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Architecture Modernism in Architecture Came About in

Architecture Modernism in architecture came about in the 20th century as it introduced completely innovative ways of thinking. The way that "designers, architects and engineers conceptualized, fabricated, and evaluated these environments has been the subject of very intense debate" (Doordan 2003, p x). The maxim created by Louis Sullivan, "form follows function," was one of the most central points of…

Pages: 25  |  Dissertation  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 25


History of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization

History Of Construction Technology of 12 Periods in Western Civilization What makes humans different from other animals can be attributed to many things, but it usually begins with our conscious choice to explore the world and separate ourselves from nature through some mastery of it. With the advent of agriculture, humans were now congregating in population centers and living for…

Pages: 24  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 72


Construction Subcontracting

Subcontracting Analysis (Cont'd) What factors should be evaluated when selecting a subcontractor? What are the typical methods used to evaluate these factors and are these methods effective? Outsourcing may be a term of fairly recent origin, but the practice itself is truly ancient because humans have been compelled to organize themselves into cooperative networks throughout history just to survive. Indeed,…

Pages: 26  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 25


History of Project Management at the Dawn

History of project management at the dawn of civilization can be looked at from two different civilisations -- Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. In this section both of these civilsations will be looked at from the perspective of cconstruction technology, architectural design, culture, science, economics, labour, and management, which all led to the creation of the master builder. The first ancient…

Pages: 25  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 40


Walter Gropius Germany's High Culture

Following the archetypal Taylorist logic, he further observed: "Precise numerical records by the famous American scientific managers Taylor and Gilbreth, show that the average American bricklayer is not more productive than the German bricklayer. Rather, the reason for the astonishing double efficiency in the United States lies in the adoption of appropriate building methods" (Gropius, 1927). Gropius and his collaborators…

Pages: 8  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Environment and Islamic Architecture

Environment and Islamic Architecture As the term implies, "Islamic architecture" is an architectural style that is characterized by functional elements and forms that are inspired by the Islamic religion, and which serves as a framework in which Islamic tenets can be implemented, celebrated and sustained over time. Graceful arabesques, Romanesque horseshoe arches and domes all typify many Islamic architectural styles,…

Pages: 15  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 15


Construction of Ancient Pyramids

Construction of the Ancient Pyramids The Egyptian pyramids remain one of the most beautiful and complex mysteries of the modern world. Throughout history there have been many theories regarding the exact manner in which the Egyptian pyramids were built but no one seems to have devised a concept that has been completely accepted. It appears to modern man the ancient Egyptian pyramids were no small feat to construct. Ancient documents have revealed that in most instances it took numerous years, usually decades, for even one of the ancient Egypt pyramids to be assembled (Mystery of the Egyptian Pyramids). Construction of the Pyramids There have been varying scientific and alternative theories regarding the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. Most accepted construction theories are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place (Great Pyramid of Khufu). Ancient Egyptians had the wheel technology and may have used them in building the pyramids by moving heavy stones. They also used pulleys to raise their boats' sails and could have used them in lifting stones to higher levels. The true pyramid is a natural development and improvement on the earliest form of pyramids, the step pyramid, consisting of several steps. The first true pyramids were introduced in at the beginning of the 4th dynasty. The structure of these pyramids is virtually the same as a step pyramid. Packing blocks are stacked until the dimensions were right, and then finishing blocks (usually limestone) were the last touch (Winston ). A major problem facing the builders of the ancient Egyptian pyramids was getting the large stone blocks to the height they required. The method of building ramps is the only one proven to have been used (Winston). The ramps were built on inclined planes of mud brick and rubble. They then dragged the blocks on sledges to the needed height. As the pyramid grew taller, the ramp had to be extended in length, and its base was widened, or else it would collapse. It is likely that for the construction of each pyramid, several ramps were probably used (Winston). Various Ramp Style Theories Many theories have been introduced suggesting building ramps either from one direction, four directions, or helical ramps that rose around the pyramid. The arrangement of the ramps used for building is in much dispute. Assuming that the step pyramid was built…

Pages: 4  |  Thesis  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 4


North American Architecture

Architecture North American Architecture from Pre-Columbian to Federalist The architecture of North America spans many centuries and many distinct periods. In earliest times, buildings were constructed by Native Americans according to principles that reflected their cultures and religious beliefs. Later on, after the coming of Europeans, architectural tastes reflected those prevailing in Europe, but always with an American flair. Among…

Pages: 4  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Architecture of the Mind Sight Is One

