agriculture and husbandry they began to be able to move forward in development, left with more time, as a result of not being tied to hunting and gathering everything they would need to survive. (Smith 15) First, this work will address this question by summarizing the anthropological approach to domestication, briefly comparing it to the genetic research model and evaluating it as a process in the puzzle of developing a record of early man. Second, the main focus of this work will be to compare archeological evidence as it applies to the animal record and the plant record. There are generally two schools of thought with regard to tracing the origins of domesticated agriculture and husbandry, the archeological approach and the genetic approach, both are used to give the body of research a greater whole picture of the question, yet they are sometimes at odds with one another, as they can and often do result in differing scientific theories and results. The documentation of domestication as it is studied by the genetic school looks at the changes associated with the genetic profile, that are a result of contact with man. (M.A Zeder et al. 5) While in contrast the archeological school utilizes the culmination of archeological processes to identify locations and times associated with domestication events often relying on new technology to build a case for linear and localized changes in ancient DNA, as well as changes in the morphologies of the flora or fauna being studied, often guided by the previously understood genetic materials (8) There is no doubt that the marriage of these two approaches will greatly increase the body of knowledge of domestication of both flora and fauna. The archaeological record with regard to plant domestication includes a number of variable evidences. These evidences can be sought through examination of a chain of evidence in the record. A behavioral change occurs, in the manner that people are interacting with the plant, a genetic change occurs in the plant and a morphological change…

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Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair

This focus on domesticated animals at the expense of the larger biosphere ultimately demonstrates the unviable nature of animal liberation philosophy and practice, because "animal liberation, if pursued at the practical as well as the rhetorical level, would have ruinous consequences on plants, soils and waters," as well as the various forms of life which depend on these resources for their well-being. Furthermore, the animal liberation movement contains a simplistic understanding of the food web, such that unsustainably sourced vegetarian foods are valued over meat taken in a reasonable, sustainable way from a single animal. In short, the animal liberation movement, though nobly committed to lessening the suffering of animals, is ultimately naive, unrealistic, and actually fairly damaging to the overall well-being of life on Earth. A more useful response to the factory farming and cruelly disruptive techniques of contemporary capitalism would be to forego the desire to impose "our alienation from nature and natural processes and the cycles of life on other animals" by arguing that they be given precisely the same legal rights as humans and instead "take the opposite course and accept and affirm natural biological laws, principles, and limitations in the human personal and social spheres" (Callicott 5). Thus, Callicott is so critical of the animal liberation movement because he sees it as simply a different version of the same problem, so that the supposed binary between moral humanism and humane moralism actually only serves "to drown out the much deeper challenge to 'business-as-usual' ethical philosophy represented by Leopold and his exponents, and to keep ethical philosophy firmly anchored to familiar modern paradigms" (Callicott 6). The animal liberation movement is ultimately inconsistent with an ecocentric approach to environmental ethics, and only serves to provide the public with seemingly alternative theories while actually reinforcing the same tired organization of humanity within nature. By comparing the animal liberation movement with Aldo Leopold's notion of the "land ethic," Callicott demonstrates that far from reducing the suffering of animals or otherwise offering them some moral parity with humans, the animal liberation movement unnecessarily limits the dispersal of rights to those animals deemed worthy, thus reenacting the same form of discrimination practiced by moral humanists who argue that humans are separate from animals and thus deserve preferential treatment, albeit by expanding the category of the "worthy" animals beyond mere humans to those animals most frequently domesticated for food. A genuine environmental…

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Animal Research in Laboratories What Are the

