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Life Experience, Professional Experiences, Research

If I could reach over and grab those peas, why should I interrupt others' dinner, and ask them to pass the peas! Yet, this is part of American manners. The family gathering with my in-laws is just one of the many experiences I have had that illustrate how different countries employ a different set of customs. I have come to believe that individuals should embrace their own culture, yet it is important for them to respect the customs of another country when they are living there. That is why I feel multicultural counseling is so important. While one culture might consider something as inappropriate, another might think it's proper. It is also important for the ethnic minorities in America to enjoy a culturally sensitive therapeutic environment that bridges the cultural gaps between different groups. As an Asian international student in Indiana, I have observed that many people in minority groups often do not interact with other minority groups. I believe most counselors try to be culturally sensitive; nevertheless, understanding a different culture is often a process not an event. My husband who lived in Japan for two years has developed a strong cultural sensitivity to Asian cultures. During our four years of marriage, we have encountered problems due to cultural differences. Fortunately, we have both adjusted our expectations to resolve these differences. However, this mutual understanding is not often acquired in typical relationships. Therefore, unless people from different cultures are able to seek multicultural counseling, they may have a hard time reconciling their diversity. Psychology is culturally oriented and, therefore, I believe we cannot use the American standard to judge everyone's issues. I understand the importance of history, traditions, and cultural values that can influence a client in their decision making. For example, contrary to Western cultures, Chinese families regard the elderly as family treasures. As a future mental health provider, I know I will need to understand how a client's symptoms are often culturally relevant. My interest in multicultural counseling started in my third year of undergraduate studies. I shifted my primary research interest from child and adolescent counseling to multicultural counseling after I learned of the increasing need for culturally sensitive counselors. I have taken a variety of anthropology, history, culture and Spanish and Japanese language classes. Furthermore, I have participated in a year-long independent study with Dr. Phyllis Lin, a Taiwanese professor in sociology whom I consider…

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Culture of Interest: Japan Theoretical

Japan scored somewhere in middle on individualism collectivism index and the society is more paternalistic in nature. It does not display strongest of collectivist traditions but neither does it resonate with individualistic characteristics as a cultural unit. The American people on the other hand have displayed tremendously high score in this dimension. Having scored 91, the nation is among highest…

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Culture Geertz Social Anthropology Dear

It has been my practice throughout my professional career to demonstrate my knowledge of fieldwork through well developed and insightful interpretations of witnessed events among peoples I find interesting. Yet, Geertz seems to belittle this endeavor stating that those who invest in such scientific abstractions of "the personal" are not objective, but rather are subjective and cannot produce works that are systematic, reproducible, cumulative, predictive, precise or testable. It has been my experience that the results of any inquiry in social anthropology and well most of the social sciences is an attempt to record a situation in time and place, within the very context of the period as well as the people. There is no evidence that there is a need for any other goal than to record what is happening at this particular time, in this particular place among these particular people and use that knowledge to better understand culture and the dynamics of human existence. Regardless of any professional and public concern, associated with what Geertz calls, a besieging of "resurgent scientism" on the one hand and "an advanced form of handwringing" on the other the discipline has clearly evolved, developed and advanced to a place that supports its practitioners in development of further ideas within a realistic set of boundaries. Geertz clearly supports the fact that the actual discipline and its illusive definition is a practical development of the inherent skills of its practitioners to allow it to evolve within a set of professional guidelines that challenge the researcher to build on the ideas and theories developed by others even in the absence of the definition of the profession. It is also likely that the discipline's actual definition is somewhere in the middle like they say, everyone has a point-of-view and an particular reality, a side to the story and somewhere in between two is often the truth that is so hard to come to. To me it seems fitting to belong to a discipline that studies "culture," a term that in and of itself has an elusive definition that cannot be expressly defined, as Geertz expresses maybe it is better to define it by what it is not, at……

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Anthropology for Me Is Synonymous With Assuming

Anthropology for me is synonymous with assuming a different perspective or worldview to understand societies, cultures, and groups that exist from the world over. Generally considered as the study of humanity or humankind, it centers on studying and understanding the elements that make up a society or culture, such as traditions, lifestyle, language and even humanity's biological evolution. Anthropology for…

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Anthropology -- Short and Long Definitions Fieldwork

Anthropology -- Short and Long Definitions Fieldwork -- a type of anthropological (and other discipline-specific) research that involves data collection through direct observation of study subjects and face-to-face interviews. Participant Observation -- a type of anthropological (and other discipline-specific) research that involves extensive direct involvement with specific populations of study subjects; typically, the researcher lives with them. "Culture as a Text" -- Refers to the conceptualization of culture as a readable text that provides understanding of the society or culture through it analysis. Anthropologists rely on this conceptualization extensively. Ethnocentrism -- a perspective in which the individual worldview is substantially a function of the influence of social learning of subjective values and beliefs. Ethnocentric Fallacy -- the erroneous assumption that cultures and societies can be evaluated by reference to the values and beliefs of the society of the researcher. It necessarily presumes that the observing culture or society is more advanced or better than the observed culture. Rich Points -- Are the specific elements of linguistic encoding and expression within respective individual cultures that interfere with a mutual understanding between those cultures. Metaphors -- Generally, a manner of conceptual description that employs representations and indirect comparisons. Key Metaphors -- Those specific conceptual descriptions employing representations and indirect comparisons that are particularly important to the culture and society. Myth -- Specific stories and historical narratives passed down to successive generations to maintain long-term cultural beliefs. Typically, culturally important myths relate to beliefs about foundational narratives about the origin of the society, mankind, and the world. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis -- the idea that the way language encodes perceptions determines the way that individual experience and express those perceptions. Revitalization -- Refers to cultural change that is attributable to the purposeful choice or action of members of the society. Cultural Relativism -- Refers to the critical analysis of different cultural practices and social norms and behaviors within a foreign society by reference to those of the observer's society. Techne -- Refers to culture-specific artistic and other creative efforts that reflect society-specific characteristics. Syncretization -- Refers generally to the coexistence of multiple belief systems or values within a given society and to the manner in which those multiple belief systems or values are reconciled. More particularly, it refers to the manner……

