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East Asia Ideal and Reality:

" Emperor Meiji's word, like Mao's, was law in the new territories -- but Meiji's word was rooted in revolution, not in the ways of old Japan: "All that Japan undertook in its colonies during the first quarter century of the empire was based on Meiji experience in domestic reform" (Schmid 957). The National Mobilization Law saw thousands of Koreans conscripted into the Japanese army in order to fight a foe that was almost indistinguishable from the one that now ruled over it. It was the Age of Empire in East Asia, and though the Empire had many faces, it was always ruled by the same clan -- international materialism. There was no need to set up a lasting model. Revolution was the rule, and wheel was constantly spinning. If the wheel stopped, a new power stepped in. In East Asia as in every nation across the globe, the old ways were being stomped out -- the old world replaced by a new unstable one, in which capital and resources reigned supreme -- and in which the law of the ancients, the way of Christ or Buddha or Confucius -- was repellant. In conclusion, the new ideals, the new models, the new laws which various leaders attempted to establish in East Asia varied in terms of proximity to the "democratic" or "Marxist" ideal -- but the base of each was the same: a denial of the culture which these nations had long cherished. A corruption of forms, of method, of belief, of action each precipitated a new direction away from the old and towards the "new," whether the new were rooted in American hypocrisy or in European hypocrisy. It did not matter. Whether in Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam, Indochina or the Philippines, the ideals were phony, the models weak, the laws paralytic. The reality was that in the 20th century, East Asia suffered immensely because it abandoned the Old and opened its arms to the New. Works Cited De Bary, William T., ed. Sources of East Asian Tradition: Premodern Asia, Volume 1. NY: Columbia University Press, 2008. Fitzgerald C.P. "Religion and China's Cultural Revolution." Pacific Affairs, Vol. 40, No. 1/2, 1967, pp. 124-129. Print. Johnson, Paul. Modern Times. NY: HarperPerennial, 1992. Print. Lu, David John. Japan: A Documentary History. NY M.E. Sharpe, 1997. Schmid, A. "Colonialism and the 'Korea Problem' in the Historiography of Modern Japan." Journal of Asian Studies,…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 6


Asian History Although the Great Civilizations of

Asian History Although the great civilizations of pre-modern China, Korea, and Japan borrowed from each other and came to share much in common, there is no more one East Asia than there is one Europe. To liken China, Korea, and Japan together under one common umbrella would be like lumping together all the diverse cultural groups of Europe. The East Asia rubric is a Western projection largely born of ignorance and bias and not of historical analysis. For one, the languages of these three countries are morphologically distinct. It is therefore impossible for a Korean, a Japanese, and a Chinese person to understand one another. If there were a common East Asian culture, then surely language would unite them. There are several meaningful ways in which Japan, Korea, and China have shared and borrowed from each other to create some core similarities in politics, social and intellectual life, religion, and artistic expression. Yet each act of borrowing did not lead to a subsequent act of assimilation. When Japan borrowed its Buddhist traditions from China, for example, it transformed them into what is a uniquely Japanese Buddhist heritage. The distinctions between China, Korea, and Japan can be grouped into several categories including language, religion, art, politics, foreign affairs, and culture. Even when similarities are evident, they may be more related to a common human experience than to one unique only to East Asia. For example, gender relations and patriarchy is a common theme in most human societies and not just in the geographic region of East Asia. The people of these three modern nations share common ancestry; prehistoric population migrations prove that point. However, all human beings ultimately stemmed from one root civilization that most likely evolved out of Africa. Population migrations from the same root Neolithic groups within Europe have not erased the distinctions between cultures there any more than they have in East Asia. Therefore, it is fair to say that Japan, Korea, and China are distinct cultures with distinct expressions of art, politics, and language. Until the Mongol invasion, Korea and Japan had not developed as sophisticated a society as China did. This means that many of the features found in common between China, Korea, and Japan can be traced to earlier evolutions in China. For example, the Koreans borrowed the Chinese system of printing whereby characters were carved on wooden blocks and stamped. Koreans in the 12th…

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Asian Studies Short Answer Questions. Most Theories

Asian Studies SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS. Most theories of indianization seem to underestimate the receiver cultures and societies because of a more or less marked high culture-centrism by which Southeast Asian cultures and religions are measured in relation to the classical expressions of Indian religions. Pertaining to this high culture-bias, these theories of indianization are inadequate to be able to explain…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: Harvard  |  Sources: 10