Animal Research in Laboratories What are the applicable ethical considerations when scientists use animals in research? Can researchers justify causing pain to animals while doing research on medicines that could potentially be beneficial to humans? These issues will be discussed in this paper, along with the news that there may soon be alternatives to using animals in research. Pro and Con -- on Animal Research In the Mark Kula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University in California the statistics presented show that "about 20 million animals are experimented on and killed annual" -- and of those three-quarters are killed for medical purposes and the remaining for the testing of "various products" (Andre, et al., 2010, p. 2). Further data reveals that about eight million animals (of the 20 million) are made to go through pain, and moreover about 10% of those are not given any painkillers, Andre explains. There is a good moral argument to be made that pain "…is an intrinsic evil," and anything that causes pain to another living thing is "…simply not morally permissible," Andre continues. The author quotes 19th century philosopher Jeremy Benthan's viewpoint about animals and humans. Bentham believes the morally appropriate question is not, "Can they reason" or "Can they talk?" Instead the utilitarian philosopher says the ethical question is, "Can they suffer?" And the answer is, of course they can and do suffer, and therein lies the controversy. Making animals suffer is not just cruel; it is unethical by any standards of fairness and morality. Animals do indeed suffer when they are "…starved, shocked, burned, and poisoned" (Andre, 2). These horrifically painful acts go on while the researchers are attempting to find some remedy for a human ailment, or trying to improve on a beauty treatment for the wealthy woman whose face is beginning to wrinkle. There in fact is evidence that baby mice have had their legs "chopped off" so the researchers could determine if they would "groom themselves with their stumps" (Andre, 2). Clearly, there have been (and apparently still are) some hideously unconscionable experiments done on animals. Those who advocate for continuing animal research suggest that without the ability to utilize animals in research "…scientists' efforts would be massively hampered," according to Laurie Pycroft……

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Animal Testing There Are Individuals and Organizations

Animal Testing There are individuals and organizations that say using animals in test laboratories for biomedical research or for product research is unethical no matter what the purpose. Others argue that using animals is vitally important for research that could possibly resolve human health issues. Both sides have valid points and this paper delves into issue using positions from several…

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Animal Testing There Has Been Heated Debates

Animal Testing There has been heated debates over the years on the use of animals for experimental purposes, scientist have their argument to support their use while, at the same time, animal lobby groups have their argument against the use of animal for experimental purposes. In Britain alone, more than 3 million animals have been experimented on in their laboratories, this does not include those which their body parts are harvested for experiment purposes and those that did not meet the required standards for experimental purposes. With such increase in animal use, the question which arises is, is it ethically right to use animals for experimental purposes, yet they have life just like humans Simon Festing, 2007 () Scholars have described the use of live animals in scientific as vivisection. Scientist have tried to defend their actions saying that the use of animal is the safest way to test new products necessary for medical development but is it still ethical to breed a life just to get rid of it after the experiment? In addition, animals such as rats and mice are mostly being used because they are easy to inbreed, are small, and more so cheap, but, in some other special experiments, animals such as rabbits, pigs, chickens, fish, dogs and guinea pigs are also used EMP, 2004() Scientist normally subject these animals to torture, pain, distress and lasting harm just to achieve the desired results which should reciprocate what human would have gone through instead. Animal lobby groups have noted that animals usually suffer a lot in the hands of scientist, they add that, even those animals, not in the testing schedule end up detained for a long period that they end up developing stress to the point of even death due to the solitary confinement they are often kept in EMP, 2004() Scientist want the rest of the public to believe that animals such as the rats and mice can be disposed of like objects forgetting that these creatures also have a life, they have maternal instincts, experience fear and pain just like other animals. These animals are normally subjected to pain and toxic experiments which are normally killing them on the spot Simon Festing, 2007 . Though, the use of these animals is good for medicals experiments such as in determining the causes of a certain health problem and to find out the treatment of certain…

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Human Interactions With Nonhuman Animals

Others, however, have persuasively argued that humans and animals are equal in perception and experience, thus leading to the conclusion that humans should relate to nonhuman animals on the basis that animals share many human feelings and perceptions. In Back to Earth: Tomorrow's Environmentalism, Anthony Weston argues that humans are essentially connected to, and part of, the larger word. He notes that humans must set aside our beliefs that we are superior to other forms of life, and that the human experience is central to the world. Weston argues that we must reconnect with the earth, and reconnect with greater nature through our senses. In essence, Weston argues strongly against Descartes' dichotomy between humans and the rest of the natural world. Weston's argument for connection with the larger world ultimately presupposes that animals and humans are equal in our experience and perceptions. Descartes' argument that the uniqueness of human thought as the basis of a dichotomy between humans and animals is ultimately essential to countering this assumption. In Animals are Machines, Descartes notes persuasively that there is no clear evidence that supports thought in animals. Instead, the behaviors of animals can be easily explained away by pure mechanistic actions. Similarly, Abrams argues that an understanding of human language as abstract, which Descartes thought to be clear evidence of human thought not shared by animals, is essentially a false understanding of human communication. Writes Abrams, "by overlooking the sensuous, evocative dimension of human discourse, and attending solely to the denotative and conventional aspect of verbal communication, we can hold ourselves apart from, and outside of, the rest of animate nature" (p. 79). Abrams argues that this is a false dichotomy, as human language is deeply denotative and linked to affective meaning and sensation, thus meaning that Descartes' dichotomy between human thought and animal thought was essentially false, and that human treatment of animals built on this false dichotomy was essentially erroneous. However, the argument that human language contains a strong evocative, connotative aspect does not necessarily negate Descartes' argument that animals do not possess the capacity for abstract, reasoned, denotative thought and language. Certainly, as Abrams argues, human language contains both connotative and denotative aspects of verbal communication. Abrams himself notes an abstract of communication between animals and humans that is missing, saying "I gradually came to discern there was no common ground between the unlimited human intellect and the limited…