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Anthropology Letter Evaluation

Anthropology Letter Evaluation The first letter was more of a concern for the Yanomami tribe and other indigenous communities. The writer of the letter has provided the letter's recipients with enough information about his/her concern without degrading the credibility of the AAA. With much concern, he/she is requesting an immediate action on the problem without losing respect to the people concerned. This letter is more of a request letter. The second letter similarly demonstrates a concern for the Yanomami and indigenous people. The writer first explained how the lives and culture of these people were disturbed due to the society's intervention in an aim to study their ways of life as a representation of our ancestors. With fairness in himself/herself, the writer somehow imposes that since the society benefitted from the Yanomami and indigenous people through the chance of studying and exploring their culture, we should also have the responsibility of helping them in return. The second letter can be described as somehow demanding but reasonable. The third letter is very polite. The writer immediately stated his concern and explained information and suggestions to solve the problem. During the explaination of suggestions, the writer did not……

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Person Is Born, the Family,

Childhood is the most important stage of life for an individual, as it is the reflection of his personality as an adult, where most of the things that are learnt are an imitation of cultural aspects. It includes the views, traditions, symbolism and rites of the culture, which sequentially leaves a deep impression on the personalities of the individuals. These…

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Culture the Term "Culture" Originally

In an object -- driven approach the emphasis is placed on how material things relate to the specific culture that makes use of them. This approach is not quite as concrete as the object -- centered approach because materials or objects can take on different roles and their uses and functions can differ over time and between different groups of people can differ. Objects in a culture can reflect meaning or they can create meaning. In the object -- driven approach one of the first things that must be considered is how certain objects are destroyed or defaced when the political status of a group changes such as the destruction of the Berlin Wall in the 1980s. Such a loss is particularly a problem in studying religious artifacts from both approaches as if the prevailing religious affiliation of a group makes a drastic change these objects are often completely destroyed. Material culture studies recognize that objects or "things" have politics and that the choices about how a particular culture constructs, uses, and even purchases these objects are important aspects of a culture. A recent theme in material culture studies has been the concerned with the effects of the productive capacities of capitalistic economies and how vast increases in goods, services, and the ability of the labor force to acquire these objects has changed the people in them. In many of these more modern studies of existing cultures the concert is not been with the objects themselves but with the effect the objects have on the ideologies and cultures of the people within the societies. The study of material culture has renewed interest in the works of people like Marx, Simmel, and other theorists who made broad assumptions about consumption, social class, and culture (Woodward, 2007). Material culture offers a way to broaden the overall perspective when studying a particular culture. References Friedel, R. (1993). Some matters of substance. In Lubar, S. & Kingery, W.D. (eds.). History from things: Essays on material culture (pp. 41 -- 50). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Gertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books. Herman, B.L. (1992). The stolen house. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. Newman, D. (2011). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life (7th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA:……

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Will the Meskwaki Culture Survive?

¶ … Mesquaki culture will survive in spite of all the changes brought by the forces of modernization and global capitalism. Your answer should draw on specific examples or incidents reported in the Foley book (Heartland Chronicles). The best answers will also draw on concepts discussed in the Haines book (Cultural Anthropology: Adaptations Structures Meanings). Will the Mesquaki culture survive? Douglas Foley's The Heartland Chronicles portrays the society of the Native American Mesquaki as in a state of profound social change, wrought by the influence of a number of new developments in the external economic environment of the tribe. The Native American tribe has garnered new power because of the wealth generated by a casino; there are also representatives of the Indian rights movement that have been agitating for recognition of tribal identity. Tribal members are gaining some empowerment by virtue of this new business which is both enriching the tribe but which may be eroding many of their organic traditions. Foley suggests that ultimately, the Mesquaki tribe will survive despite the many years of white oppression they have faced but they have had to resort to creative adaptive economic, cultural, and political responses to do so that have fundamentally altered some of the cohesive values of the tribe. The Iowa community in which the Mesquaki reside is torn apart by racial tensions between whites and natives. Members of the Indian tribe are becoming forcibly more integrated into white society because of the lack of available housing and job opportunities. Despite this, tribal members still have a sense of collective cultural awareness. They are extremely resistant to being subjected to the scrutiny of anthropologists such as himself, which they view as essentializing their culture. The members of the Mesquaki tribe are richly immersed in the academic discourse as Foley notes of one member named Claude: "with great solemnity, he began drawing a diagram of Mesquaki culture -- the naming, ghost feasts, adoptions, mourning, and burial ceremonies. He wielded white anthropological discourse about the 'Mesquaki core ritual complex'" (Foley 6). However, Claude uses this to identify who he regards as an assimilationist or a traditionalist in the community, i.e. For his "very practical purposes" (Foley 6). Even someone who is a traditionalist is affected by the outside discourses about 'Indianness.' The Mesquaki culture has clearly been profoundly affected by its interactions with white culture, as is typical of all native tribes.…