Architecture of the Mind Sight is one of our most important senses in our engagement with the external world. We rely on sight to get by in the world. Sight is so essential that a deluded or ignorant person is said to be "blind." It is indisputable that sight is an important tool, even the dominant one, for obtaining knowledge…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Architecture School as a Transfer After Completing

¶ … Architecture School as a Transfer After Completing 3 Years Elsewhere, Student Is Now 30 Personal Statement: Tell us why you are interested in studying in this program at the New York Institute of Technology for your Architecture, B.A. I am currently working as an architectural drafter. I am involved in setting AutoCAD standards and creating AutoCAD designs at Cannon Design, an architectural firm located in Boston. The field of architecture is familiar to me, vocationally, and I understand its rigor and the pressures of the profession. I have witnessed 'in the field' the demands made upon the firm's architects. I am aware of wide variety of knowledge demanded of architects today in terms of mathematics, spatial awareness, the practical needs of human life, and as well as the need to create a beautiful design. I would like to put my own knowledge talents into creative practice as an architect. Currently, I am involved with the evolving design of the University of Massachusetts hospital. It has been fascinating to discuss the needs of creating a hospital that balances the structural needs of a healthcare environment, creates a functional place of work, fosters a……

Pages: 1  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Architecture Remarkably Similar in Their Appearance, the

Architecture Remarkably similar in their appearance, the Temple of Aphaia on the Greek island of Aegina, and the Temple of Portunus in Rome reveal continuity in Greco-Roman architectural aesthetics and their corresponding cultural contexts. The Temple of Aphaia predates the Temple of Portunus by several centuries, suggesting that most mimicry would have been one-directional; the Roman design and function of…

Pages: 6  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Architecture Farnsworth House Mies Van

(See Robert Silman's sidebar) This was the time when a surprise crack was noticed which formed the plastic hinge over a cantilever beam exactly on the face of pier (Feldman, 2002) The evaluation of design was done by pre-structured models. It is necessary to keep on refining the models for which external post-tensioning is performed in order to determine the effects of forces applied on the current structure along with the newly revealed "hinge." The end product of this culmination process is the final design of structures (Feldman, 2002). The design of the structure becomes more complicated due to the addition of hinge discovered. However, an external post-tensioning system is used but it is necessary that the post-tensioning force applied also fulfils the requirements of other cantilever beams. So it was decided in the beginning that the current deflections could not be detached. It was prevented by the continuous creeping process of over 60 years and also by the yielding of reinforcing steel. To prevent further deflection, stress of dead load must be reduced in reinforcing steel by 10 Ksi approximately. This will eventually generate vertical forces which will slightly move the cantilevers (Feldman, 2002). The cantilevers require forces of external post-tensioning for positioning their upper floor over the lower cantilever by structural window mullions. These mullions do face problems by the chosen design forces in order to reduce stresses created by cantilever. To bring the buckling process closer, mullion axial forces should be increased and this is done by the hosted vertical parts of posttensioning forces at end of cantilevers. These forces which are utilized to enhance the system could not be lessened but after consulting WPC on this issue the mullions of the structures were gripped up by the process of welding more plates to increase axial volume (Feldman, 2002). References Farnsworth House. (1995). Probing Architecture's Anatomy. Progressive Architecture, pp 58, 59. Feldman, G.C. (2002). Fallingwater is no longer Falling. The Structure Group Companies. MetLife. (2012). Rogerson Communities' Farnsworth House in Boston is Recognized by MetLife Foundation and Enterprise Community Partners for Exemplary Work in Senior Housing and Successfully Incorporating Green Components in its Housing: Wins 2012 MetLife Foundation Award for Excellence in Affordable Housing, $50,000. Press Release. The……