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Animal Rights in the Debate Over Animal

Animal Rights In the debate over animal rights, the supporters argue that animals have rights because they are sentient beings that, in the most important ways, differ from humans only in degree, not in kind. On the other side, opponents argue that animals have no or little rights owing to their subordinate position in the overall scheme of things. In…

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Animal Rights Introduction Glance at the News

Animal Rights Introduction glance at the news is enough to reveal that few people are genuinely concerned about the welfare and plight of animals in the United Stated and in the world. For example, PETA Org recently launched a campaign against a large company for extreme animal abuse. There are numerous examples that occur daily of personal, corporate as well…

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Animal Rights Ethical Standards of Behavior Have

Animal Rights Ethical standards of behavior have evolved along with human understanding of the value of life. Indeed, this fact is evident in the historical evolution of the human right to life, liberty, and dignity, which was followed by the belief that life in all its myriad forms should be valued. In fact, it is the latter worldview, which now forms the basis of the controversy over the use of animals in medical research and experiments. Currently, this controversy revolves around whether animals have as much right to life as human beings. Depending on the standpoint taken on this basic issue, arguments range on a continuum between animal welfare and animal rights. Animal welfare theories hold that while animals have interests, those interests can be sacrificed if there are some human benefits that are thought to justify that sacrifice (BBC, 2004). As against this, animal rights activists believe that animals have the same rights as human beings, which include the right to life, freedom from ownership and confinement, and from use as a food source or subject of medical research without consent (AMP, 2004). It is the objective of this paper to research the arguments of both animal welfare and animal rights theories before attempting to draw any conclusion on the subject. Interestingly, the perspective of animal welfare groups can be said to match with that of the scientific community. For one, both these groups hold the view that immediate abolition of all animal experiments is not possible since medical research is still needed to find cures and treatments for diseases that currently threaten the quality of both human and animal life. In addition, these groups advocate that new consumer products, medicines, and industrial and agricultural chemicals must be tested to identify risks to both human and animal health as well as hazards to the environment (FRAME). A point worth noting in the preceding argument is that there is a clear respect for the value of animal life. Indeed, this fact is evident in the view that using animals in medical research benefits both humans as well as animals. But perhaps, more important, both these groups believe that the care and use of experimental animals must be in compliance with all relevant animal welfare laws and guidelines, and that, as far as possible alternative procedures such as mathematical models, computer simulation and in vitro biological systems should be used (FRAME).…

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Animals for Research Because it Is Cruel

¶ … animals for research because it is cruel to the animals and this research can be accomplished in other ways. Using animals for research purposes in the scientific and medical communities has been an accepted practice for years, but it has come under fire as more people understand just how inhumanely these animals are treated. The animals cannot speak up for themselves, so animal rights activists do it for them, often in graphic and vocal ways. Using animals for research is wrong, because it is cruel and it harms animals that have no way to defend themselves. Animals should only be used for research in very specific situations, such as when the animal is not at all harmed by the research. What is animal research? Simply put, it is the use of caged, laboratory animals for medical and scientific research. The research is eventually used to develop new products, new medical breakthroughs, and a deeper understanding of medical conditions - hopefully to find a cure or a better way of treating the disease or affliction. However, animals are also used in research for chemicals, beauty products, and just about anywhere scientists would not think of using humans as "guinea pigs." Instead, they use the guinea pigs themselves, and this is what animal rights activists actively protest. However, most people only have certain mental images of what goes on in an animal research lab. Dr. Larry Carbone, an animal research veterinarian notes, Research uses of animals vary widely. Some animals are used to produce cells or tissues for use in test tubes and tissue culture. This may be as simple as humanely euthanizing an animal to collect cells and organs. Or it could require several months of immunizing a rabbit to collect blood samples rich in antibodies. Some projects require complicated surgeries, as when surgeons and immunologists work together to develop organ transplant procedures or to study organ rejection (Carbone 24). While there are many forms of research, one of the most chilling aspects of this research is that the animals are commonly killed at the end of the project, when they are of no further scientific use to the scientist. Carbone continues, "at the end of such a long procedure the animal may either be awakened from anesthesia or, more likely, euthanized" (Carbone 25). This is perhaps the most disturbing aspect of animal research - the animals serve only…