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Physical Anthropology, Language, and Evolution the Study

Physical Anthropology, Language, And Evolution The study of evolution is one of the main tasks in physical anthropology, as the domain is concerned in analyzing human and nonhuman development over time, looking into biological bases and variability. In its essence, evolution can be defined through the theory that biological species have adapted to the environments they inhabited across time and are responsible for the creation of other species. All species apparently change over time, with these changes being more or less obvious. Also, every species that has ever lived in believed to have the same ancestor as the rest of contemporary and extinct species (Chapter 3, p. 36). One of the first individuals to bring a large contribution to the physical study of evolution is Charles Darwin. The British naturalist went further than the people of his time by coming up with a series of innovative concepts regarding evolution and in relation to how all species can be traced back to a common ancestor (Chapter 3, p. 39). In his attempts to study Naturalism, Darwin went at collecting information from various locations from around the world. He analyzed "geological formations and the fossils they contained, on the geographic distributions of species, on the adaptations of various creatures to their environments, and on how individual populations varied from one another according to environmental differences" (Chapter 3, p. 39). Even though this data made Darwin realize something which was already known at the time -- the fact that life forms changed across time, it also helped him find that species could develop into other species. To a certain degree, by studying the data he found, Darwin also discovered that evolution was made possible through several processes; each of them mostly related to the environments that species inhabited. In spite of his impressive discoveries, Darwin could not find exactly what determined species to change over time, as it was revealed that particular species gave rise to others even when the environments they inhabited did not change. Physical anthropologists are aware that any organism (with the exception of identical twins and organisms that are cloned) is identical to its offspring or to its sibling in an approximate percentage of 99.9%. In order to determine exactly what it is that separates two organism which have the same features a physical anthropologists has to study their DNA. This will result in the respective physical anthropologist discovering…

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Ideal Culture vs. Real Culture and Aspects of Ethnicity

¶ … culture vs. real culture and aspects of ethnicity Stereotypes function as a kind of 'shorthand' for understanding individuals of different cultures. Idealizing or essentializing a culture is a form of stereotyping, whether it is done in a positive or negative manner. Sometimes, people may think they are being tolerant when they construct an idealized, homogeneous image of another culture: Italians are warm and emotional and are food-focused; family-oriented Hispanics are very interested in the culture of their homeland; Native Americans are connected to 'the land.' While these apparently positive stereotypes may seem harmless, for individuals of these cultures they can seem like straightjackets. The availability of stereotypes can also cause an outside observer to feel as if he or she knows a culture inside and out, simply because he or she is 'respectful' of a few token cultural differences that merely scratch the surface of a culture's complexity. On a personal level, being reduced to an 'idealized' member of a culture can threaten personal growth and expression. An African-American may dislike being the student referred to as an expert on race relations in the United States in his class -- not only is this reductionist, but it also assumes that the dominant, hegemonic culture of 'white' culture is neutral, versus 'other,' ethnic cultures. The African-American student may feel more competent to weigh in on the subject of healthcare, perhaps because his father is a doctor. Also, creating an ideal 'African-American' culture can be profoundly misleading, given that African-Americans who are children of recent African immigrants may have a different cultural sensibility, and even African-Americans from the North and South may have profound cultural differences that belie the construction of a singular cultural gloss. Idealizing can thus obscure rather than illuminate real problems suffered by ethnic minorities in America. For example, the common stereotype that Asian-Americans are……

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Anthropological Thought

Anthropology Historical Foundations of Anthropology How do the methods of 19th Century Evolutionists explain the development of marriage, family, political organization, and religion? The development of the evolutionary theory of societal development arose from the precept that all cultures arose in a uniform manner. Early theorists believed that various cultures represented different stages along the path to development. Evolutionary anthropology…

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Theories of Culture in Human Relations

¶ … Culture in Human Relations In his attempt to argue the importance of culture in human relations, Geert Hofstede (2005) resorts to the following introductory paragraph for the first chapter of his book Culture and Organizations. Software of the Mind: 11th juror: (rising) "I beg pardon, in discussing..." 10th juror: (interrupting and mimicking) "I beg pardon. What are you…

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Interaction Between Culture and Individual Psychology Using

¶ … interaction between culture and individual psychology using Angela K.Y. Leung and Dov Cohen's article "Within- and between-culture variation: Individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures" as a springboard for deeper analysis of the degree to which culture can impact personal psychology and vice versa. Rather than seeing one as causing the other, Leung…

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Communication Between Different Cultures

Culture Communication between Different Cultures Everyone communicates with others all the time and no matter how well one thinks they understand other people, communication is hard. Culture is frequently at the root of communication issues. People's culture influences how they approach problems, and how they contribute in groups and in communities. When people partake in groups they are frequently surprised…

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Chimpanzees Have Culture? The Culture

