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Art the Painting Techniques of

Their portraits seem elementary in ways, but they are styled to be so. They embrace the primitivism coming in to vogue at that time. The core group of Cubists consisted of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Albert Gleizes. Braque's "cubistic" works won for the group the name Cubism. But each of the painters embraced the style, which embodied the primitivism…

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Venus in Art Introduction to

This painting indeed conveys to the viewer feelings of delight and joy. Another artist who produced works that depicted the birth of Aphrodite was the French painter JA.D. Ingres. Ingres' work is considered more classical in form that Boucher's version and is part of the artistic movement known as Neoclassicism. In addition, Ingres' work draws inspiration from the past as…

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Moma in the Museum of

She is like a gatekeeper between the Victorian, acceptable world, and the world of the prostitutes beyond. Her position is illustrated in her dress, for she is the one among all five women who is most covered. The danger of the women is illustrated in the rest of the piece. For example, the linen which covers the women is as jagged and angular as the subjects themselves. Their bedclothes are then allowed to mimic weaponry of a sort. This point is again illustrated in the fruit that is placed at the bottom center of the painting. There is a table or some sort of shelving on which sits a bowl of fruit. This bowl has a sharp edge which points up at the women. The food is colorless, just black and white and barely discernible as food products. The only color in the foods is the red striping of the pears and the blood red melon which is a sharp crescent shape. The sharp point of the melon looks like it will pierce the leg of the bottom right prostitute. When first shown to the public, many people were shocked and even outraged by "Les Damoiselles D'Avignon." Expressionism and representational art was just beginning to emerge as an art form. Few painters would have put effort into creating something as visually unappealing as this painting. Even modernist paintings of the period believed the Picasso had lost his senses when he created this painting (Plagens 1). It is certainly not beautiful and very few could state that it is visually appealing. Yet, this painting has an unmistakable quality which, although perhaps ugly, is very powerful and illustrates a definite thematic point that Picasso intended to introduce to the viewer. Many art critics have postulated that the mixture of danger and sexuality that is portrayed in the painting is an example of the psychological scenario that would have been prevalent in Victorian society. Women who were of low social standing or who were born illegitimate could get jobs as servants or perhaps nurses or governesses. However, there were many who because they could not get such positions found themselves in the unenviable position of either giving their bodies or starving to death. Prostitutes were everywhere at this time and many a young man lost himself and his money in brothels, such as those that lined the streets of Avignon. There was little…

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Art Museum Beauty Is in

I was surprised to find that my impression was quite the opposite of a more traditional interpretation, which is that Renoir's male figure is "tough and tender at once" (Benfey). There are bold contrasts between the woman's white dress and the man's dark suit. This contrast in color mimics their contrast in attitude and her positioning as heroine and his as potential lover, potential threat. Up close, the dimension of the painting truly comes alive and one can see the layers upon layers of pain that Renoir used to create his vision. I could spend hours investigating it. The other painting I fell in love with is "Two Nudes-Lovers (Self-Portrait with Alma Mahler, 1913)" by Oskar Kokoschka. The painting is also oil on canvas and measures approximately 64" x 38." In some ways Kokoschka's self-portrait with his lover it is quite similar to the Renoir. The main subject is a couple embracing, perhaps in the middle of a dance. Despite their embrace, the two are not looking directly at one another. The woman again has a thousand-yard-stare and her facial expression includes a deep frown, showing her sadness. The man looks worried, almost panicked. And yet they embrace, holding their naked bodies close to one another and pressing their cheeks together. The emotional tension is palpable and is reinforced by the colors used in the piece, blues, purples and browns. "Human beings are not still lifes," Kokoschka said in Vienna in 1912, and this belief shows in his work, where he always attempt to capture not a portrait, but a soul (Delmar). In style, "Two Nudes" could not be further from Renoir's dance. Kokoschka was an expressionist, a modern movement of the early 20th century. Expressionists sought to express meaning and often distorted their subjects for a radical emotional effect or to evoke a mood. The focus is on the soul of the individual subject and expressionism has been characterized as a reaction to naturalism and impressionism. "The Scream" by Edvard Munch is often touted as the prime example of expressionism, and Kokoschka's painting has much in common with this famous work. The figures are the only recognizable detail in the paining. The background is amorphous, broad strokes of the basic color palette of the painting with no actual form or texture. The Despite the beautiful positioning of the figures -- the female in a perfect ballerina position from the…

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Whitney Collection, What Qualities Do

These elements are important, because they are showing how art is heading in a direction of capturing these images. As a result, this is giving the viewer a sense of appreciation for them and ideas that they will see. Where, they are able to transcend the time when they were created, which is showing a sense of realism and how various shifts could be occurring. Once this takes place, it is giving everyone a sense of awareness and enlightenment about these events. ("Whitney Collection") At the same time, modern art is heading in a direction that is taking on more abstract concepts. Two examples of this can be seen in the works that were created by: Jessica Stockholder and Pat Steir. In both pieces of art, there is the utilization of various dark and light colors on the canvas, to shape how it is being interpreted by the viewer. In the case of Stockholder, her canvas is untitled to show how she is allowing the audience to make their own interpretations about the underlying meanings. While at the same time, Steir is taking this concept and is applying it to the universe through the use of: a blue background, with grey and red overlapping it. Even though this may not be an actual depiction of the Milky Way, the utilization of this technique is allowing the viewer to open their minds. This is important, because it is taking these ideas and recreating them in such a way, to instill a unique interpretation in the minds of the individual. Once this occurs, everyone will be able to have their own views of the work and its underlying meaning. ("Whitney Collection") When you step back and analyze the direction that modern art is going, it is clear that there are two major influences that have been quickly emerging (realism and abstract concepts). Realism is used to show the various images of contemporary society by: highlighting how this is shaping the way the audience is looking at everyday events. Once this occurs, the reader will have a greater sense of appreciation for these images and their underlying meanings. While the different abstract concepts, are being utilized to shape how someone is interpreting a wide variety of events. As, the artists are using different colors to: create a kaleidoscope of light and dark images (which is a reflection of various concepts). These elements are…