British Policy Burma and China

(317-318) Though the Burmese government was highly influenced by Chinese tradition, they seemed to have less of a tendency to change with the times, in the manner that was needed to resist outside control from colonial powers, especially in the since that the nation did not reap the benefits of economic growth created by colonial expansion but instead were relegated to a position of watching as resources were stripped from their nation. (315, 363) British rule left the nation in a position of weakness, especially the poor as outside interests were then free to come in and buy up property and conscript labor for colonial interest. Indian elite were especially prone to buy land from the poor and then demand rent, many peasants lost land in this manner and sympathy for their plight engendered belated concessions for representation and eventually nationalism that spurned first independence as a colony and then as a nation. (363) To Britain Burma was a small holding, while China was a trade partner, not equal to the Western powers but still able to have some control over trade and to take some part in the gains created by colonial expansion. (357) Internal conflict and infighting between powers, the most dominant of which was Britain created a situation where China was held together but required in a sense to sign "open door" treaties that opened the nation even further to Western trade expansion and colonial industry. (325-326) Britain made concerted efforts all over Southeast Asia to colonize nations, and the weaker, smaller and more strategic nations tended to fall to colonial rule, through a slow progression of trade concessions and then British military aggression. Burma, did not retain enough political control, as China did, to remain isolated and Britain was much more successful there than in other areas of the region. "The search for trade explains the successive waves of European travelers from Portugal, Holland, France, and Great Britain, and it is a constant factor in the story of British relations with China in South-East Asia." (Woodman 1) All the nations of Southeast Asia were potentially fodder for colonial expansion and the gaining of wealth, often at the extreme peril and long-term expense of the indigenous populations. China resisted for much longer than Burma, as it signed independent treaties with many nations for port rights and other trade and settlement rights. Britain treated the Burmese nation as…

Pages: 3  |  Research Paper  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 1


Traditional Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes Studies on Origins and History

Traditional Se Asian Bamboo Flutes: Studies on Origins and History The study investigates the bamboo flutes found in Southeast Asia, as well as their history and origin. The earliest known extant bamboo flute, a chi, or ancient Chinese flute, from the Zhou Dynasty, discovered in the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, dates from 433 BC. Southeast Asian bamboo flutes,…

Pages: 95  |  Research Proposal  |  Style: MLA  |  Sources: 23


Power Conflict and the Making of Modern Asia

Power, Conflict and the Making of Modern Asia Power conflict and the making of modern Asia The center of concern in international politics is yet to change as the Asian-pacific region is seen to become the new strategic center of interest. The transformation is of significant in the manner that the continent in the modern arena has subsisted to be…

Pages: 6  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Imperialism in Asian Post WW2

Imperialism in East Asia A Comparison of the Effects of Imperialism in the Philippines and in Korea As Hutchinson and Smith (1994, p. 3) suggest, imperialism is connected to and rooted in the idea of nationalism and, though it is often seen as a modern phenomenon, it was in many ways prepared for by "millennial Christianity…the printing press and especially…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3


Footbinding the Chinese Idea of Footbinding Emerged

Footbinding The Chinese idea of footbinding emerged during the 10th century and lasted for approximately one millennium, until 1911. Young girls were generally targeted with the purpose of imposing this custom on them and their social class or background in general were unimportant for the Chinese community. What is even more surprising is that their relatives participated in this process…

Pages: 8  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


East Asia, 1800-1912 the Dominance

They neither wiped out the historical slate. As significant literatures focusing on the concepts of modernization, colonialism and incorporation of the European seem to point out the displacing of the historical heritage, cross-fertilization, and processes of East Asia. Most of them kicked off in the previous centuries whereby European military and economic power made no substantial challenges to East Asia. In fact, in the process elements of how this region responded reasserted towards shaping the entire region and restructuring their international political organization. Ultimately, this led to commercial patterns that transformed the entire East Asia region. The 1899-1900 boxer rebellion became the watershed phenomenon ushering in the 20th century in East Asia and its foreign relation challenges. In the wake of 1898, famine and flood in North China were blamed on western developments in the region, which disrupted the region's Geo-magnetic balance. These fears coupled with great animosity towards European colonizers and their Chinese counterparts became a possible target for a major uprising. The boxer rebellion was orchestrated by the boxer movement. It was optimistic that it could transform itself to a millenarian sect that could be impervious to firearms. The local hegemonies aggressively suppressed the movement terming it a plot to exploit the passion of the East Asia populations. They believed that Europeans had intentions limiting foreign participation of North China is the region. As official sanctions were brought up, European powers spread rapidly across the region resulting in massive deaths of Chinese populations and hundreds of European foreigners. In the 1900 spring, the imperial army helped the European powers to penetrate Beijing laying a siege to the legation district. This led to the murder of the Chinese chief legato prompting quick international condemnation. This made China declare war on all foreign powers. The royal family flees following the efforts of the European forces in relieving the legation siege. Following this development, the Chinese dynasty entered unequal treaties with European forces and troops regarding major routes between the sea, Beijing and in the capital city. Looking at the phenomenon in reverse, the history of the Chinese encounter with the European powers in the 19th century looks like a tale of inexorable and woe decline. With this hindsight benefit, the first encounter between Chinese Dynasty and European powers looks like a self-deception study. This opened formal diplomatic relations between Europe and China, which opened free trade between the two nations.…