Goodall (1986) also stated that tools were used by chimpanzees, and that the information the chimpanzees learned from the use of the tools was stored in their memory and passed down to others in their group. This use of tools is very significant, not only because it show that the chimpanzees are learning things, but because they are taking what they learn and passing it along so that others may benefit from it (McGrew, 1998). That is the activity that is the most indicative of the argument for chimpanzees having culture. Their tool use is not the only issue, however, because their diet and the way they hunt are also things that are passed down from one chimpanzee to another (McGrew, 1998). Each chimpanzee is unique, just as each human is unique. Still, chimpanzees teach one another how to hunt for food, what is safe to eat, and how to use tools in order to make their lives better and more comfortable (Goodall, 1986; McGrew, 1998). Those are the same types of things humans teach to their children, because those who do not learn skills of that nature often struggle with poverty, homelessness, poor health, and other problems. Whether that is actual culture is still an ongoing debate, but the idea that chimpanzees have no culture of which to speak is an idea for which it is becoming more and more difficult to make a solid argument. Based on the work of Goodall (1986) and others, it does appear that there is at least some cultural component to the lives of chimpanzees, despite the fact that their culture is highly different from human culture, which could result in misinterpretations of their actions. References Goodall, J. 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press……

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Anthropology: Its Holism or Its Comparative Perspective?

¶ … anthropology: its holism or its comparative perspective? Many disciplines are comparative in their outlook. An English student might compare two sonnets from two different eras of English literature. A scholar of religion might compare attitudes about parental authority in Christianity vs. Confucianism. An anthropologist might compare the social constructions of two different societies. But anthropology's holistic perspective is unique because anthropology must consider a society's religious beliefs, contemporary and historical social relationships, literary documents, and even deploy the scientific method, so an anthropologist can understand how human biology and geography has affected how a culture has developed over time. It is difficult to think of a discipline that cannot be comprised by the scope of anthropology. Thus anthropology's holistic perspective, which is intent upon embracing as much of the other disciplines as possible in its methodology, makes the subject unique. Give two examples of how a physical anthropologist and an archaeologist might collaborate. An archeologist who discovered the remains of an ancient people might wish to know how each person's dental remains, physical size, and bone composition gave clues to the ways the society ate, and moved around in search of food and shelter. The physical anthropologist could determine if the persons were meat eaters, had easy access to proteins, raised animals for dairy products, and help solve other questions about daily life that would give further clues to the archeologist about how the persons utilized artifacts and where the people had migrated from, originally, based upon their lifestyle. An archeologist might also analyze the physical remains of individuals with a physical anthropologist to see what era of the evolutionary progression the persons may have come from, or if their physical structures bore resemblance to other known tribes or bands in the area. This would help give added weight to a possible interpretation as to……

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Comparison of the Social Sciences

¶ … Social Sciences Background- for centuries, philosophers have puzzled the human condition. Questions abound about why humans act the way they do, why they form groups, what role cultural and social norms have for learning, how societies form, the nature of society, social change, and the way integration and alienation fit in with modern societies. In particular, the changes in urbanization and technology, and access to other cultures, spurred even more study of what it means to be human. Together, these paradigms form a notion of human history in which theories have tried to explain different aspects of human behavior and interaction. We now call the study of society and human behavior social science; a more umbrella term that refers to a number of sub-disciplines that focus on different aspects of the human condition. In fact, the basis of this combination of study to look at a more holistic view of humanity developed out of the writings of Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim; both who looked at history as a continual evolution and the manner in which these changes impacted past and present. Even now in the age of globalization and advanced technology, the social sciences provide a way to understand humanity and help provide a template of ethics from which to evolve (Vessuri, 2000). Anthropology- Anthropology is considered to be a holistic approach to the science of human existence, with the goal to provide an account of human nature. This field is certainly multi-disciplinary, since it has strong ties to human biology, linguistics, history, and cross-cultural communication. It is typically divided into four sub-fields: 1) Physical or Biological; 2) Linguistics; 3) Archaeology, and; 4) Cultural Anthropology. As a social science, anthropology takes the scientific method, but tends to study local traditions through a larger lens in order to understand events or eras, or broader trends within society. Of course, this also means that anthropologists study the very origins of humanity -- behavior as well as biological and physical differences and evolution. The field itself originated when the more "advanced" technological societies, primarily European oriented, came in contact with less developed societies and needed a way to explain certain nagging questions about culture. While this originated in the colonial and imperialistic eras, modern anthropology is a global discipline that has shifted after the 1970s to more seminal questions about the nature and production of knowledge and the manner in…

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Gender as a Cultural Construction

¶ … subculture is one that can be used in explaining and deconstructing various behaviors, habits and social groupings that we see in everyday life. The concept of subculture is broadly defined in literature as a cultural group that exists within a larger culture and comprises of people having interests and beliefs at variance with the ones of the larger culture.In other words, subculture could be regarded as a subdivision of a larger national or global culture (Herzog, Mitchell & Soccio,1999). Subculture therefore refers to social groups that are organized around shared/common practices and interests. The term has often been used in positioning certain specific social groups as well as the study of such kinds of groups. In this paper, we compare and contrast and analyze the works of Geertz (2000) and Hebrige (1979) on the concept of subculture. A brief overview of the concept Before we compare and contrast and analyze the works of Geertz (2000) and Hebrige (1979) on the concept of subculture, it is critical to note that the concept of subculture is usually used to designate a relatively transient group which is studied apart from their domestic, private and familial settings. There is however, a great emphasis on informal, voluntary and highly organic affiliations that are formed either in the mainly unregulated public space of our streets or on the contrary, within as well as against the rather disciplinary structures of enforced institutionalization. The concepts of subculture are, general considered to be groups that deviate from the norms of the dominant culture (Jandt,2009). This category comprises of people who are defined by their age, taste, sexuality, economic status, gender as well as race. The concept of subculture is usually positioned in a social frame. Analytically, it is positioned as a subordinate, disenfranchised, subterranean and subaltern group. Subcultures are therefore often distinguished as oppositional, countercultural and alternative. Geertz (2000) perspective on subculture According to Geertz (2000), the concept of subculture affects our day-to-day perception of things. In other words, what is commonly refereed to as 'common sense' is a social construction. In other words, common sense is a subculture. A summary and analysis of Geertz's (2000) work on subculture The work of Geertz (2000) on common sense as a subculture starts by presenting the way anthropologists view the concept of subculture. He uses imagery and metaphors to describe how anthropologists view culture as an old city with…