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Environmental Ethics Environmentalism vs. Animal Rights the

Environmental Ethics Environmentalism vs. Animal Rights The 1960s was a decade for the revolutionaries; drugs were considered therapeutic, revolting against the authorities and the governments was "in," and there was a need for a change in the principles of the cultures so that these new mannerisms could not only be justified in action but maintained and encouraged with the progress of time. Nestled deep in this decade was also the initiation and the root of the environmental movement. More specifically, it was in 1967 that the UCLA historian Lynn White Jr. had printed a document where he criticized the rigid Judeo-Christian traditions and blamed those traditions for the numerous environmental hazards that the world was facing at the time. He believed that to live in a peaceful and nurtured world, everyone needed to embrace the concealed and sequestered imminence of our traditions and oust the traditions that were prevalent at the time (White, 1967). Callicott soon after, in 1980, printed his document where he stated the probable and bound-to-spark-debates issue of the ethics behind the environmentalists and their movement. By this time, however, the animal rights advocates already had established views, in comparison, on various issues concerning the environment as well as the hazards of the decisions made keeping the "ethics" in mind views. Some of the pioneers of these views and outlooks were the following writings (some already in print and others on their way out): Peter Singer's "Animal Liberation and Stephen Clark's the Moral Status of Animals," Bernard Rollin's "Animal Rights and Human Morality," "Animals, Men and Morals edited by Stanley Godlovitch, Rosalind Godlovitch, and John Harris had been published in 1972, and Regan and Singer's first edition of the "Animal Rights and Human Obligations" had been published in 1976. By the end of 1980, authors like those mentioned above and Colin McGinn, Cora Diamond, Donald VanDeVeer, Joel Feinberg, Mary Midgley, Thomas Auxter and Timothy Sprigge had already laid down the basics and philosophies behind the animal rights and their violations. Callicott, in his document wanted to introduce a third player, "land ethic," into the game where decisions were made on the environment, and its effect on humans and animals were analyzed thereof; he wanted to dismiss what was believed to be humanitarian and moral when making these decisions and make the whole process a three-way story (Jamieson, 1997). Callicott, in his essay highlights the similarities between the…

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Animals and Society

Animal Rights The roles of animals in the society are explored by highlighting the facts highlighted by a number of authors. The interaction of human beings with the animals is an important part of the society. These roles are highlighted by the articles highlighted in the paper. 'Animal liberation' is an important book written by Peter Singer. The main fact highlighted by the author in the book is the importance of launching the animal rights movement. It was published in 1975 when animal rights movement gained toll in an industrialized world. The organization named as People for Ethical Treatment of Animals, PETA, has heavily criticized the book by Peter Singer, but the realities that have been highlighted by Peter are more important. The rights that have been organized by PETA are not supported by Peter. The criticism provided by Peter in the book is based on the way in which the industrialized society makes use of the animals. The author has highlighted utilitarian morals and ethics. Thereby in order to read the book, it is important that one must be aware of the utilitarian rules. Since an increase in industrialization, people are not even aware of the source of food being fed upon. What is the source of the cosmetics or beauty products being used by the people? For the maintenance or sustenance of life, how animals are used is an important question. Animal liberation is the book that has highlighted the brutal systems under which animals are used. The main aim of the book is to highlight ethics based on which animals are used in the society. One of the main facts that have thus been highlighted by the author is that people should become vegetarian. Singer has highlighted many ways in which animals are slaughtered for the benefit of the human beings. A number of arguments have been given by Singer as to why meat should not be used as food by people. Firstly, the animals must not be slaughtered for the production of meat; and secondly, the land being used for the rearing and management of animal farms must be used for the cultivation of crops (Singer, 2001, p. 89). The second important book is 'Animal Rights, Human Wrongs' written by Tom Regan. The main question asked in the book is the eligibility criteria based on which an animal gets it rights. What are the reasons based…