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Chicago  |  Sources: 5


Role of Architecture in the

The culture and society are not only preserved via conservation but by bringing innovation too (Golberger). The psychology of architecture can be best understood by comprehending that "something that mattered yesterday still matters today, and more important, will still matter tomorrow" (Golberger). Therefore, it is the responsibility of the architects today to create and take care of new and give it room to breathe. Creativeness is a type of social responsibility and both of them are components of the same task. Originality is how the structural design makes itself matter. The manner of construction is how the generations engage in the practice of using architecture as a means of communicating to one another (Golberger). To cut a long story short, architecture plays a small part in the affairs of man and society. However, it brings in concert to a great extent the important components of a society such as protection, social function, knowledge, fine arts, money matters, politics, science etc. As a result, architecture can be a mirror to society. Architecture can be understood as a natural manifestation of what is in progress within society, politically and economically. It is the society and not the architect that establishes the types of architecture, according to the requirements of its diverse institution. The goals are set by the society which then assigns the job of discovering the resources of achieving them to the architect. Therefore, it is clear that society's progress also depends on the role that the architecture plays. References "architecture." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. . "architecture." Questia. Columbia University Press, 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. . Ballantyne, A. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Web. 1 August 2012. . Conway, H., & Roenisch, R. Understanding Architecture: An Introduction to Architecture and Architectural History. New York: Routledge, 1994. Web. 1 August 2012. . Golberger, P.. "Does Architecture Matter? Thoughts on Social Responsibility, Buildings, and the World After September 11th." Paul Goldberger. N.p., 08 October 2002. Web. 1 Aug 2012. . Larmer, B.. "Building the American Dream in China." The New York Times. N.p., March 16, 2012. Web. 3 Aug 2012. .…

Pages: 5  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Function in Architecture

Function in Architecture The Arts and Crafts movements had a great influence on 20th century infrastructure. Architects thought of structural design as a form of art and expression -- a form of expression that also inspired functionality in a building. Two successful architects that adopted such principals were Frank Lloyd Wright and Peter Behrens. There was a certain spiritual connection…

Pages: 6  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 5


Architecture of the Middle Ages

Medieval Architecture Romanesque vs. Gothic Architecture Architecture of the Middle Ages encompasses a number of building and purposes for those buildings. Middle Ages architecture can be divided into two major styles: Romanesque and Gothic. However, within these categories other styles existed that encompassed a particular time or region, such as Italian Renaissance, Germanic, Celtic, or Tudor. This research will explore the similarities and differences between the two major styles of architecture in the Middle Ages. Romanesque Architecture Romanesque architecture represents the early Middle Ages and was popular until around 1100 A.D. It was influenced by the prominence and influence of the Roman Empire. The most recognizable features of Romanesque architecture are the barrel vault and the Roman arch (Sacred Destinations). A common misnomer is that Roman Architecture developed during the time of Roman occupation. However, the style developed after the fall of the Roman Empire. It managed to retain the key features of the Roman building style, but it can be distinguished from true Roman architecture by the absence of Roman features, such as roman columns. In addition to the absence of these features, other influences such as Byzantine and Islamic features can be seen in some structures (Sacred Destinations). These influences are an obvious artifact of the crusades. The defining features of Romanesque architecture. Arches were supported in the middle by a keystone. Stones were precision cut to fit together perfectly without mortar. The "barrel vault" room was developed. This style of room construction was so named because it was reminiscent of the barrel that had been cut in had and laid on its side. Several barrel vaults could be made to intersect in the middle (Sacred Destinations). Gothic Architecture Around 1200 A.D. Romanesque architecture gave way to Gothic style architecture. It remained the most widespread architectural style through around 1500 A.D. The term "Gothic" is a reference to a group of barbarians who sacked Rome in 410 A.D. The term "Gothic' was meant as an insult to the art and architectural style (Gothic Art). It was meant to convey the message that this building style was "barbaric." However, despite its name, its popularity continues to grow and it eventually replaced the Romanesque style of architecture. Romanesque structures were earthy and low to the ground. They gave the feeling of weight and massiveness. Gothic structure, on the other hand, tend to be light……

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Architecture's Response to Nature

Architecture's Response To Nature Architecture as an art form is far more than merely the design and building of houses that conform to a specific artistic ideal. Although this is indeed a big part of the process, architecture also serves as a platform for the development of new forms and designs, and combining these with the more traditional. Exemplifying these important paradigms are Red House, designed by William Morris and Philip Webb, and the Robie House, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright for his client Frederick C. Robie. Both homes connect not only with the design paradigms of their respective time periods, but also with an element of innovation and development, inspired specifically by the contemporary artistic and environmental elements surrounding them at the time. When comparing these two homes, it becomes clear how each respectively communicates with its environment to denote the specific architectural and artistic ideals behind them. The Red House was completed in 1860, and served as the origin of the Arts and Crafts movement, as well as the English Free Style of architecture . As such, the building represented pioneering architecture at its specific time and location. Another important element was Webb's use of local materials and craftsmanship to achieve the effect of Gothic Revival by means of clay tiling, corbelled brick work, rubbed brick arches and circular openings. Because of its connection with Morris's passion for Arts and Crafts, and as the first of its kind, Red House is considered by some to be the most important Arts and Crafts home in England. As a direct result of the design and decoration of the home, Morris founded his design firm, Morris & Co., which in turn provided a springboard of definition and meaning for the Arts and Crafts movement . As such, the home was built in harmony not only with its immediate physical environment, but also with the social and artistic needs of the time. Like the Red House in England, Robie House is also considered one of the most important architectural works in the United States for its contribution to the country's architecture movements as they are manifest today. Like the Red House, Robie House incorporates a pioneering style for its time -- the Prairie Style. As such, its place in history and architecture is secured by its reputation as a forerunner of modernism in architecture. The Robie House was designed by Frank Lloyd…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Green Architecture Green Schools