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Dating Linguistics

Dating/Linguistics Give an example of a set of Focal vocabulary (find actual words) that the Inuit use and how they use it. Explain why this usage is important to the Inuit daily lifestyle. Give an example. An individual's vocabulary is based on the words that are defined by their culture; that is, sets of words commonly used are determined by…

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Intersecting Cultures and or Culture in a Global World

Intersecting cultures are creating a new kind of world, where just about every culture in every nation or region is a blend of two or more cultures. Much of the research one finds in the literature today reflects the dynamics of diversity within nations that have a multicultural social makeup. But there also is a need to understand what happens over time when one culture colonizes another and then is evicted as the indigenous culture re-assumes control. This process of de-colonization leaves in its wake a culture that is comprised of two or more distinctly different cultures, a kind of blend of cultures. This paper delves into those issues. The Literature on the Intersecting of Cultures Researching the way in which cultures have intersected over time, one finds that not only do cultures intersect, they bond and often blend two or more cultures into a new culture that reflects several sets of values, histories and languages. That new culture that is created by the wedding of two or more cultures may in fact develop its own language to indentify it as juxtaposed to the majority language. Language in fact is often a dynamic in which a cultural minority (or hybridized subculture) may "…define their identity and establish themselves as separate from other cultures" (Bruno, et al., 2012, p. 27). In France, for example, a socio-economically deprived sub-culture of disenfranchised young people use a language called "game" (Verlan) (Bruno, 27). The purpose behind the use of Verlan as a language apart from the French language is, Bruno argues, "…a sociological marker of belonging" (27). Verlan creates a distinction between "the in-group and the out-group" -- also referred to as "us vs. them" -- and hence those cultures outside this youthful French subculture are prevented from understanding what is being said by the youth (Bruno, 27). That is by way of giving the subculture power over the dominant or majority culture. Again, intersecting cultures create ways in which to bolster their identity and give them some sense of control over their lives in a globalized world. Meanwhile, the "cultural imperialism" of yesterday is now gone, according to an essay in the peer-reviewed Global Media Journal (Noh, 2007). That is, the colonialism that dominated much of the world -- Africa, Asia, the Americas and elsewhere -- for centuries has now slipped into the history books and today's global culture is defined as a…

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Culture and Subculture (P. 6-8)

82) Barriers to multicultural communication include anxiety; assuming similarity instead of difference, ethnocentrism, prejudice, and stereotyping. Anxiety is a natural and understandable barrier, but one that can impede successful communications. While it is not good to assume only differences, assuming similarity projects unreasonable and unrealistic values and norms on others and therefore impedes communication. Ethnocentrism is a cluster of phenomena based on the assumption that one's own culture is superior -- or at least a basis from which to judge others. Stereotypes are generalizations that, while sometimes valid, also cause unhealthy reactions such as prejudicial attitudes and behaviors. Nonverbal message codes (p. 114-onward) Nonverbal message codes include proxemics (the study of personal space); kinesics (gestures and body movements); chronemics (use of or attitudes toward time); and paralanguage (vocal qualifiers like pitch; vocal characteristics like laughter; or vocal segregates like uh-huh -- p. 121); the use of silence (p. 123); haptics (use of touch during communication p. 124); clothing and other aspects of physical appearance (p. 125); territoriality (use of the physical space) and olfactics (smells). Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis basically "establishes the relationship between language and culture: culture is controlled by and controls language," (p. 161). Nationalism in context of language In the context of language, nationalism can play a major role. The relationship between nationalism and language works both ways: language influences the concept of nationhood and nationhood impacts attitudes towards language diversity. Language is a political issue. For example, other diverse societies like Canada and India have multiple official languages but the United States just has one (p. 154). Influence of colonialism between and within cultures Colonialism has had an adverse impact on cultural diversity and intercultural relations. Chapter 6 refers to specific instances in which indigenous societies are attempting to revitalize their languages in order to revitalize their cultures. Colonialism generally establishes a dominant culture over a subordinate one or ones. Out of more than 300 indigenous languages in North America, for example, about half that remain (p. 160). Colonization has also influenced U.S.-Puerto Rican relations (p. 161). Immigration policies - issues that influence multicultural communication and understanding Countries that have had liberal immigration policies such as the United States and Canada have also developed diverse societies. These multicultural societies are characterized by the use of many different languages, which influences multicultural communication. In the United States, an emphasis on cultural assimilation has led to English-only…

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Consumption, Society and Culture Cultural

When you observe the behaviour of a social club of consumers, you will find them obsessed with searching appeasement and joys in materialistic things that are attractive. Their irritation and alienation from social circle further pushes them to consumption (Foucault, 1984). If you look at the TV commercials and advertisement, you will find the hidden message that if you want…