Pages: 4  |  Case Study  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Historiography of East Asia

Historiography of East Asia: The Transfer of Sovereignty of Macau from the Portuguese Republic to the People's Republic of China on December 20, 1999 There is no question that it harbors in its hidden places all the riffraff of the world, the drunken shipmasters; the flotsam of the sea, the derelicts, and more shameless, beautiful women than any port in…

Pages: 12  |  Term Paper  |  Style: APA  |  Sources: 6


History of Japan. First, it

Social, Political and Cultural Climate As referenced above much of Buddhism in Japan comes from the influence of Korea and China. It is because of this social framework based on commerce that the religion took hold. "Buddhist monasteries themselves led in sponsoring trading ventures to China" (Reischauer, 56). This resulted in many great architectural beauties and statues of Buddha throughout the Kamakura region. Secondly, China was not culturally open minded to the Buddhist principle of Nirvana. The Japanese went through a philosophic reorientation embracing the religion with great appeal culturally because of this idea of Nirvana. Still this period of time was presented as "a picture of increasingly political disruption and confusion" (Reischauer 67). The shogunate collapsed because the warrior class has grown too much in size. The Chinese did not have such structural political problems as they were slightly more advanced. It was also during this time Japan's shogunates were transitioning from being knights to culturally educated men. With turmoil came social growth, as "the major monasteries became more than ever the chief havens of learning and centers of creative art" (Reischauer 70). Many of the knights became monks and adopted much Chinese influence in arts. Through the Chinese, they learned of new cultural trends such as the Zen garden and the art of playwriting. Slowly Buddhism was adopted by Shinto philosophers because of the religious intellectual vigor and impact involved (Reischauer 109). Feudalism and the Marxist Model Karl Marx used the term feudalism for political ends. In the 19th Century Karl Marx described feudalism as the economic situation focused on industry. coming before the inevitable rise of capitalism. For Marx, what defined feudalism was the military elite accumulating the surplus wealth of those under them by exploitation through military dominance. This was the definition of feudalism to Marx, a purely economic model. The Marx Model of Feudalism does not apply to Japan during the Kamakura and Ashikaga Shogunates for the following reasons. Many scholars refer to Japan's feudalism as the "ghost empire" or the "barbarian frontier" (Hall 49). What makes Japan's feudalism different from Marx's model are three factors: 1) universal religion, 2) open market of commerce and 3) intellectual enlightenment. These are attributes of culture Marx did not value. Also because of these influences, the Japanese existed in different social classes. Marx believed all men were the same class. As a result his model would not have…

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Connection Between Religion and Contemporary Politics Both Public and Private in Indonesia

Indonesia Religion Indonesian Politics and the Influence of Islam Indonesia's importance in the world and its considerable wealth as a producer of natural resources are geographical advantages which its native populations have rarely enjoyed. A dense fabric of regional and ethnic conflicts have long been the determinant factors in the success with which Indonesians have been able to cultivate the…