Green Architecture/Green Schools What is Green Architecture? Green architecture -- also known as sustainable development, eco-design, eco-friendly architecture, earth-friendly architecture, environmental architecture, natural architecture -- is a sustainable method of green building design: it is design and construction with the environment in mind (Craven). Green architects generally work with the key concepts of creating an energy efficient, environmentally friendly house.…

Pages: 10  |  Research Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 10


Greek and Roman Architecture

Greek & Roman Architecture Roman Adoption and Reform of Greek Architecture What technological improvements did the Romans make to Greek architecture? How did their buildings differ from Greeks? Although Roman and Greek architecture are often spoke of in one breath, because of their similar surface appearances, Roman architectural function and design is actually quite different. The reason that so many Roman structures look Greek is due to the fact that Rome was a highly adaptive culture, eager to assimilate other aspects of Greece into its appearance, just as it assimilated Greece itself into its empire. For example, after Sulla's Greek conquest, Romans almost immediately adopted mosaic designs into their homes, and the design of Greek homes with a wide open dining space became the triclinium in Roman villas ("Ancient Roman Architecture," Crystal Links, 2008). However, Roman architecture substantially reformed the technical construction of earlier Greek models to meet the great capital city's unique needs. Rome was a vast and sprawling empire, with no real parallel in the Greek past. It required structures to support its high urban population density. The improved use of vaults and arches enabled Romans to create vast public spaces such as public baths and basilicas. For the first time, multi-tiered homes were constructed for large numbers of residents, and public and private structures were equipped with latrines and heating devices ("Ancient Roman Architecture," Crystal Links, 2008). Rome created public buildings and monuments that were also unprecedented in Greece partly for political reasons. Architectural domination was a tool of the empire to show its wealth and glory, and by replicating these public arch and dome structures in miniature all over the empire, its self-image was gratified even further. The Pantheon, the temple to all the gods, is perhaps the most famous Roman structure commemorating the city's glory, as well as the Roman gods (many of which were adapted from Greek models). Rome's brutal site of public entertainment, the Coliseum, is based on a series……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 2


History and Architecture of Public Museums

¶ … Architecture: Public Museums The 1939 building of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was not only representative of architecture during its time, it was also an important turning point in museum architecture. When the Museum commissioned its own building for the first time during 1939, it was viewed as important not to provide only a building that served…

Pages: 5  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Chicago  |  Sources: 3


Chicago Architecture

Chicago Architecture Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building: form, function, structure, and history The Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building was designed in 1914 by the architect George C. Nimmons, a student of Frank Lloyd Wright, and an earlier adapter of Wright's Prairie and Chicago philosophies of architectural design. Because of its history it was designated a Chicago Landmark on November 15, 1976. The Prairie style of architecture is considered to be one of the most unique forms of Chicago architecture. It "was developed in the early 20th century as a modern architectural movement to reflect the needs of the common man," by Frank Lloyd Wright ("Prairie School Tour," City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division, 2003) it is characterized by "proportional, often brick-and-stucco, constructions" ("Prairie School Tour," City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division, 2003). Although the Prairie style was supposed to bring Midwestern simplicity and functionalism to the design of the city, it was initially used in residential buildings and smaller structures. The Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building is an example of how larger commercial buildings of the era also eventually came to exemplify this style. The Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building combines elements of the Prairie style as well as the beginnings of what would later be called Wright's Chicago style, and thus it is of great significance in the history of Chicago architecture. Today, "this is one of the city's finest examples of industrial design and a rare reminder of the type of buildings that once lined the Chicago River"("Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building," City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division, 2003). The buildings showed that even ordinary warehouses and commercial structures could be pleasing to the eye as well as spacious inside and functional. The building was originally intended to be a warehouse and office building for a wholesale grocery company. It was the first building to include a docking facility, in response to the city-wide mandate that designers include the Chicago River into building design to enhance Chicago's beauty as well as to make better commercial use of the river ("Reid, Murdoch & Co.……