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Art Monet Claude Monet and

" (Art Encyclopedia) In conclusion, this research paper aimed to discuss the impressionist artist, Claude Monet. One of his great accomplishments, Water Lilies, is on display in the Toledo Museum of Art. This and his works are some of the most known artworks in the history of the world and young and old alike love his work. For example, since the early 1990's, children have been recreating Monet's work in weaving projects that are surprisingly good. These children and many more to come in the future will continue to be influenced by Monet thanks to the Toledo Museum of Art with projects like Impressionism: Selections of Five Museums. "The project began with the Toledo Museum of Art's special exhibition, Impressionism: Selections of Five Museums, as inspiration for our weaving project with fiber artist, Meg Dickason. Each year, with generous support by our schools PTS, Dickason has conducted weaving workshops with students, teaching them to weave on a variety of looms as well as to spin fibers." (Lehman) Even with the combination of Claude Monet's Water Lilies and Maxwell Q. Klinger, Toledo may never become a Mecca for glitzy Hollywood red carpet events, but there is plenty of reason to go at least once to see this wonderful work of art. Works Cited Art Encyclopedia. (2009). Impressionism. Ed. Answers.com. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.answers.com/topic/impressionism Flicker. (2007). Monet Water Lilies. Ed. Toledo Museum of Art. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/23758779@N05/3125107502/ InterAgir. (2009). Claude Monte: Self-Portrait. Ed. Toledo Museum of Art. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.interagir.com/?entryID=123 InterMonet. (2009). Biography of Claude Monet. Retrieved on October 30, 2009, from http://www.intermonet.com/biograph/ Lehman, Linda. (1991). "Woven Impressions." Arts & Activities. December 1991. Vol. 110, Issue 4, p5, 3p, 6 color. Schjeldahl, Peter. (2009). "Water World." New Yorker. October 5, 2009: Vol. 85 Issue 31,……

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Edgar Degas Paul Gauguin

Gauguin and Degas Paul Gauguin and Edgar Degas shared many similarities as artists. Both were Impressionists, though Degas began as a classical artist and moved on to become one of the founders of the Impressionist movement, while Gauguin began as an Impressionist and moved on to become well-known as a Synthesist, Cloissonist, and Primitive artist. Degas saw commercial success in…

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Title Insurance and Art Insurance

Art Title It is interesting to note that attaining a career in Title Insurance can be as easy as taking a few online courses, and that some states do not even require that minimal amount of education in order to get a license to work in Title Insurance. One school offering online courses in Title Insurance states, "While some states…

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Art What Is Considered Beautiful

Art - What is Considered Beautiful? People's evaluation of art can never be anything other than subjective. When someone praises a work, or even simply declares that they find it beautiful, their criteria are rarely based on the intrinsic merit of the work, but rather on how it makes them feel-or because they know that the artist is famous." It can be said that this statement is generally true. Art is both perceptual and psychological, thus the "power of aesthetic perception is the interaction between the object and the beholder" (Chang Pp). Art creates emotion and so creates response. "The experimental aesthetic value of even the most successful art pieces is relative with changes in time and conditions of the society in which it resides" (Chang Pp). Because art is psychological, it involves both the conscious and unconscious processes of the beholder (Chang pp). This awareness and receptivity of a piece of art is referred to as the sensitivity of the beholder (Chang Pp). Art represents the past realities, as well as functioning as a predictor of societal evolution (Chang Pp). Nathan Kogan writes that Paleolithic art forms, paintings and sculptures, were associated with ritual and ceremonies, thus, promoting the solidarity and prosperity of the group as a whole (Kogan Pp). Art is emotional and this arousal "implies distinctive central and autonomic nervous system activity, which represents the primary connection between art and biology" (Kogan Pp). Therefore, humans have an underlying sensitivity to the arts, and from the days the Paleolithic era, art appears to be embedded within the human genes (Kogan Pp). The definition of art to most people today differs greatly from that of past societies (Art Pp). Today, critics include in their definition of art what is called 'visual culture,' such as comic books, advertising, television, and motion pictures (Art Pp). "Perhaps the major difficulty in defining art lies in the fact that art implies value-monetary, social, and intellectual. Large amounts of money may be involved when an object is regarded as art" (Art Pp). For example, "a sculpture of beer cans by American artist Jasper Johns is worth millions of dollars, while beer cans themselves are worth almost nothing" (Art Pp). Most critics believe that John's work qualifies as art "because the artist intended it to be seen as art' (Art Pp). However, there is much in the world that is considered art, yet the "artists"…

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Renaissance Art Response the Word