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Animal Farm an Analysis of

Thus, the pig leaders of Animal Farm become like the very real humans they initially appeared to despise. Napoleon's character is different from Snowball's in that it is more of an authoritarian than a visionary. Snowball's plans for guiding Animal Farm are utopian, Napoleon's militaristic. Napoleon trains the dogs to be attack dogs that they might shield him. He enlists Squealer to be his public relations man, to trick the dumber animals into submitting to his authority. If Napoleon has any virtues at all, it might be his overall tenacity: he does not allow anyone else to reign alongside him and will do anything to keep power all to himself. His flaws, however, are his willingness to deceive and even rewrite history in order to maintain power. He promotes false doctrine and is perfectly willing to murder dissenters. Snowball's virtues are his bravery in battle: he is a natural and courageous leader, who inspires the other animals to charge Jones and the men. He is fearless whereas Napoleon is cowardly and shows no heroics in the battle. Snowball's faults lie in the fact that he is too much of a dreamer to realize the duplicity of Napoleon and ends up being chased off the farm as a result. Snowball is the more intelligent of the two: his designs for the windmill serve as the blueprint. His speeches are also more passionate and alive. Napoleon's on the other hand are brutal, brief, and imbued with militarism and empty patriotism. Napoleon cunningly replaces morality with self-adulation and state propaganda. The setting is important because it represents the type of worker collective promoted in the Soviet Union at the time Orwell wrote the novel. Animal Farm is a literal allusion to the…

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Animals in Captivity

Animals in Captivity Zoological parks and aquariums continue to exist because they have respect for dignity of the animals in their care. Zoos found in different locations of the world have their own code of animal welfare. The World Association of Zoos and Aquarium in a bid to develop an ethical tradition has come up with a standard of conduct…

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Red Wolf and Different Aspects

However, a majority of the young ones die during the first six months of their lives. The young pairs among red wolves copulate mostly before they reach the age of three (Paradiso & Nowak, 1972). The gestation period is about sixty to sixty three days after which 6 to 8 offspring are born usually. The litter from a reproductive red-wolf couple "are tolerated in their natal home range until they disperse, with dispersal apparently related to social factors most typically associated with the onset of sexual maturity" (Kelly & Phillips, 2000, p. 247). A number of dens may be established by the pregnant female red wolves during the denning season. A lot of dens are established on the surface depressions that are low and are located in thick vegetation for the purpose of shelter. On the other hand, other dens are located in shallow hideaways in the ground underneath the large trees. The young offspring are usually moved from one den to another before leaving the existing den. Development and Lifespan/Longevity Both male and female red wolves are active parents as they rear their young ones in the den throughout the first year of their lives. The young red wolves are also cared and nursed by other wolves in the pack. Almost all the red wolves have a natural life of more or less ten years (Dahl, 1997). Predation The main predators of red wolves are other members of the canids family. These include gray wolves as well as coyotes. This is because they combat for having possession of a particular territory. Other predators that usually prey young red wolves are alligators, large raptors and bobcats (Dahl, 1997). To cut a long story short, there is no economic importance of red wolves to human beings. Previously, they were considered a grave threat to livestock. They were also called large marauders on small stock (Sutton, 1998, p. 15). This is the reason why red wolves were terminated by humans to the brink of extinction. However, the good thing is that this species has been reintroduced to save it from becoming endangered (Paradiso & Nowak, 1972). References Dahl, M. (1997). The Wolf. Minnesota: Capstone Press. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HomHpmeIyWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+ wolf&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_FNUZ2tHeqR7AbG5YHwBA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA Kelly, B.T., & Phillips, M.K. (2000). Red Wolf. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (p. 247+). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Print. Mech, L.D., & Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves:…