Pages: 2  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 1


Poetics of Light in Architecture Tadao Ando

¶ … Poetics of Light in Architecture: Tadao Ando Art is an expression of the human spirit. It is a way of describing elements, which lie in the sublime, the world that is just out of reach of the present reality. Architecture is a means for humanity to connect with the finite nature of existence. The edifices that we build…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Steel Frame Construction

Steel Frame Construction Bibliography and Further Information Appendix a An Analysis of the Selection, Application or Installation of Materials and Building Components Used in Steel Frame Construction Today An increasing number of commercial and residential structures are using steel frame construction techniques today. The increased popularity of this building technique has grown from its early beginnings in Chicago a century…

Pages: 15  |  Term Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 5


Importance of a College Degree in Construction Management

¶ … college degree in Construction Management. The construction industry: The usefulness of seeking an academic degree The construction industry was severely impacted by the recent recession. Most housing markets are over-saturated with homes for sale. However, one segment of the construction industry is expanding, that of energy efficient, LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)-certified or 'green' buildings. A 2011 study by the Fredonia Group found that "demand for green building products -- buoyed by increased availability, environmental concerns, stricter building codes, and a rebounding construction industry -- is expected to increase by 13% annually to create a $71 billion market in 2015" (Rimetz 2011).The skyrocketing costs of fossil fuels require a new way of looking at how commercial and residential structures are built. To satisfy this demand requires thinking outside of the traditional 'box' of how to construct modern buildings. Although I have experience as a project manager, I desire to better prepare myself for the future of construction, which I believe will be cleaner and greener than it is today. According to the Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC): "A sustainable building is one in which the site, design, construction, occupancy, maintenance, and deconstruction of the building are accounted for in ways that promote energy, water, and material efficiencies, while providing healthy, productive, and comfortable indoor environments and long-term benefits to owners, occupants, and society as a whole" (What is sustainability, 2011, SBIC). The technology needed to make this possible, including solar and wind energy, is still being refined. The need for greater technological knowledge of how to create a sustainable building is manifest in the existence of such internationally-recognized standards of certification for construction professionals, such as LEED. LEED measures the sustainability of site selection and development, water usage, materials, atmospheric quality, and intentions for use (What LEED is, USGBC). According to one construction manager I interviewed, while demonstrated excellence and experience in the field was enough to succeed in the industry in the post, that is no longer the case. Technical knowledge is required to capitalize upon the full range of opportunities that exist in construction. Additionally, the financial strains put upon the industry by the credit crisis increasingly require construction managers to balance competing demands for affordability, sustainability, and aesthetics. Knowledge of environmental science, architecture, and economics at a university level are invaluable assets for the construction manager's skill set. It can be difficult to…

Pages: 3  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Architecture it Is Interesting to

It has been mentioned that the "house's strength came from its chronological characteristic: Light, air and water were meant to encourage a life that is wholesome." The home became Neutra's third payment in the United States and then was constructed four years later after the Lovell Health House in Los Feliz. The Research House then eventually became the emphasis of…

Pages: 7  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Economics in Construction Industry

Economics in Construction Industry Data is very critical in a construction environment, and availability of appropriate statistical data assists policy makers in implementing an effective housing planning and formulates appropriate construction policy for the country. Despite the importance of data for the formulation of construction policy, it is still challenging to source for the appropriate statistical data that could be…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 7


Construction Industry in Iran Current Obstacles and Possible Solutions

Construction Industry in Iran - Current Obstacles and Possible Solutions The Construction Industry in Iran: Current Obstacles and Possible Solutions Case Studies The construction industry in Iran has many problems, but there are also chances to see solutions presented. Some of the areas where difficulties are currently being seen include economic issues and financing, building materials, education, international sanctions, design,…

Pages: 5  |  Case Study  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 20