Pages: 11  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 9


Preparing a Multimedia Presentation

¶ … Learn The chosen I have chosen to discuss with regards to human rights abuses is Tibet. I have a keen interest in Tibet because of its unique culture and geography, and its role in Asian history. Slide One illustrates a map of Tibet and the Tibetan areas in adjacent Chinese provinces, with a multimedia of Tibetan monk chants. Slide Two outlines the five Ws and H. Of the abuses: Who: Tibetans. What: Strict control of religious freedom, illegal searches, flooding Tibet with ethnic Han settlers to dilute the culture, arbitrary arrest, torture and extrajudicial killings. Where: Tibet and Tibetan areas of Chinese provinces; When: from 1950 to present; Why: To exert control over Tibet's mineral wealth; How: through military and police force. The next two slides outline in greater detail two of the points above. Slide Three discusses the abuses. Slide Four outlines the natural wealth that makes Tibet so attractive to the Chinese government. Slide Five is a chart showing the historical timeline and this comes a brief overview of why China feels they have dominion over Tibet. This covers the major points in history where China gained or lost control over Tibet. Slide Six details other examples of human rights abuses by the Communist Party in China - the Cultural Revolution, the treatment of Muslims in Xinjiang, and the persecution of the Falun Gong. This outlines a track record of abuse of which Tibet is just one portion. Slide Seven compares Chinese and Tibetan responses to the issue. On the Chinese side points include official denial, statements that they are improving the lot of Tibetans, and the security crackdowns. On the Tibetan side are the calls for autonomy, the peaceful protests, and the riots of 2008. Slide Eight will embed a video shot by an Australian tourist during the Lhasa riots. The video shows Tibetan rioters flipping cars, burning building and beating Chinese citizens. The scope of the violence illustrates the level of anger the Tibetans are harboring as a result of the abuses of the past six decades. Slide Nine illustrates Western responses to the issue. These include official condemnation, taking audience with the Dalai Lama, civilian protests, and a lack of economic sanctions. The strong public support in the West provides optimism that the abuses may come to an end, yet the lack of……

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Political Economy Background: Japan and

In the wake of the Cold War, Japan was brought into a kind of strategic balance of power between China and the United States. It was only after this period that Japan actually gained a strategic advantage in international politics. Emerging from the ashes of defeat, Japan had by this time reconstructed itself into an economic power, making use of the favourable external environment that was now available through American support and assistance, and pre-war industrial knowledge and experience. As for Korea, the external environment was favourable but the internal that is the domestic situation was at polarity. Following the war in Korea, the Korean peninsula was divided along the 38th parallel into North and South Korea, between the communist North with the help of China on the one side and the non-communist South, backed by the Allied forces led by America on the other (Murphy, 2000). This created polarity in one country with China and the States always at loggerheads. The country hence was divided between the two caretakers. Further China was seen as the source of the red menace in Asia, as it was believed to be the major supporter of communist revolts in many parts of Southeast Asia from the 1950s to the 1970s. Its direct involvement in the Korean War led Washington to deploy the U.S. 7th Fleet in the Taiwan Straits in defense of Taiwan (Tarling, 1998). It was in such an environment that Korea existed between the two hostile extremes. It was the Cold War that really proved to be favorable for Korea in the realm of economics and international relations. To help the non-communist nations of the region, which also included Korea stand up to the communist challenge, America provided various categories of foreign aid, access to its markets and transfer of technology. It was essentially American support for Korea as a Cold War ally that enabled it to become one of the economic power centers in not only the Southeast Asia region, also the wider Asia-Pacific. This stood true for so long that only during the Asian crisis did the Korean economy was beset with problems of over-reach and corruption and recession since after the War ended. In conclusion, it can be seen that Japan and Korea faced a favourable, international environment in the post-war period, only after some time had elapsed after the Second World War. However it is true that…

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Asian Resources and Economic

State involvement in commercial transactions thus has little to do with contributing to the creation of sustainable economic growth. In fact, several commercial transactions have merely worked to sustain the 'shadow state', ensuring that income generation is not tied to economic development but to securing regime survival (NATO, 2009). India: Although United States has been acting as the sole power…

Pages: 16  |  Research Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 16


Confucianism in East Asian

In China Japan and Korea the state organized education systems in order to transmit knowledge that was based on neo-Confucian orthodoxy as well as the subsequent recruitment of government services of those that had mastered neo-Confucian classics. Confucians held the belief that there was a body of absolute truths that combined principles alongside cosmological laws and this body of knowledge…

Pages: 5  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


East Asia Exports to Western Europe in the 18th and 19th Centuries

E.Asia export to Westen Europe in 18th and 19th century China Export to Western Europe The Chinese tea is probably the most well-known product of the country. China's tradition in producing and serving tea is a fascinating subject for many consumers. The development of the country's tea export to Western Europe is another interesting subject that must be studied. China…