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Culture Definition of "Culture" Alfred

Indeed values are the only basis that explains the comprehensive culture because the actual organization of a culture is basically in terms of its values (Kuper, p.58). Every culture has its own values and it is very important to appreciate the values of all cultures. Kroeber and Kluckhohn were of the view that the essential core of culture is the…

Pages: 8  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Culture and the Many Ways

"other" peoples. It may, as seen earlier in this synopsis, be the feminists vs. other individuals. But what really defines what culture is? Is it the traits and features that define the actions, behaviors, and traditions of a certain people? Does it have anything to do with heritages, science and genetics? Or as Ortner states, does it have anything to do with power relationships among a people? The relationship between "agency and power" is complicated and there is often an "invisible nature of class" that influences cultural identity. It is virtually impossible at times, to fully understand and define culture, according to Ortner, because human beings themselves are constantly working to identify and define the self, and if humans cannot define the self, the concept of culture will always be just that…a concept, one that anthropologists are constantly aspiring to define. It may perhaps always be something that is nebulous in nature, something that is theoretical, but not something that will every fully be concrete. References: "A working definition of culture." Canadian Commission for Unesco. Pp.78-83. Fox, R.G. 1991. Recapturing Anthropology: Working in the present. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe: New Mexico. Moore, J.D. 2008. Visions of culture: An introduction to anthropological theories and theorists. Altamira Press. Ortner, S.G. 2006. Anthropology and social theory: Culture, power, and the acting subject. Duke Williams, R. 1989a. Culture is ordinary,……

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Anthropology: The Fundamental Social Science

Some examples include economics, geography, history, linguistics, political science, psychology, and sociology. Because of its all-encompassing ability to understand the human experience from multiple perspectives, anthropology sets the stage for other Social Science disciplines. It allows linguistics to study language out of an understanding that humans live in a symbolic world and communicate symbolically (a cultural phenomenon). It allows sociologists to study the (oft Western, American) society as an entity in and of itself (and anthropology understands society as a product of culture, and that product allows for the ability for humanity to continue its existence. Without the ability to cohabitate amicably, humanity would not, most likely, have survived as long or prospered as much). It allows historians to understand the culture and the "ways" of the people of the past (through, often, written texts (i.e., cultural artifacts) and anthropological archaeology). It allows for economics to understand humanity through "rationality" agreement (which presupposes that humans work in a cultural landscape and have a market driven, rational reason for acting (for only anthropology can explain why one would want, allow, or act rationally in a market society)). It allows for the Political Scientist to understand the political makeup of society (which requires a cultural adherence and approval of a political system of power0, and for geographers to understand humanity (from a viewpoint that requires humans to be members of a group that are, generally, geocentric (i.e., culturally centered)), and for other social sciences to understand humanity from a point-of-view that takes for granted their humanity (e.g., psychology). Conclusion In conclusion, not only does anthropology set the stage for the biological predispositions that lead to the realm of the social sciences (e.g., it sets the stage for the physiological ability to communicate, it explains the evolutionary significance for intelligence as a survival mechanism), it forms a foundation for the underpinnings of society (which allows the other social sciences to study the human experience). Anthropology, being concerned with what is human, really does make for the fundamental science to understanding society and all aspects of humanity. Works Cited Anthropology (n.d.) American Anthropological Association (AAA). Retrieved May 6, 2011 from http://www.aaanet.org/about/WhatisAnthropology.cfm. Jurmain, R., Kilgore, L, & Trevathan, W. (2006). Introduction to Physical Anthropology. Belmont: Thomas. Social Science (n.d.). In Webster's Dictionary. Retrieved May 7, 2011, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20science.…

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Cultural Studies Concept of Culture

In the case of the !Kung, food is shared in a generalized familistic way, while durable goods are changed according to the principle of balanced reciprocity; that is, transactions are expected to balance out in the long run." (p.889) Summary and Conclusion In answer to the question posed in this study stated as "Richard Lee Presented A Gift To His Friends or Hosts Among the Dobe (Kung) What Was His Gift, Why Did He Give It and How Did They React? The answer is quite simply stated that Richard Lee presented to his friends or hosts among the Dobe that which they needed and very likely had already requested. When he presented the gift to his friends or hosts among the Dobe society, they downplayed his gift and minimalized his gift while giving faint praise to what he had given. The friends or hosts of the Dobe society in turn gave Richard Lee something of equal value at some time in the near future from the time that he gave his gift to those friends or hosts. Works Cited Howell, N. (2010) Life Histories of the Dobe !Kung: Food, Fatness, and Well-Being Over the Life Span. University of California Press. 2010. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=L5rRpFTzz7wC&dq=Dobe+Kung+culture+and+giving+gifts&source=gbs_navlinks_s Lee, RB (1978) Politics, Sexual and Non-Sexual In An Egalitarian Society. Human Societies and their Ecosystems. Retrieved from: http://www.peacefulsocieties.org/Archtext/Lee78.pdf…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Globalization Culture

This is not strictly a one-way street, with America exporting itself around the world, and it is absurd to even think that. China has just as much influence around the world, as the dominant power in vast swathes of Asia and Africa. But even the almighty Internet -- an American invention dominated by American companies -- serves mainly as a…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Culture and Identity the Combined Structure of