From the canvas, he seems to be telling the story of his entire life in a series of colored brushstrokes. During the Renaissance, painters worked diligently to create new ways to depict the human form on canvas and wood. Before this time, artists showed human figures in very flat, two-dimensional ways. Medieval art all show people who do not look like real fully rendered human beings. During the Renaissance, this changed and artists wanted their human subjects to look like they do in the real world. The intention was to create the most realistic depiction of humanity possible in this two-dimensional medium. If one looks carefully at portraiture from this time period, it is evident that of major importance to the artists is the presentation of the subject's face. This perspective is evident in this Rembrandt painting. Even though the face looks blurred from the way the subject was painted, it still gives the impression of being a real person rather than a representation. Rembrandt himself said that in his work he intended to portray the greatest and most natural moment (Hughes 6). This is clear if you look at some of the other self-portraits that Rembrandt made. None of them are stoic, dignified poses but rather there are self-portraits of the artist wearing fancy costumes or making funny faces which he would have made by looking in a mirror. The self-portrait of Rembrandt allows the modern viewer to see one component of traditional Renaissance art. During this period, artists became very interested in the human body and in particular the human face and how it varied from individual to individual. In this picture, Rembrandt is not handsome nor is he smiling. It does not look like a particularly important moment for him to be capturing, but that is the point, that every moment has merit and should be remembered. Works Cited Hughes, Robert. "The God of Realism." The New York Review of Books. 53(6), 2006. Print. Van de Wetering, Ernst. Rembrandt: the Painter at……

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Sculpture of Artist Henry Moore.

Even his earliest sculptures were modernistic and forward thinking, totally leaving the conventional world of art behind. Moore's prime concern was the material. He loved working in stone, and used it almost exclusively in his work. He especially admired the ability sculpture gave him to create 3-D images, viewable from all sides, and different from all sides. He loved the abstract in design as his works show so effectively. He often wrote about his own work, and once said, "Abstract qualities of design are essential to the value of a work, but to me of equal importance is the psychological, human element. If both abstract and human elements are welded together in a work, it must have fuller, deeper meaning'" (Grohmann 25). Moore's work still has power today because he tried to create works that meant more to the viewer than just a carved piece of stone. He hoped to give the viewer a complete view of the project, and include elements of humanity and depth. He wanted his work to come alive in the viewers' eyes - another reason he enjoyed working in stone. He hoped the viewer could almost imagine the stone before it was carved, so the actual sculpture would be even more vibrant and alive. If a work of sculpture has its own life and form, it will be alive and expansive, seeming larger than the stone or wood from which it is carved. It should always give the impression, whether carved or modeled, of having grown organically, created by pressure from within. Henry Moore, 1958, quoted by Edouard Roditi (Editors). Moore was extremely prolific throughout his lifetime, and critics were not always kind to him. After his death, many museums offered retrospectives of his work, and more than one critic began to realize the import of his work. One critic said his "sheer virtuosity of invention was breathtaking" (Kramer 18). Moore is an artist who many felt was before his time. His work was modern, often misunderstood, but stands the test of time. References Editors. "Henry Moore on the Internet." ArtCyclopedia. 20 July 2002. 24 Oct. 2002. http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/moore_henry.html Grohmann, Will. The Art of Henry Moore. New York H.N. Abrams, 1960. Kramer, Hilton. "After All These Years,……

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Art History the Clouds Gleamed

" The Voice now wanted to know more about the materials with which the artists worked, to get a better idea of the mundane aspects of art. Leonardo," began the Voice, "you are in many ways more versatile a creator than your counterpart before you. You have composed sketches of objects and devices that will not be constructed for hundreds…

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Humanities Terminology Humanities: Humanities Refer

" (See reference 3) But style is not limited to the field of writing alone though it may be more pronounced here. Style can be seen in almost everything that forms creative expression; in fact even the way someone talks, walks or conducts himself becomes his or her unique style. It is due to this style that we can tell people apart or enjoy one's company and avoid another's. It is style that makes a writer popular. For example there are thousands of ghost and magic stories around but there was something about J.K Rowling's writing style that led to the massive success of her Harry Potter series. Culture: Culture refers to art, literature and social norms, almost everything that reveals something special or unique about a group or society. Culture is a set of principles, traditions, practices and values that sets one group or society apart from another. When we say that African-Americans have a culture distinctly different from that of White Americans, what we are referring to is the long history and heritage that gives both these groups their distinct identity. Culture is therefore everything about a group that makes it unique among host of other groups in the world. For example Irish people would have certain customs and traditions that people in Africa might find unique and fascinating and vice versa. These customs lay the foundation of a culture but culture also includes all forms of art. When we study British literature, we notice that it is distinctly different from Russian literature or German books for that matter, this is because of the influence of culture only. A difference in the literature or art of the same group is then due to style and not culture. It is important to bear in mind so we can clearly understand the differences in various cultures. Genius: Genius refers to intellect of a very high order. It is due to this intellect that we are introduced to something new and different in the otherwise old and dull fields. For example every painter can paint but if Michelangelo was a genius because he brought a fresh perspective to painting. Similarly every person who is regarded as a genius is something with extraordinary intellect and a unique passion for his work. References Aiken (1998): Nancy Aiken, The Biological Origins of Art, London: Praeger, 1998 Gombrich (1995): E.H. Gombrich, The Story of Art,…

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Museum Methods Museum Is Usually

Although I agree with the basic structure of this definition, I would prefer more emphasis on the level of required professional standards necessary to designate an institution as a museum. Many non-profit institutions are established to enrich our society including, schools, libraries and community social and cultural organizations. Many of these institutions are essential in the preservation of values and…

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Brenda Mcmahon

Brenad McMahon The creation of ceramics is a form of art that some describe as an art and some a craft, though how this is applied may depend on the nature of the work under discussion and the degree of artistry with which it has been designed, assuming the distinction needs to be made at all. Barbara McMahon is a…

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Cubism Cubist Sculpture Cubist Sculpture and Its

Cubism Cubist sculpture Cubist sculpture and its significance in the development of art Cubism as an art movement is considered one of the most revolutionary in art history. It was part of the modernist art movement during the Twentieth Century which altered the principles of art that had been dominant for centuries. Art previous to the cubism movement was traditional…

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Basic History of Western Art