Vitruvius Le Corbusier Loos

Architecture Vitruvius, Le Corbusier, Loos Vitruvius: from Book I of the Ten Books of Architecture What sorts of information do we learn about Vitruvius and his career from the Preface? How does he come across as a person to you? Vitruvius has had a long career in architecture. It is a subject that he has been interested in for a long time. He has been a loyal supporter of Caesar and his father before that. He kept his writings about architecture to himself for a long time in fear of not being received favorably by Caesar, but has now seen a good opportunity to reveal them to him. He wrote down his ideas on architecture in order for Caesar to have a plan to be more successful and he is happy to finally be able to share these with him. What is Vitruvius's formula for a successful career as an architect? Is this formula valid for architects, or for other types of professions? Vitruvius's formula for a successful career as an architect is one of education. He feels that an architect should be equipped with knowledge in many different subjects. He feels that knowledge is broken down into practice and theory. Those who have the natural ability to carry out the practice can not do so successfully without the understanding of theory. Theory, he says is the ability to demonstrate and explain things that can only be done by way of education. 3. What are Vitruvius's criteria for good architecture? Do they still apply today? Are they all equally important, or do you think some deserve a higher priority than others? Vitruvius's criteria for good architecture includes: order, arrangement, eurythmy, symmetry, propriety and economy. Order has to do with making sure that the separate parts all fit together to make the whole. Arrangement is putting things in their proper place. Eurythmy is the beauty and fitness. Symmetry is a proper agreement between the different parts and the whole scheme. Propriety is the perfection of style and economy has to do with the proper management of the materials involved. All of these criteria still apply today, as they are all important to the success of the overall project. Some of these criteria are more important than others. For instance, in today's world economy would be a top priority with arrangement not being far behind. Le Corbusier: "The Engineer's Aesthetic" from Towards…

Pages: 4  |  Article Review  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Architecture of Teotihuacan the City of Teotihuacan

¶ … Architecture of Teotihuacan The city of Teotihuacan is situated in the Valley of Mexico, about 50 kilometers to the north-east of modern Mexico City. It began its growth between 200 and 100 B.C. And by around 150 a.D. It had become one of the largest urban centers in the world, with an estimated population of over 125,000 people and covering an area of more than 20 square kilometers. The surviving evidence for the city reveals a planned metropolis, with extensive and wide streets and avenues, very large buildings, and regions of religious, administrative and industrial constructions as well as extensive housing. Teotihuacan reached its peak of size and power between circa 150 a.D. And 700 a.D., the "Classic" period of Mesoamerican civilization during which period it extended its influence throughout Mesoamerica. It has been called "the dominant Middle American site of the first half of the Classic era." The geographic location of Teotihuacan is clearly of importance in its development. The Valley of Mexico is fertile and suitable for extensive irrigation; the lake provided a network of transport routes and a source of water; trade routes from north to south and east to west cross the valley, and there are nearby resources of obsidian and other materials suitable for building, ornament and trade. There is also evidence that volcanic eruptions had destroyed pre-existing urban settlements elsewhere in the valley around 200 B.C., encouraging survivors to establish a new and safer city, and allowing Teotihuacan to flourish in the vacuum left by the destruction of potential rivals. Perhaps the most important single factor, however, was religious. The earliest and most dominant edifice in Teotihuacan is the Pyramid of the Sun, and beneath this structure archaeologists discovered a natural cave, enlarged into a petalled shape and reached by a tunnel directly beneath the very center of the pyramid. This cave clearly had sacred significance and appears to have dictated the position of the Pyramid of the Sun, which in turn determined the development of the city around it. The surviving buildings of Teotihuacan are of an austere design, using expressive planar surfaces and massive architectonic volumes. It may not be too fanciful to see in this architecture a reflection of the spirit of the place in which the city stands, with its sense of large scale, its wide plain and towering mountains. The temples themselves have been seen as artificial…

Pages: 3  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Architecture H-Project Dome of Florence Cathedral (1420

Architecture H-Project Dome of Florence Cathedral (1420 -- 1436) The Dome of Florence Cathedral (a.D. 1420-36) has been described as a "miracle" of design which is in essence a blend of Renaissance and Gothic architectural building aspects. The dome itself covers an octagonal apartment which is 138 ft. 6 ins, in diameter, and is raised on a drum, with circular…

Pages: 14  |  Research Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 20


Investigation Into the Issues of Managing Building Construction Projects in Iran

¶ … managing building construction Projects in Iran 102.2 Causes of Delay big projects. 112.3 Construction Delay: Quantitative Analysis 112.4 Construction Delay: Developing Economy 122.4.1 Poor ICT groundwork 122.4.2 Unacquaintedness of local personnel with ICT in remote construction sites 122.4.3 No financial justification for ICT training of personnel in small construction sites 122.4.4 Lack of sensation transfer in some electronic…