Pages: 6  |  Term Paper  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 4


Since 1500 a History of World Societies

¶ … 1500 History of World Societies European average income per person began to rise in comparison with the rest of the world beginning in about Answer: 1450 b. 1650 c. 1750 d. 1850 All of the following statements characterize world economic development in the 19th century except: industrialization generated global inequity in wealth and power. railroads drastically reduced transportation costs. the opening of the Suez and Panama canals facilitated trade. the world's leader in importing foreign goods was America. All of the following technological innovations were crucial to European imperialist expansion in the late nineteenth century except: the machine gun. the telegraph. c. quinine. The airplane. Causes of the so-called new imperialism (1880-1914) include all of the following except: Answer: a. economic competition in foreign markets. b. aggressiveness of European nationalism. c. The theory that colonies benefited workers. d. The belief that the West had much to learn from traditional cultures. All of the following represented threats to the Ottoman Empire except: Answer: a. Russian invasion and uprisings by Christian subjects in Europe. b. The beginning of France's long conquest of Algeria in 1830. c. increased local independence and the sultanate's loss of authority. d. The Tanzimat reforms and growing westernization of culture. In the 19th century, West Africa experienced all of the following developments except: Answer: a. The emergence of a fledgling middle class in coastal towns. b. A renewal of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in the 1860's. c. The rise of an export trade in palm oil used for making soap. d. An Islamic revival involving intolerance of animism. The principle formulated at the Berlin Conference (1884-85) by which European powers laid claim to African territory was called: Answer: a. extraterritoriality. b. annexation. c. effective occupation. d. military subjugation. All of the following statements characterized imperial government in Africa between 1900 and 1930 except: Answer: a. Colonial governments moved decisively against slavery in response to the European movement for abolition. b. imperial governments operated either through existing local leaders or through appointed officials. c. expenditures on education and social services represented a small part of the overall budget. d. A westernized elite emerged, together with successful African business people. All of the following drove the transformation of European imperialism in Asia during the 1800s except: Answer: a. Christian missionaries and the idea of progress. b. advances in Western communications and technology. c. The need for markets for…

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Asian Studies as Far as the Distribution

Asian Studies As far as the distribution of power throughout the world is concerned, the position of supremacy of the United States of America has always supported the opposition between the East and the West. Power has various dimensions. Among them we can mention the economical, financial aspect, the political one, as well as the cultural side. The political power…

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Economic Interdependence Among North Asian

Many Japanese media consumers have been concerned over the candor of the government throughout the crisis. Japanese media has tended to be less aggressive, historically, than the U.S. media in questioning official policies. This may change, given the impact of the tsunami. Critics have also protested that both government regulators and the Tokyo Electric Power Company did not give sufficient weight to evidence that the reactors were vulnerable to tsunamis and "have also said nuclear regulators and the power company did not act fast enough to prevent the explosions that damaged the reactor buildings and that efforts to cool the reactors and spent fuel pools with helicopters and water cannons were ineffective. This has caused distrust deepen on a systemic level in a society that had previously had a large degree of trust in institutional authority, both corporate and official. Inadequate evacuation measures before and after the first tsunami, confusion over the dangers of radioactivity in the food supply, and the sheer numeric toll of the disaster -- 13,000 and climbing -- will have repercussions upon Japan for years to come. This will also have a spill-over effect within the region, given the role that Japan has in providing stability and authority in foreign relations, and its influence upon economic and environmental policy upon its neighbors. Japan will be forced inward, to heal itself, even while it asks for aid from abroad. A much needed broker between North and South Korea is likely to be neutralized for many months, as well as an important counterweight to the rise of Chinese economic and military dominance. References Calder, Kent and Ye, Min. The Making of Northeast Asia, Stanford University Press, 2010. Dent, Christopher M. "The politics of economic regionalism: Explaining economic regional integration in East Asia." Contemporary Southeast Asia. December 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6479/is_3_32/ai_n56719530 / (accessed April 13, 2011) Fogerty, Phillipa. "Will Japan's global ties change?" BBC News. September 16, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8257176.stm (accessed April 13, 2011) "Japan to boost security ties with U.S. To meet regional challenges." Japan Policy & Politics. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0XPQ/is_2011_Jan_3/ai_n56582145/ (accessed April 13, 2011) Ozawa, Harumi. "Japan economy, Toyota feel effects of disaster." Reuters. April 13, 2011. http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20110413/wl_afp/japandisasteraccidentnuclear_20110413201919 (accessed April 13, 2011) "Regional cooperation and integration." Asian Development Bank. http://www.adb.org/Documents/Policies/rci-strategy/rci-strategy-paper.pdf (accessed April 13, 2011) "Top officials defend Japan's response." AP. April 13, 2011. http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2011/04/top_official_defends_japans_re.html (accessed April 13, 2011) Christopher M. Dent, "The Politics of Economic Regionalism: Explaining Economic Regional Integration in East…