¶ … History of Western Art Donatello's David is a clear influence of the classical style over the Renaissance art. The sculpture features a nude representation of carefully studied anatomy that depicts a certain level of feminity. It reminds of the Greek pursuit for beauty and realistic representation of the human figure, as well as the illustration of a major…

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19th Century Art First Question - Three

19th Century Art FIRST QUESTION - THREE PHASES OF CUBISM Considered one of the most influential art movements of the twentieth century, Cubism defined not only a transformative period of art but influenced the careers of the individual artists who directed the movement as well. Cubism is traditionally divided into three phases: The proto-cubist, or Cezanne Phase, when Picasso and…

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Dynamics Between Art & Technology

There are buildings in Japan that withstand earthquakes while sustaining minimal damage compared to buildings which are not constructed by the same methods. That is an example of advancement in architecture. Sculptors have a greater range of materials to choose from because of the kinds of tools that exist now as well as the materials that they may not have had access to before commercial airlines, the Internet, and other technologies. Art and technology of the 20th century were additionally influenced by increased contact and communication among the international communities and the rising strength of feminism in the latter part of the 20th century. Many of the most celebrated art forms of the 20th century came from within specific cultural groups such as Jazz, Rock and Roll, Cubism, Nouvelle Vague, and post modernism. Without the convergence of, diversity of, and massive expressions of the many minority groups including women, the art of the 20th century would not have reached the historical heights as it did. In many instances, the oppression and injustice the minority groups faced expressed itself as new art forms such as hip hop and feminism. There is always an ongoing conversation between art and popular culture. Many professionals in the art community traditionally separate art from popular culture. Art is supposed to be more thought provoking, non-traditional, and reaches a niche audience. Popular culture is mainstream, appeals to a wide audience, and stereotypically does not engage the intellect, other abstractions, nor does it function on a semiotic level. Art in the 20th century subsumed popular culture. The result was art that was both art and popular culture, creating an intriguing intersection. Andy Warhol was a Slovakian American artist who is famous for blurring these lines between art and popular culture. Art and technology separately as well as when they intersect have many effects upon society including the ways in which we perceive ourselves and perceive reality. References: Benjamin, W. (1935) The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Available from design.wishiewashie.com/HT5/WalterBenjaminTheWorkofArt.pdf. 2012 June 15. National Endowment for the Arts. (2009) Audience 2.0 -- How Technology Influences Arts Participation. National Endowment for the Arts, Available from www.nea.gov/research/new-media-report/New-Media-Report.pdf. 2012 June 17. Thakur, M.K. (2010) How technology influences arts and creativity. International Business Times, Available from http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/79404/20101107/digital-technology-art-dulwich-picture-gallery-iguides-iPod-touch-technology-austin-museum-of-digita.htm. 2012 June 16.…

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Renaissance and Baroque

Renaissance / Baroque Comparative Analysis of Renaissance and Baroque What is the Baroque? We use this term to refer to an artistic movement that got started, roughly, at some point in the early seventeenth century and continued for decades, but it is important to recall that successive artistic movements are in many ways indebted to their predecessors: the idea that…

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Figurine of the Goddess Wadjet

Her mouth is closed but her eyes are open and facing forward. In sculpting her body, the artist placed the figure in a position where it looks like she has been frozen mid-stride, as if she was taken in the middle of a swift motion. The figure, although stationary, still gives off a sense of motion and movement. Her legs are positioned one in front of the other, but her feet are oddly placed. The back foot is directly behind the front, even though the leg seems to be farther apart. One arm is down at the figure's side while the other is raised. Based on the position of her hand, it is possible that the figure once held a staff or something which has been lost to time. Another interesting part of the figure's body has to do with the sculpting of the clothing. It seems that Wadjet is fully clothed. Her dress goes down to the bottom of her calves. The two legs are intricately carved so that a shadow is almost perceptible between the legs. Her chest appears to be covered. There is no definition although her breasts are indicated. Yet, her belly button shows. There is no apparent line for her clothing to be separated from body. The goddess's chest is covered, as is her waist, but her navel shows. Since the emphasis of the body is on this noticeable feature, it makes logical sense that the sculptor intended it to be a part of the piece's message. This leads a modern observer to wonder why this is how Wadjet is depicted in this sculpture and whether it has something to do with her function within the society. If, for example, she had something to do with the birth process or motherhood, then her visible navel would make sense. The Goddess Wadjet stands in her bronze form in the Egyptian wing of the Los Angeles museum. Despite her existence for a matter of centuries, she still serves to entice and intrigue those who came to gaze upon her. Her creation is a supreme piece of artistry that forces the attention of the viewer and makes one question every choice and every detail of the sculpture. Works Cited: Janson, H.W. & Janson, A. (2008). Janson's A Basic History……