Pages: 18  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 10


Project Leader for the Office

By using the integrated delivery approach it has the potential to strengthen the project teams understanding of the owner's desired outcome, thus improving the team's ability to control costs and manage the budget. Most project managers understand that these are important elements for projects. The IPD approach of including the contractors as one of the core members will allow them to contribute their expertise in construction techniques early in the design process resulting in improved project quality and financial performance during the construction phase. By using the contractors during the designing phase will help with pre-construction planning and a better understanding of the design. As a project manager, one would realize that understanding the design is crucial for this type of project, because if something goes wrong it could be very costly. We all know that the budget is critical to any project and to go over the budget is not ideal. Using the architectures or designers as part of the process is another one of those early benefits such as accurate budget estimates to make informed design decisions and the pre-construction resolution of design-related issues resulting in improved project quality and financial performance. They normally bring some of the same qualities as the contractor but from a different perspective. The IPD approach is the desired method that should be used because it is known to be built on trust and early involvement by more parties. As we all have learned throughout this course, developing trust among team members encourages people to focus on project outcomes vs. individual goals. Normally, without trust the project has the potential to falter in turn the team will remain in opposing and hostile relationships. It is also acknowledged that including all key team members helps ensure members remain motivated to want to do a good job. Lastly, the project lifecycle will be included with the IPD approach as part of the standard procedures. References Carbasho, T. (2008). Integrated Project Delivery Improves Efficiency Streamlines Construction. Retrieved from http://www.tradelineinc.com/reports/0A03D1C0-2B3B-B525-85702BCEDF900F61 Edmondson, A. C, & Rashid, F. (2009) Integrated Project Delivery at Autodesk, Inc. Boston: Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing. Gray, C., & Larson, E (2008). BUS 517: Project management: The managerial process: 2009 custom edition (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. Lewis, J. (2003). Project leadership: Boston, MA:……

Pages: 4  |  Case Study  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 2


International Style of Architecture Was

In art of all forms from the new jazz and musicals filling the air and radios to the great books produced and architecture, it was transformed into an extreme with one end looking overly optimistic with insight and hope to the other end of the spectrum seeking escapism from the plight. In architecture we saw the grandest buildings constructed like the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building which helped citizens to maintain their faith in the American system in a time desperation was conquering. It helped give us an identity as a nation with many new styles of art from music, photography, fine art, literature, sculpting or architecture. Bibliography Encyclopedia Britanica. "International Style." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2011. 1105-1108. The authors of Encyclopedia Britanica provide details on specific subjects. In this specific occurrence, the authors visit the topic of the International Style of Architecture. The most common characteristics of International Style buildings are rectilinear forms; light, taut plane surfaces that have been completely stripped of applied ornamentation and decoration; open interior spaces; and a visually weightless quality engendered by the use of cantilever construction. Henry Russell Hitchcock, Philip Johnson. The International Style. W.W. Norton and Company, 1997. This work is one of the most influential works of architectural criticism and history of the twentieth century. Initially produced as a catalog to accompany a controversial and groundbreaking 1932 Museum of Modern Art show of the then new architecture emerging in Europe and America, The International Style quickly became the definitive statement of the principles underlying the work of such giants as Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and other pioneers. This new edition has been completely redesigned and reset, and it features a new foreword by Philip Johnson, who reflects on the legacy of the International Style and examines the still-precarious power of architecture. Jobst, R. "Charm is Not an Antiquated Notion." FFWD Weekly 31 March 2005. In criticizing the neo-traditional design of Tonko's 17th Avenue and 7th Street S.W. project, the Beltline planning group's Bob van Wegen maintains that all new buildings should be designed in a contemporary style. To reference historic styles in new buildings is, he argues, akin to stuffing the pet cat after it dies. People have learned through decades of bitter experience that new buildings will almost certainly be inferior to what stood before. Brick gives way to stucco, quality loses out to "economic feasibility"…

Pages: 2  |  Annotated Bibliography  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 2