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Asian Pacific Security the Asian Pacific Region

Asian Pacific Security The Asian Pacific region has been problematical in the world of International Affairs for at least the past two centuries. The emergence of a modernized Japan and China changed the paradigm of the area; and the idea of European-based cultures in Australia and New Zealand only complicating matters further. In addition, the manner in which cultures and…

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Sociology / Panethnicity Asian-American Panethnicity

During the time Japanese were herded into concentration camps, Chinese-Americans were justifiably "fearful that they would be targets of anti-Japanese activities," and so they "took to wearing buttons that proclaimed positively 'I'm Chinese'." And many Chinese shop-owners put signs in their windows saying, "This is a Chinese shop." The author points out that some Chinese even added signs that read,…

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Europe, the Russian Federation, and East Asia

Geography Meeting Place of Two Worlds On the Borders of East Asia and the Russian Federation Location shapes human culture in more ways than many can imagine. The ruggedness of the terrain, the availability of water, the vegetation and climate; all have their effects on the development of societies. As well, the human factors - neighboring peoples with differing social…

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Japanese History and Chinese Fixation

There are similarities and differences in the practices and beliefs of Buddhism in China and Japan. Currently, Japan is the largest Buddhist nation across the globe. This diversity relates to the adoption of best Buddhism practices and beliefs from Korea, India, and China by Japan towards the development of this religion as a form of their own art. Conclusion There is great relationship between the historical development of Japan and China. This makes it difficult or impossible to examine or study the history of Japan without elaborating the crucial role by China in the development of the modern nation in the Asia Continent. Chinese fixation is an essential concept in relation to examination of the history or characteristics of historical development of Japan in a single-coined term. There is close relationship in the religion, cosmology, and political systems of the two nations because of their interactions and culture borrowing. References Karl F. Friday. (1997). Pushing beyond the Pale: the Yamato Conquest of the Emishi and Northern Japan. Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 1-24 Theodore de Bary et al., (2000). Sources of Japanese Tradition. Volume One; from earliest to Dorothy Ko et al. (2003). Women and Confucian Cultures in Pre-modern China, Korea, and Japan. University……

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Tajikistan to the North of

Communists and an alliance of Islamic and democratic forces fought with each other to gain power. RahmanNabiyev, a communist, won the presidential elections of November 1991. However, his government was not accepted and nonaggressive protests by the opposition elements were observed in March 1992 demanding his resignation. The situation worsened when in April the government opened fire on the protesters. Nabiyev was thrown way from his office in September by the opponents. The civil war came to an end when in November ImomaliRakhmonov formed a government supported by Russian troops was formed. [6] The civil War caused substantial loss of life and property. Close to about 600,000 people lost their lives and were left homeless. A great loss of education was made. Estimate damage of U.S.$7 billion was reported. [4] Until June 1997 periodic fights persisted. A peace agreement was enforced by the United Nations, Russia, and Iran which ended the war and maintained a state of social rest in the country. However, the unstable political situation in the country since after its independence caused the country to be dependent on foreign aid. In 1991, Rakhmonov was re-electedfor another term. [6] Present day problems of Tajikistan After the dismissal of Taliban in 2001, resolute Islamic extremists crossed the border, unsettling life and economic conditions of Tajikistan. [6] Furthermore, the collapse of Taliban government led to an upsurge in narcotics production in Afghanistan. As a result, Tajikistan became a major transportation hub for Afghan heroin and opium regulated for European markets and other parts of the world. [6][1] President Rakhmonov was again elected for the third time in November 2006. But the results were boycotted by the opposition parties. His government has been alleged of several human rights exploitations and dishonesty. Also true democracy has ot been observed during his reign. Independent media has been restricted and opposition leaders have been imprisoned.[4] BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov (accessed February 18, 2013) [2] The Land of Tajiks, http://www.oocities.org/tajikland/History.html (accessed February 18, 2013) [3] Early History, http://countrystudies.us/tajikistan/3.htm,……

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Korean History: The Climate and