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Art Can Come in Many

Likewise, the mural located above the transcription of the second inaugural address is intended to reflect the principles that Lincoln outlined in his second inaugural address, the unity of North and South and the continued pursuit of knowledge and education (National Parks Service, 2012). This is represented through an angle protecting symbols that represent art, music, philosophy, music, chemistry, literature, painting, and sculpture. Likewise, Andy Warhol (1967), like Bacon, took an already existing art form and used it to memorialize a fallen icon. Through his pop art, and specifically, Marilyn Monroe (1967), Warhol combined photography and screen-printing to create a unique work of art (Pearson Publication, Inc., 2009, p. 147). Marilyn Monroe (1967) features a screen-printed photograph of Monroe's head against a hot pink background. The number of colors are used in the print are limited due to technique, however, Warhol's juxtaposition of Monroe's yellow hair against the pink backdrop, helps to frame Monroe's face. Additionally, Warhol's use of bright pink to highlight Monroe's eyes and lips draw the viewers' attention to her face, which is one of the things that is most memorable about the icon. Because of Warhol's technique, he was able to reproduce various versions of the Monroe portrait in a variety of colors. Warhol's approach to art is unique because he was able to take existing images and put his own spin on them and be both commercial and innovative at the same time. Warhol's approach to art, specifically Monroe's images, could be taken to be a commentary on how the public viewed the icon as a commodity and did not take into consideration her personal desires. Moreover, Warhol's ability to mass produce Monroe's portrait, and his ability to change the colors used, can be taken to be representative of a mask, which although changes with each role that Monroe took, underneath, she was still just a woman. Also, the fact that the screen printing is imperfect, as sometimes the colors exceed the boundaries set forth by Monroe's features, also seem to indicate that Monroe was an imperfect person. This image, however, hold special significance for me because it reminds me of my love for pop art and film, as well as my appreciation for Warhol, a man who gained fame and success through his own interpretation of the world and the exploitation of commercialism. It is interesting to see how each work of art, the…

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Paintings Both Salvador Dali and

Christ is seen more as a volunteer to die for the sins of humanity rather than as a victim of persecution. The difference is palpable, which is why Dali's crucifixion is unique. Moreover, the artist presents Christ as a cultural icon. Unlike Raphael, Dali is not attempting to render Biblical history so much as he is trying to convey the importance of Christ on human consciousness and culture. Both Raphael's and Dali's compositions help the viewer's eye move around the canvas, mainly towards the heavens. In Raphael's composition, the top panel of the frame depicts a scene that is removed from the main scene below. We see two angels and a male figure, which may be God or another saint. The male figure points upwards to heaven. The angels are flying, which also suggests they are ascended beings. Dali conveys similar sentiments about ascension, but using different symbols and compositional techniques. In "Crucifixion," Dali shows Christ and the cross as being ethereal. They are not touching the ground. Just as Christ floats in front of his cross, the cross floats in front of Gala. The cubes that form the cross correspond with the black and white squares that form the floor beneath. The phrase from the Lord's Prayer, "On earth as it is in Heaven" comes to mind, as what is above (Christ and the cube cross) is as it is below (Gala and the tiled floor). The stark, black, and endless landscape beyond makes the Dali painting also look like a dream. Raphael's painting, on the other hand, seems much more realistic. In Dali's crucifixion, the horizon is rendered in the lower portion of the canvas. The bulk of the canvas is consumed by the crucifixion scene and Christ's pale body. In Raphael's composition, the Christ baby is a tiny element compared to the other figures. Moreover, the composition is more traditional, in that the foreground depicts the feet and the horizon is about at midpoint. Like Dali, though, Raphael places Christ in the exact center of the canvas. Therefore, both painters depict biblical stories, but Raphael does so with greater realism than Dali does. Raphael has a more expansive color palette, but both artists consciously capitalize on the use of gold. Gold is the color of Dali's cross: which is the central element in his composition. Its color is echoes below in Gala's robes. Raphael also uses gold…

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Public Art and Public Spaces

While the political content of public art has lessened to some extent in more recent decades, it remains in general inherently more subversive than unifying. Rachel Whiteread's 1993-4 sculpture, titled "House." The concrete piece replaces what was once an actual Victorian home with a solid block that cannot be entered, that cannot give shelter, that cannot do any of the…

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Investigating Art of the Past With a Time Machine

We will then move to Claude Monet's garden at Giverny, where we will attempt to catch him completing his 1897-8 "Nympheas" (one of his famous paintings of water lilies, now in the LA County Museum of Art). Monet is a textbook Impressionist painter, but we will interrogate him as to whether his problems with his own eyesight (he developed cataracts) had any influence on his signature style. In the first half of the twentieth century, we will investigate Surrealism. We will locate Meret Oppenheim in 1936, as she completes her notorious "Object" -- frequently known as "the fur teacup" or "the furry breakfast." Oppenheim's work is perhaps the most memorable example of Surrealism in sculpture -- but we can ask her if the dream-like associations of the piece (is it intended to be strongly vaginal? does it relate to her status as a woman artist?) were intentional on her part, or whether she was merely giving free rein to her subconscious as Surrealists frequently attempted. Then we will find Salvador Dali in 1954, as he completes his large and disturbing oil on canvas painting "Young Virgin Auto-Sodomized By The Horns Of Her Own Chastity." We can interrogate Dali as to the meaning of the symbolism of the painting: why would the chastity of a virgin take the form of a rhinoceros horn about to penetrate her own anus? Is Dali suggesting that sexual repression is self-destructive? Finally in the latter half of the…

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Painting Is Called "Passing Storm Over the

¶ … painting is called "Passing Storm over the Sierra Nevadas" and was painted in 1870 by Albert Bierstadt. It is located in the American Art section of the San Antonio Museum of Art. The painting was chosen because of several different reasons. First of all, the artist's capacity to paint the natural landscape is impressive and very vivid, to…

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Exploring Contemporary Art Franz West Chameleon 2004