¶ … Culture and Identity Identity The combined structure of individual identity is a paramount or superior-ranking framework revolving around Erikson's paradigm of identity development and ambiguity as well as Marcia's (1966) identity status paradigm and the identity capital model (Cote, 1996). Particularly the concept of individual identity relates to possessing an established idea of self, which is inherently steady…

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Anthropological Understanding of Progress? Anthropologists View Progress

¶ … anthropological understanding of progress? Anthropologists view progress as an arbitrary construct within the culture they are studying. Progress is only meaningful in the context of those individuals who can define where the culture is progressing from and where it is progressing to. Progress in itself is not associated with technology, democracy, or gender equality, although from within the American cultural tradition those values are associated with the American cultural construct of progress. What are egocentric and socio-centric views of self? Views of the self are methods by which an individual approaches and considers choices in their life. If a person has an egocentric view of the self, they view themselves as contained and possibly disconnected (or disconnect-able) from the surrounding environment. Their choices are based on their notion of what is best for them as an individual -- what "I" want rather than what "we" want. The socio-centric view of the self is decentralized, and approaches decisions from the point-of-view of the group rather than the individual. Sociocentric viewpoints can be seen as "group think" but the decisions they produce are often more socially positive than individualist choices. What is an applied anthropology of body image? Applied anthropology employs the discoveries of academic anthropologists to improve or change society. An applied anthropology of body image could use an anthropological study of body image among female American teenagers to develop strategies for preventing anorexia, for example. What is the political economy of online culture (example Second Life)? The political economy of online cultures like Second Life are a combination of alliances and transactions in the actual world and affiliations in the virtual world. Since geographic location is a minor issue in online cultures (although it overlaps with language community membership), the political economy of online culture must be based on some other kind of closeness. Second Life in particular allows for random and intentional affiliations, just as actual communities and institutions do. Explain progress theory and the anthropological understanding of progress in relation to the transformation of human societies over the last 10,000 years. Over the last 10 millennia, human societies have indeed made progress in terms of the evolving complexity of the technologies we use for representation and action. The messages we represent, and the actions we take, however, have changed very little. In actual terms, humans are interested in food, sex, emotions, and ideas. The development of…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Science and Culture

Science and Culture According to author Mark Erickson, science is a "multi-faceted object that we can pick up, turn this way and that, peer inside and scrutinize; but science also has its own agency" (Erickson, 2005, 15). His meaning is clear -- science is not one thing all the time. It can take on different aspects, different things for different people. Most of all, it is a fluid process -- one that is a method of inquiry more than simply a discipline. For example, if we take almost any field, the fundamental base is knowledge -- or inquiry; how do we find out things we do not know and what do we do with that information? Without a formal method of inquiry, we are left with less of a process and more of a random search for knowledge. Benjamin Bloom, for one, established as early as the 1950s that the challenge in education was moving beyond mere knowledge, though, and taking that knowledge through a series of tiers: comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Thus, science is that process of moving from rote knowledge -- a one sided, one colored, solid structure -- to synthesis and evaluation -- a multi-sided, transparent, and ever changing object (Bloom, 2006). Traditionally, of course, science has been more closely defined as a methodology that is quantitative in nature. How many times were we told from elementary school onward that science was a sysematic way of predicting an outcome; and the scientific method a way to use observation and hypothesis to find an empirical way to prove facts? This idea of empiricism, or basing our views on what we can observe, experience, or experiement certainly has validity -- but is that science, or is that simply one additional part of the scientific mode of inquiry? Humans, it seems, have a very unique gift of being able to think about things without actually observing them, or even proving they exist in anything but an idea. So science must be far grander than simply what is observable and testable (Kuhn, 1996, 43-7). Science, then, is far more than empiricism, far more than testing, far more than hypothesizing. Science is a mode of being, a way of examining both the possible and impossible. Science is not just a discipline ("I do science," or "I am a scientist"). Science, instead, to borrow a famous phrase, a process that allows…

Pages: 2  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Turnbull Ethno Colin Turnbull's Ethnography of the

Turnbull Ethno Colin Turnbull's Ethnography of the Mbuti Based on the pretense that clinical and laboratory observations are often distorted by the false nature of the setting, field observation promotes the notion that to consider the subject's behavior in a natural setting will be likelier to yield meaningful information. In particular, there are specific observational opportunities that may only be…

Pages: 5  |  Book Review  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 1


Rethinking Popular Culture

¶ … travel in another country has no doubt had the experience of realizing that other people in other places see things very differently. Travel allows us -- and forces us -- to engage ourselves with one of the most fundamental questions in the social sciences: Can we ever so thoroughly immerse ourselves in another culture deeply enough so that…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 2


Cultural Awareness

Culture and the Military Cultural Awareness and Military Operations Culture is a universal human phenomenon; it is impossible for an individual growing up in a given community not to be indoctrinated into that particular culture's attitudes and beliefs, even if they consciously resist such indoctrination. This stems form the fact that human beings are essentially social creatures that cannot help…

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Why Is Culture a Political Issue?