These changes and others mark a "golden age" in Korean history focusing on the ideals of a more progressive government, economy and science and arts. Ascension of Sejong to the throne in 1418 led to a series of technological and cultural changes that would see Korea through to the most recent past with an ideal as a historical model and…

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Future Conflict Triggers in South East Asia

Se Asia Conflict Triggers Local Quarrels, Regional Risks: Myanmar and Papua New Guinea Decades of relative peace and prosperity have allowed the democracies of Southeast Asia the latitude to pursue economic cooperation and relatively stable domestic policies. But while the "liberal peace" of ASEAN has allowed its members to support each other's traditional security interests while settling disputes through non-violent…

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Family History an Autobiographical History of My

Family History An autobiographical history of my family in China, and the story of the events which led to my emigration to study in the United States, the stories intertwined the following essay explore the inherency of the history of China in the West, and source the various reasons Chinese emigrate (d) to the U.S. As a topic for personal…

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History of Cambodia, Including the Pol Pot

¶ … history of Cambodia, including the Pol Pot Regime and Angkor Wat. Cambodia is an Asian country located between Vietnam and Thailand with a coastline on the Gulf of Thailand. In the 1860s, it became a colony of France, and it became a free nation in 1953. Cambodia's modern history revolves around the notorious Pol Pot Regime in the…

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Asian Studies There Are Many Things in

Asian Studies There are many things in the West which those in the East admire, especially when it comes to business tactics and strategies and education. For example, American businessmen and women have mastered the "art of the deal" and have been able to amass great fortunes and much social and political prestige. Much of this has to do with the democratic system in the United States which allows greater financial freedom than the communist system in China and has less restrictive measures like tariffs and other forms of tax. Also, the educational system in the West is one of the finest in the world and boasts some of the greatest educational institutions to be found, such as Harvard with its often copied world-class business school. Although great educational institutions do exist in Asia, they are not as open and free when it comes to choosing a course of study, something which most Asians greatly admire and which influences them to come to the U.S. To……

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History of Meiji Empire and the Consequent

¶ … history of Meiji Empire and the consequent role and influence that Meiji regime had on succeeding government and their policies. The article also supports Sugimoto's thesis on presence of cultural fragmentation and diversity within Japanese society, the western influence on the social, political and economic growth is also discussed. The role of Kata Factor and its adoption by…

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Logistic PE in Hong Kong

¶ … private equity firms have set their sights on Asia given the downturn in economic activity in Europe and the U.S. This is perhaps aided by the understanding that Asia's fundamentals are more likely to bring about accelerated economic growth going forward. Analysts speculate that such a trend is highly unlikely in Western economies. However, even amidst such optimism, some risks still abound for private equities seeking to set base in Asian markets. In this text, I examine the risks associated with starting a logistic related private equity in Hong Kong while taking into consideration the existing market in Asia and globally. In so doing, I will further concern myself with the particular risks for both the limited and general partners. Discussion For China, and more so for other countries in Asia; the star for private equity has been shinning bright in recent times. As an indicator of this, for the fifteen years preceding 2009, there was a nine fold increase in PE assets under management (INSEAD 2010). Hence it would be quite in order to note that relative to the rest of the world, Asian PE has experienced much stronger growth. However, a logistic related PE seeking to start operations in Hong Kong may wish to take into consideration the fact that when it comes to long-term returns; Asian PE has not been performing exceptionally. Indeed, long-term PE returns in Asia lag behind those of Western Europe. Hence for a logistic related PE with its sights in Hong Kong, it may be prudent to take into consideration that much of the acceleration in regard to PE in this market could principally be driven by the mainstream view that markets considered emerging are highly lucrative. For limited partners and general partners, the advance into Hong Kong is a perfect mix of optimism and concern. While Asia's and most particularly Hong Kong's positive direction in regard to development in this case is generally undisputed, there are concerns over pricing. That is, currently, what is being priced by the markets is the expected economic growth. In my opinion, this has led to risk being relatively ignored. In developing Asia (India and China), a survey carried out by INSEAD showed that there was a relatively high risk premium expected by limited partners (INSEAD, 2010). This is in comparison to Western PE. The INSEAD report states that on average, the risk premium expected…

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In the Realm of a Dying Emperor

Realm of a Dying Emperor The Emperor of Japan represents Japanese history and culture, but when Emperor Hirohito died in January of 1989, he had become a symbol for Japan's development into one of the world's largest economic powers. In effect, the Emperor was the physical embodiment of the nation, and the nation's success was reflected in the people's dedication…