¶ … art: Franz West, Chameleon, 2004 Exploring Contemporary Art with Theory (Philosophy of Art) Franz West, Chameleon, 2004. Collection of the Musee d'art contemporain de Montreal. Franz West's three-dimensional 2004 creation called simply Chameleon looks like the interior of a brightly-colored green kitchen in its incarnation at Collection of the Musee d'art contemporain de Montreal. Chameleon is not a depiction of a lizard, but a work that superficially suggest the appearance of an interior design, in bright, Brady Bunch, mid-1970s shades of chartreuse. Its strange falseness and homogeneity as the lime green tables and chairs blend in with the walls, underlines the conformities of urban life and the psychological, human desire to blend in with society -- but with brightness and panache. The title suggests concealment, of trying to be 'like' other things in the environment in a half-deliberate, half-unconscious manner. Mimicry comes not through camouflage, but by standing out just as much, and in the same way as everything else. The tables and the chairs are all bright green, the same colors as the walls. The chairs are evidently painted as their backs are brown, but this brown merely blends in with the wood flooring of the kitchen. The furniture looks cheap, disposable, and is very evidently a manufactured commodity. The use of the ordinary objects of everyday life to question modern-day values is typical of West's work since the early 1970s, which often involve the use of familiar objects and pieces of furniture, which are given an "archetypal dimension" in their elevation to the realms of the exhibition platforms of museums, where they are subjected to the gaze of patrons. In Chameleon, its chairs, paint, a table, and a kitchen floor "each in turn becomes the basis for a critical, provocative and deliberately insolent meditation on the nature and scope of the act of making art. In Chameleon, West uses one of his favorite strategies, that of disguising the utilitarian nature of the objects, in this case, a round table and eight chairs. It is color that rules within this austere installation. Although the most recent exhibition of Chameleon involved the use of bright green, which seems befitting the title of the work, it is noteworthy that the solid color of the table and chairs actually "varies according to the choice of those displaying the work. " The process of displaying of the work makes the piece…

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Greenart Inc. Leap's Frog Sculpture Competition Green

GREENART INC. LEAP'S FROG SCULPTURE COMPETITION GREEN ART, INCORPORATED LEAP'S FROG SCULPTURE PROJECT and COMPETITION in MELBOURNE AUSTRALIA, ROYAL BOTANIC GARDEN JANUARY - MARCH 2009 Frog's Leap Sculpture Walk is an art event that will be held in Melbourne Australia by Green Art Incorporated from mid January 2009 - March 2009 in the Royal Botanic Garden. There is no entry…

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Art Qs the United States Became the

Art Qs The United States became the focal point of the artistic and painting world following World War II, with the advent of the abstract expressionism school of painting. European paintings remained more tied to traditional roots and still typically depicted scenes, if even abstractly, but American painting moved more towards complete abstraction such as the action paintings of Jackson Pollack and others. The cultural and economic center of the world moved from Europe to the United States during the same period, and this perhaps led to a more intrepid sense of adventure in exploration in American painting, looking towards the new future, while Europeans still tried to make sense of the past that had been lost. 2) Censorship has long been a major issue in the art world, from at least the time of the Catholic Church's dominance of world affairs if not earlier. In modern times, censorship still exists in regards to limiting the amount of sexuality that can be displayed in certain galleries and other public places, and also in terms of political statements and alternative points-of-view. Art has long been used as a tool for future change, and the expression of unpopular and/or controversial ideas through art has long been one of the checks on society and the measures of its freedom. Censorship in art limits this freedom and so the progress available to a given society. 3) The Harlem Renaissance was an artistic movement beginning in the 1920s in the predominantly African-American neighborhood of Harlem in New York City. Jazz music, new styles of painting, and evolving types of dance and other performance art all began fomenting in the culture of newfound semi-liberation among the African-American community, which……

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Art Book Intro and Conclusion Art Compilation

Art Book Intro and Conclusion Art Compilation Book Introduction Art is taking the archetypical forms of the mind and giving those forms a physical existence. There is no greater example of this truth than modern art. Modern artists challenged the definition of art by removing the expectation of reality and the limitations of society and creating images purely from the mind. These transformations may seem strange or even controversial to many, but that is the intent of the modern artist, to articulate and form the purest archetypical creations imaginable. In doing this, modern art challenges the definitions of form, material, content, and detail to create unimaginable masterpieces. The primary way that modern artists challenge the societal definition of art is through form. Whereas once artists were considered great because their art took on a life-like quality, modern art removes reality and replaces it with imagination and the psyche. Vincent Van Gough, considered one of the earliest practitioners of modern art, specialized in creating paintings that distorted the natural, physical form and instead replaced it with those images of the mind's eye. Paintings such as "The Scream" by Edvard Munch took this even further by portraying the one things that the mind desires but that cannot be released into the world of reality. Even modern photographic art challenges the conceptions of reality. In Janine Antoni's work "Conduit," the female artist is captured holding male genitals and peeing from a skyscraper. So, the very forms that society considers normal are now challenged and the forms contorted by the artist's mind are exposed and brought full circle. The second way that modern art has challenged art's very definition is through the materials used. While traditional art used clay, wood, stone and paint to make masterpieces, modern artists use items from everyday life to present art in a new way. Tom Friedman uses everything from sugar cubes to toothpicks in his works to from complex sculptures. Janine Antoni carved sculptures out of soap and "ate" sculptures out of chocolate. Finally, Wolfgang Laib used items as common as milk and pollen in his sculptures that leave his audience speechless. The third area that modern art challenges is content. Whereas art once only sculpted and painted noble portraits, modern art captures images of the imagination and the socially improper to present an often absurd or even humorous masterpiece. In order to both shock and force his…

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Art the Renaissance Heralded in an Entirely

Art The Renaissance heralded in an entirely new tradition of art form during the 14th and 15th centuries, with a wide variety of painters, poets, writers and architects that literally and figuratively saw the world in a different light from the dark and dismal Middle Ages. Humanism developed in Italy in the field of literature, once again honoring the Greek…

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Hellenistic Sculpture

¶ … sculpture from the Hellenistic period of Greek art called the "Kritios Boy" which was discovered in the late 1800s by archaeologists in the ruins of the Greek acropolis in Athens. The artist who created it is unknown. This statue represents Greek culture, especially the Hellenistic period in a variety of ways and styles. The "Kritios Boy" is a…