Roman Public Architecture Contained Elements

From the outside, the 80 entrance arches on the ground floor, built using the standard column structure, added ease and beauty to the special design. From the inside, the ramped seating area and the giant vaults expanded the coliseum, and the layered and tiered arrangement of the seating area was an impressive show of spatial ingenuity. As with most Roman structures of the time, mass and interior space were manipulated to produce a visually appealing conception of greatness. Another example of Roman public architecture is Trajan's market. The market was a commercial center of about 150 shops and offices, set into the side of the Quirinal Hill. Both monumental and functional, it is typical of ancient Roman architecture. The semicircular brick building is set into the hill, above which are tiers of terraces ascending the slope. At the upper end of the hill, a two-story market hall with a series of groin vaults was lined with shops on either side of a central promenade with a balcony level and clerestory openings above. The brick facades are detailed with brickwork arches, pediments, and travertine lintels, and the markets are a magnificent demonstration of concrete and brick construction, with vaults and arches throughout. The Great Hall has a central empty rectangular space covered with six large cross-vaults. Realized in the classic Roman taberna style, piers, and lintels in travertine with upper windows for light, the vaults relieve their mass onto the side surroundings. The system of the corridors on the first and second levels insured ventilation and light. In this example, the vaults are again used to increase the spatial experience of roman architecture. The cross vaults and terraces are used to increase space, and maximize functionality. The large opening off the street provided a conception of mass and greatness from the outside. Romans, using architecture of wall and enclosed tactile space, as seen in the above examples, created massive monuments, both inside and out. They dramatized the organization of the interior and the exterior by a framework of vertical and horizontal divisions, including engaged columns, pilasters, arch order, superposed orders both free-standing and applied, and painted architecture. The use of truss roofs in trabeated construction, and extensive use of vaulted construction created buildings and structures of large uninterrupted spaces, and……

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Green Architecture in Japan: A

Buddhism reached Japan 12. Paul Watt, Shinto & Buddhism:Wellsprings of Japanese Spirituality. Asia Society's Focus on Asian Studies, Vol. II, No. 1, Asian Religions, pp. 21-23, Fall 1982. Copyright AskAsia, 1996. http://www.askasia.org/frclasrm/readings/r000009.htm (October2002). A in the eighth centuries AD and migrated into Japan through Korea and China. Other religions have existed in Japan in varying degrees at varying times, but…

Pages: 16  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Intended Major: Art and Architecture

My main interest in the field of art is architecture. After majoring in art, I hope to pursue a master's degree in this discipline with the aim of becoming a licensed architect. Architecture is even more demanding a field, perhaps than art, for design must be functional and comfortable as well as beautiful and expressive -- some have called the field of architecture a vocation as well as a profession. One must be a skillful businessperson as well as a great artist of the eye. One must be well versed in the mathematics and spatial relations of numbers, and be a savvy negotiator as well with business contractors. One must create buildings that are energy efficient and let in a great deal of light, and lift the soul in a positive fashion by the way that light is dispensed across the floor and ceiling. One must create healthy buildings that are both sanitary and sanctuaries. One must, as an architect, become an artist of construction, as well as construct a soul every time one constructs a building.…

Pages: 1  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements

Actually, his footnotes to this statement show the goal of the attack: both Ruskin's Stones of Venice and Geoffrey Scott's The Architecture of Humanism are against this Wittkower's paradigm because it supports a totalitarian regime and the building of architecture structure that ushers in the totalitarianism type of buildings. Specifically, Wittkower has a problem with anyone that shares the following…

Pages: 7  |  Research Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 7


Culture vs. Architecture

¶ … Architecture There are certainly several periods throughout and even before current human civilization that represent quintessential examples of the greatness that existed at least at that time but even if one is looking at the entire amalgamation of architecture over the years including from the ancient pyramids of Egypt up through the newer structures of today such as…

Pages: 11  |  Essay  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 15


Architecture Is at a Curious Crossroads. According

Architecture is at a curious crossroads. According to Kenneth Frampton, the current role and goal of architecture is "to remove itself from both the optimization of advanced technology and the ever-present tendency to regress into nostalgic historicism or the glibly decorative," ("Towards a Critical Regionalism," Part 3). Universal techniques, materials, technologies, and cultural concepts of spaces and places have emerged,…

Pages: 8  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 8


Contemporary Crafts

¶ … people define themselves in many expressive and artistic ways. By their songs and their poetry. By their food and their clothing. By their literature and by their buildings. Each one of these cultural forms is the creation of a particular moment in time and place, for everything changes and is transformed. Even a society that as fundamentally traditional…

Pages: 10  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 7


Contemporary Craft

¶ … Art of Building Construction in Al-Alkhalaf Village Saudi Arabia Understanding the difference between Vernacular and Modern architecture Vernacular architecture is architecture which is representative of the anthropological and historical community in which it exists. Modern architecture is architecture more representative of an increasingly global and technologically aware world view Positives of Vernacular architecture Provides a direct link with…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 9

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