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Animal Rights the Amount of

I believe that animal testing is a method which can only be justified by the reason due to which this method is adapted. For instance, when the issue is to save human lives and bring forth a brighter day for people by introducing cures to deadly diseases, the use of animals may be acceptable. However, to put animals through similar suffering for a weak cause such as beauty is unethical and inhumane. It proves that man does not care for the feelings of other beings and that convenience is truly the key. Even though the cost of testing animals and keeping them under a roof, feeding them, and investigating their reactions for a long period of time is a costly endeavor and is not even always successful and further and most importantly gives pain to the animals, people still continue to test products in this manner. There continue to be many alternative methods of testing substances to check that they are safe, the most convenient apparently is testing substances on animals. All of this is due to a mere reason that people do not care about a single animal life, needless to say that is not moving to have knowledge that thousands and thousands of animals are put through such suffering every month, for products that encourage shallow thinking and do not help the cause of mankind in anyway. I believe that if animals would be treated better and their feelings and emotions taken into account more often, the world would be better off and there would more living beings on Earth other than Humans whose rights are also fulfilled and paid heed upon. References: Bekoff, M. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood Press: 1998. Print. Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press, 2004. Print. Judson, K. Animal Testing. Marshall Cavendish Benchmark: 2006. Print. Mironov, Vladimir . "The Future of Medicine: Are Custom-Printed Organs on the Horizon? Medical Researchers Are Creating Robots That Can Bioprint New Tissue and Organs Directly into Patients' Bodies While Performing Surgery-Without Assistance from Doctors." Futurist. 45 (2011): n. page. Print. Yarri, D. The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and……

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Panther, by Reiner Maria Rilke

The one behind the wheel thinks like the deserving member of the community: he or she leaves the shelter of his or her car, transgressing, to enter the darkness, guided by his taillights. His first action is thus apparently motivated by his or her concern for the other members of his own community: "the road is narrow; to swerve might make more dead." To describe the reason that made him or her descend into the darkness, the first word the narrator uses is noncommittal: "a heap." The second word that follows immediately is: "a doe." This is another word for the female deer, but it will also bring one to the idea of a John / Jane Doe: an unidentified corpse, that is, a dead human being. The word that follows in the description seems to reinforce this idea: "a recent killing." The narrator deliberately describes his finding as a killing, leaving behind the object of that killing as if, to establish a first connection between the two worlds: his or hers and the being in the wild, the deer. The reader finds the next image jumping back to the original attitude of indifference, in a void of feelings: "I dragged her off." But, the phrase continues and engages: "she was large in the belly." The narrator uses the third person personal pronoun to suggest he or she realized it was more than just "a heap," furthermore, it was more than just a dead animal. From that moment on, the story becomes very personal: the dead wild animal was bearing life, a life that had not ceased along with its bearer. The second and most powerful connection between the human world and the animal kingdom is thus established: the ability to give life. This is the moment when the human hesitates. He or she is incapable of finishing something as mechanical as getting rid of a lifeless obstacle on the road. The moral aspect of human existence, what humans think separates them from animals, enters the stage: to act deliberately and to take or not to take a new life. Here it is the fourth unseen character: the living fawn. The five character is quickly introduced: the car. The car takes the lively form of an animal: "under the hood purred the steady engine." The human and the lifeless mechanical engine are partners in conquering the animal kingdom and establishing…

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Animal Imagery in King Lear

4.93-95). King Lear responds to Edgar's story and plight with the clearest comparison to men and animals: Why, thou wert better in thy grave than to answer, with thy uncovered body this extremity of the skies, Is man no more than this? Consider him well. Thou / owest the worm no silk, the beast no hide, the sheep no wool, the cat no perfume. Ha! here's three on/'s are sophisticate! Thou art thing itself, unaccommodated man is no more but such a poor bare, forked animal as thou art. Off, off, you lendings / come unbutton here" (3.4.104-111). One of the more charming analogies used in the play is when Edgar asks King Lear, "Let us deal justly / Sleepest or wakest thou, jolly shepherd? Thy sheep be in the corn / And for one blast of thy minikin mouth / Thy sheep shall take no harm / Pur! The cat is gray" (3.6.41-46). Quite obviously, Edgar is referring to the need for a king, like a shepherd, to be ever vigilant so that his flocks never come to any harm. From charming to the use of animals to refer to the savage, barbaric behaviour of Regan and Goneril, when Gloucester says, "Because I would not see thy cruel nails / Pluck out his poor old eyes; nor thy fierce sister/In his anointed flesh stick boarish fangs" (3.7.62-64). Goneril's own husband chastises her, "What have you done? Tigers, not daughters, what have you perform'd? A father, and a gracious aged man / Whose reverence even the head-lugg'd bear would lick" (4.2.44-47). There are many more references to animals throughout the play that have not been covered here since there are too many of them. Surprisingly, there are fewer and fewer animal motifs in Act 5. It's almost as if the need for it reduces as good overcomes evil and justice is done. We have seen from the above examples that there are frequent references to animals in King Lear……

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