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Renaissance Art an Analysis of

Hilliard indicated, however, one of the necessary components of the miniature-portraiture, which was the fact that it should use as little shading as possible. Chiaroscuro in such a small frame would take away from the overall visual effect of the miniature. With such a focus on minute detail, the use of light and shade had to be as minimal as…

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Art History Raphael's Career Raphael

Within the study of art history, it is accepted that one of the defining characteristics of the Renaissance is the use of perspective. Art historians concur that one of the many reasons why Raphael is considered so talented and revered is due to his masterful understanding and use of perspective. The Renaissance use of perspective reached its apogee at around…

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Humanities the Renaissance Period Changed

Universities should also upgrade their curriculum and inculcate an interdisciplinary approach covering practical situations according to the ever changing needs and times (Audsburg 2005). The traditional approach defines of humanities as the study of human condition, using critical speculative or analytical approaches. An alternate definition can be "Disciplines under Humanities help us comprehend and explain human experience of cultures, history, literature, art and ethics. The examination, review and understanding of an object created by humans or a factor that makes us human, the emerging thoughts and processes that take place within ourselves something deliberated, discussed and opinionated" (Humanities Council 2001). Many businesses deem interdisciplinary skills not as a "nice to have" but a "must have" these days. Humanities and arts graduates attract employers as they can easily change and have transferable skills making them adjustable to many different job profiles and varying industries. Humanities students posses better communication abilities, effective problem solving skills, competent analytical skills, critical evaluation and people management skills; skills that are valuable for any employer in any industry. The creative acumen of humanities students enables them to resolve and respond to multifaceted problems by thinking out of the box and using an unbiased approach. On the other hand students from specialized disciplines may tend to restrict themselves to their beliefs and knowledge acquired through reading subject matter of only one discipline. This limits their creativity and limits their problem solving and analytical skills (Docherty 2012). Works Cited Audsburg, Tanya. Becoming interdisciplinary -- An Introduction To Interdisciplinary Studies. Kendall Hunt Publishing. 2005. Docherty, David. Employers must help universities deliver interdisciplinary skills. 2012. . 28 September 2012. Humanities Council, Washington D.C. Defining the Humanities -- A work in Progress. 2001. < http://www.wdchumanities.org/docs/defininghumanities.pdf>. 28 September 2012. Rolland, Roman. Michelangelo. BiblioLife, LLC. 2009. Strathen, Paul. The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance. Vintage.……

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Renaissance Art Within the Broad

Whereas Donatello shows David post-battle, Michelangelo shows David pre-battle. The deliberate distinction serves a formal purpose in the works of these two Renaissance artists. For Donatello, it was more important to capture the satisfaction and victory in the body and form of David. For Michelangelo, showing the uncertainty and realistic tension in the body and mind of David was more important. As Baskins (1993) points out, the Biblical hero of David "moves from king to lover to penitent," but most artists need to show "selected moments of the narrative," (p. 113). This means that artists like Donatello and Michelangelo choose what face, form, and figure to show in their sculptural work. Donatello chose to show David as the victorious and androgynous universal victor. Michelangelo opted to deliver a David that was different: a David that is totally patriarchal, and ready to exude his sexuality and male power. According to one author, Michelangelo depicts the "strength and anger" within David -- and indeed within all human beings ("Michelangelo's David," n.d.). David is King. Yet both Donatello and Michelangelo do want their respective David sculptures to have a sensual factor. Donatello's is deliberately androgynous. Baskins (1993) states that Donatello's David has a "voluptuous androgyny," which might indicate an "autobiographic homoerotic desire" of the sculptor (p. 115). Michelangelo's David could certainly say the same thing: its hyper-masculinity speaks of nothing but erotic desire for the male form. Whereas Donatello selected bronze as the medium for his rather petite sculpture of David, Michelangelo opted for the massive marble piece, yielding a larger-than life nude male. Both Donatello and Michelangelo are depicting a Biblical hero in ways that evoke classical art forms: such an ambition was characteristic of the Renaissance. The tribute to classical art became a hallmark of the intellectual trends of the Renaissance and later, Enlightenment movements in Europe. The stranglehold of religion would give way to a more intellectual, rational, and probing mentality free from the bonds of mental slavery. The same can be said for gender and social norms. Both the Donatello and Michelangelo versions of David are quintessentially Renaissance in their form and character. Both also represent the symbolism of David slaying Goliath. Although Donatello shows David after the fact, Michelangelo shows David making the decision to kill and be victorious, to become a historical hero ("Michelangelo's David," n.d). The two Davids seem visually different because of their different media…

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There Is a Long List

A work of art is never beautiful by decree, objectively and for all" (Tzara 249). Influence Despite the fact that almost everyone who created and participated in the Movement were really serious, Dada art is completely ridiculous, irrational and senseless to the point of fancy. Dada Art was not founded on any predominant medium. The Dadaists used everything ranging from algebraic textiles, glass, plaster and wooden ornaments. The noticeable fact is that Dadaist Art paved way for the use of "assemblage, collage, photomontage and the use of ready made objects" (Essak). Dada certainly created a lot of subdivisions in everything that had no sensible meaning. Not only did it spawn a number of literary journals, Dada influenced many contemporaneous and coexisting trends in the visual arts, particularly as far as Constructivism is concerned. Dada is known for being responsible for the movement of Surrealism (Essak). The Dada Movement was, thus, aimed toward abolishing everything associated with comfortable ways of finding the middle ground and good manners. Its creators asked its followers and supporters to bring archaeology, memory, future, prophets, and logic to an end (Tzara 253). And at the same time as conventional and majority of the artists were seriously considering the movement, Dada dissolved itself in the early 1920s. The movement destroyed itself when there was a danger of its acceptability by masses (Essak). Conclusion The commotions under Dada Movement were a lasting and undeviating insurgency of the individual against art, morality, and society. The Dadaists did so by publishing manifestoes, poetry and other forms of writing, paintings, exhibitions, sculptures, and sometimes by means of public demonstrations that were clearly depictions of rebellious character. In fact, its implications were not limited to the art and literature. To cut a long story short, the movement snatched away the mindfulness of an individual and placed him to the ranks of idiocy. However, this art of protesting against the society's ways ended with an interesting twist. On the other hand, it can be said that the whimsical Dada art is not only colorful, wittily sarcastic but is also absolutely silly (Essak). References "Dada." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2009. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . Duchamp, M. "The Richard Mutt Case." Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings. Eds. Kristine Stiles, Peter Selz. Berkeley: University of California, 1996. 817. Print. Essak, S.. "Dada - Art History 101 Basics:…