¶ … Culture a Political Issue? People today are living in an increasingly diverse world in terms of culture. Globalization and the rapid advances in communication technology since the middle of the 20th century are issues that have contributed significantly to this. An increasing amount of people have access to online technology and hence to a diversity of cultures and…

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Human Variation

Physical Anthropology Human variation Physical anthropology and racism: The interaction between supposedly objective science and cultural assumptions Because of the sad history of human society, few academic disciplines are immune to accusations of racism. However, anthropology, because it purports to study world cultures, has one of the most troubling histories of all of the social sciences regarding the justification of…

Pages: 5  |  Thesis  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 8


Spain Anthropologic Study of Spain However Anthropology

Spain Anthropologic Study of Spain However anthropology is perceived as a specific domain used in understanding long passed cultures and traditions, it in fact does much more than this -- it allows the individual to better comprehend the features of the modern states, their international relations and the realities of that particular country in the context of globalization and cultural diversity. A most relevant example in this sense is given by southwestern European country Spain. The Concept of Anthropology John Van Willigen (2002) finds applications of anthropology in nearly 40 domains, including fields such as agriculture, use of alcohol and drugs, criminality and law enforcement, economy, energy, education, healthcare, housing, military, nutrition, politics, religion or women's rights and development. Given the wide application of the concept, the reader could begin to wander about an actual definition of the anthropological concept. Offering such a definition is often a challenging task due to the complexity of the elements involved and several members of the academia have refused to narrow the concept down to a simple statement. Van Willigen has for instance stated that "applied anthropology is anthropology put to use. Given the change which is occurring in applied anthropology these days, it is tempting to leave the definitional question at that and go on to the next question." The American Anthropological Association (2009) puts a different spin on the concept and presents its linguistic heritage. Derived from the Greek anthropos (human) and logia (study), anthropology represents the "study of humankind, from its beginnings millions of years ago to the present day." The concept covers wide areas of application, with anthropology being the sole field which strives to integrate human existence as a whole, in terms of both geographical delimitations and evolutionary time. Unlike Van Willigen, the experts at the American Anthropological Association state that the concept is easy to define, but it becomes exponentially difficult to explain. They argue that anthropology applies to all aspects of life, including the study of the aboriginal population in Australia, the anatomy of a foot, the music of the African tribes or the corporate culture of a contemporaneous multinational. Despite the complexity of its applications, the goals of the anthropologic studies are clear and indisputable -- "to advance knowledge of who we are, how we came to be that way -- and where we may go in the future" (American Anthropological Association). The generic concept of…

Pages: 4  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 4


Culture Compare and Contrast Two Different Definitions

Culture Compare and contrast two different definitions of culture. Which one do you subscribe to? Explain why one definition that you have selected better explains "the culture." Perhaps the best definition of culture is that culture is "symbolic communication" (Choudhury 2009). Some of the tools used in symbolic communication include the "skills, knowledge, attitudes, values, and motives" of a particular group (Choudhury 2009). Inherent in this definition is the idea that the "meanings of the symbols are learned and deliberately perpetuated in a society through its institutions" (Choudhury 2009). This suggests that culture is a kind of language, but a language in an unwritten and physical as well as a written sense. For example, in Japan, individuals from that culture collectively respect a greater physical distance between individuals when they first meet than is observed in the United States. This physical distance is 'understood' because the practice of respecting physical distance is instilled in individuals from birth through indirect observation and direct instruction. Also, in a high-context culture like Japan there is more acceptance of hierarchy, more deference to protocol, and greater formality between individuals personally and professionally in most arenas. Bowing rather than shaking hands underlines this greater sense of distance, formality, and respect. To transgress these rules and to try to use other symbolic means of communicate means to be either deliberately rude or to be misunderstood -- to be 'lost in translation' in a……

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Raymond Williams Keyword: Raymond Williams' Definition of

¶ … Raymond Williams Keyword: Raymond Williams' Definition of Culture According to Raymond Williams, "culture" has one of the most complicated histories of any word in the English language, with such terms as civilization. The terms 'Ministry of Culture,' 'civilization' and 'cultural anthropology' not far behind. Culture had the notion of cultivation in agriculture in the early French, Latin, and Old English variants. With this came the metaphorical notion of the cultivation of the mind in the writings of Sir Thomas More, Francis Bacon, and other 17th century thinkers. Gradually, in England the process of cultivation acquired definite class associations. There also arose a corresponding German association with 'Kultur' as synonymous with civilization, as in the civilization of a particular people, but also in terms of progress from a primitive state of affairs. This notion that the 'civilization' of modern humanity as superior to that of primitive society can be seen in Sigmund Freud, who saw the repressive instinct demanded of civilization as necessary for the advancement of other aspects or definitions of what we might call culture, although he admitted in Civilization and its Discontents: "If civilization requires such sacrifices, not only of sexuality but also of the aggressive tendencies in mankind, we can better understand why it should be so hard for men to feel happy in it. In actual fact primitive man was better off in this respect, for he knew nothing of any restrictions on his instincts" (Freud 107). Regardless, 'non-civilized' came to be understood in some renditions as 'less cultured,' that is, more instinctual and sexual. Culture has also become synonymous with the fine arts and literature. In some nations, a specifically designated Ministry of Culture supports such efforts. A quick 'Google' of Ministry of Culture reveals that many modern nations, from Turkey, to Ethiopia, to Cambodia, to Saudi Arabia, all have ministries of culture, often associated with promoting state tourism. This suggests culture as an 'artifact' or a commodity to be sold to outsiders. In Williams culture……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Face in Chinese Culture Westerners Doing Business in China

¶ … Chinese culture - Westerners doing business in China China has recently entered the global competition and has thrown open the doors to business by outsiders. In that context the business men of the west need to have a through knowledge of the ways of the East which also means an analysis of the culture and the way the…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 0

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