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Ancient Studies Laura Auricchio Is

Auricchio thinks that one reason why there were mixed feelings from audiences is because the painting is very complicated and ambiguous. In this way, it makes sense that there would be mixed feelings toward a piece of art that is ambiguous. Ambiguous art can be some of the most effective art because there is no one simple answer for the audience. The ambiguous art stays in the minds of the audience because they cannot decided how they feel about it or agree definitively what the art means or says. If this is true for this painting by Adelaide, then she is a successful artist back then and today. Another aspect of the painting that Auricchio focuses on is the use and style of clothing in Labille-Guiard's paintings, as well as the clothing and style in paintings of eighteenth century France in general. Auricchio identifies many small details about the clothes Labille-Guiard wears in the painting. She notices the color of the fabric, the kind of fabric (silk), and how the clothes sit upon Labille-Guiard's body. Auricchio also notices which of Labille-Guiard's body parts are exposed, and which of her body parts of covered up. She considers what the exposure and hiding of the body could mean in French culture and in art. Auricchio further notices how the clothing Adelaide paints herself wearing models after some of the most popular styles of the time. This could make audiences of the 21st century wonder about billboards and advertising. There are sociologists who study advertising that have tracked the connection between European paintings from the Renaissance to the modern era and how similar the poses and compositions are to fashion advertisements today. We should look at fashion advertisements with the same detail and close attention as Auricchio, a famous art historian and professor, looks at 18th century art. Additionally, Auricchio sees the way the artist's body is posed as very revealing about the painting. The poses of the bodies within paintings are always important. Whether the person is sitting or standing or otherwise; the distance between or among other subjects in the painting; the quantity of light each subject receives in the painting -- each one of these elements and more can tell the viewer or the art historian a lot of information about the painting. The position of the body can tell us how the person in the painting feels. The position…

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Western Art and Christianity During

Although the work is considered one of the greatest paintings ever created, it is a firmly religious piece, with Jesus as its centerpiece. The painting displays the heartbreak that all Catholics feel over the concept of original sin, and has a deeply grim quality to it, regardless of its spiritual subject. In contrast to these two traditional pieces, Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise, was created during an era that began to show signs of a more secular movement. Like most of the secular works during the Impressionist movement, this painting is beautiful in its choice of colors and the flow of the brushstrokes. It was created in 1872, with help in part from Monet's longtime patron and department-store owner Ernest Hoschede. The painting is a strong departure from the religious works of the past. Whereas many of those works tended to depict specific religious scenes or events in a very deliberate and realistic manner, Monet's form of Impressionism is flowing and bright. The brushstrokes are sweeping and less calculated, although the finished product is quite accurate in depicting the feeling of a sunrise, rather than attempting to create a photographic copy. Finally, Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon epitomizes the new era of painting and expressive art. His unashamed subject matter, depicting five nude female prostitutes, would have been far from acceptable in the time of da Vinci, and its stylistic approach, abstract in nature, is now referred to as Cubism. The work was widely controversial in 1907, when it was created, and although it is a secular piece, it was a large divider amongst religious and non-religious art aficionados. The subject was considered to be shocking and appalling at the time, and Picasso seemingly created this work for……

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Renaissance Paintings- Virgin and Child

Correggio (1489-1534) belonged to the last group of highly talented artists of High Renaissance. Despite his popularity, not much documented evidence is available regarding his early training. However the style of his work indicates the influence of some leading artists of his time including Francesco Branchi Ferrari, Lorenzo Costa, Giorgione etc. Nothing except his decorative style is there to prove that he had been influenced by Roman traditions in painting. The painting Virgin and Child with Saint John the Baptist was one of the early works of Correggio and carefully focuses on the emotional connection between John and Christ. It is important to understand that while the theme of Virgin and Child has biblical connotations, this particular painting focuses on one aspect of the theme, which is not found in Bible. The Bible doesn't say anything about a meeting between Saint John and the Christ as children. In this painting, Virgin has been given a more subdued role while the two children are in more active mode. That Correggio had "developed a style of conscious elegance and allure with soft sfumato and gestures of captivating charm" (Chilvers, 121) is obvious from this work where a hazy soft light prevails over the landscape and adds softness and gentleness to the painting and its subjects. The figures are painted in the form of a pyramid where the biggest figure sits at the top while the two smaller figure occupy left and right side in the compositional scheme. References OSMOND, SUSAN FEGLEY, THE RENAISSANCE MIND MIRRORED IN ART. World and I; Date: 12/01/1998; Kavaler, Ethan Matt Renaissance Gothic in the Netherlands: The Uses of Ornament The Art Bulletin 06/01/2000; ROBERTA OLSON, The Florentine Tondo Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Ian Chilvers: The Concise Oxford……

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