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II the History of Wireless Technology in China

¶ … History of Wireless Tech. In China China Before the Wireless Before the wireless technology was introduced, China had been among the many countries whose economy depends on the manufacturing industry. With a great population and a low-cost labor, China is involved in the manufacture of different goods and items particularly the parts and components of various electronic devices and computers. The effect of culture on the introduction of wireless to China Before the revolution of the wireless technology, China was known to have a conservative and simple culture. Most of the families in China live a simple life, with not much of the technology that progressive countries were already enjoying. Although China lives this way, they are not however unaware of new technologies. This is because the manufacture of different technology devices is done in China. This kind of culture brought a quick effect in the success of the introduction of the wireless technology. When wireless mobile phones became a trend, there had been great number of people who took the gradual change from living a simple life into living with what technology can offer them. The roots There are quite a number of wireless providers in China who took the lead in making the wireless technology a success. This includes the China Telecom, China Mobile, and the China Netcom. These are the companies that strive to compete with the service that wireless providers in other countries offer to their subscribers. Beginnings and early history of wireless in China The use of the wireless technology only started in China a few years ago. It was in 2002 when there had a been a boom in the market of wireless devices and services. Major communication corporations started to include in their services the provision of wireless access aside from the wired communication capabilities that they were already providing. These days, strategies that can better wireless service are where major companies focus on. An online article indicates the following. To date, the major Chinese domestic operators have formulated plans to expand WiFi access in public buildings, hotels, airports, cafes, and other areas those with mobile equipment seek hot spot receptivity. Cultural Continuity and the Republic of China Chengdu, Sichuan province's capitalm is an example that shows how the Republic of China can grow with the help of technology. According to Hao Kangli, the vice mayor of Chengdu, technology particularly the…

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Boston Asian Community Began in

Few efforts have been undertaken to fully describe the Asian-Americans living in Metro Boston. In fact, in many studies, Asians are either excluded or placed indiscriminately in with majority whites or other minorities. This does a disservice to the community a they have not been fairly represented in policymaking and service delivery (Watanabe, Liu & Lo, 2005). Three facets of the Boston Asian community must be taken into consideration for them to fairly represented. First, the significant growth of the Asian community in Boston, thanks primarily to immigration, must be understood. Second, policymakers must understand that the Boston Asian community is diverse in its characteristics and socio-economic composition. And third, the complexity of the Boston Asian community must be fully realized. One size fits all policies are not effective for this community (Watanabe, Liu & Lo, 2005). In the end, the Asian community of Boston is growing at a rate never before seen, in history. However, this group is often under or misrepresented. Policymakers must understand that this community is diverse and complex and needs policies that address their unique needs. Until the Asian community is represented fairly and accurately, it is unlikely that policies will be able effectively meet their needs. References Watanabe, P., Liu, M. & Lo, S. (Fall 2004/Winter 2005). A portrait of Asian-Americans in Metro Boston. New England Journal of Public Policy,……

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Ancient History of India the

These two classes were the Kshatryas (warriors) and the Brahmins (priests). The Aryans or Indo-Europeans assimilated quickly into India and seemed to have disappeared. IV. Development of Religion in India The development of religion in the region began in 500 bc when several individuals were searching for enlightenment. Siddhartha Gautama or "the Buddha" preached a "stoic life involving moral living and meditations that would develop into the rich philosophy of Buddhism. The second was Vardhamana, called Mahavira and Jina his follower believed that "suffering was due to the mixing of the spirit with base matter, which must be separated from each other by means of fasting, asceticism, and chastity forming the religion of Jainism. During the late 300's bc Alexander the Great brought Buddhism to India and China. The Aryans, a pastoral people from near the Caspian Sea brought Brahman, the Supreme Being, the God above all gods the source of universal life" into India. "Truth is One" stated the Vedas proclaiming, "They call him by different names." (Severy, et al., 1971 National Geographic) The following became an integral part of spiritual beliefs and law in India: 1. "The fundamental reality, the essence of all things, is not something material, as most of the early Greek philosophers at about the same time concluded, but spiritual - the World Soul. 2. Each individual possesses a soul, which is a part of the World Soul. 3. The material world is an illusion (maya) and the cause of all suffering. As long as such earthly goals as fame, power, and wealth are sought, the result will be pain and sorrow. 4. Salvation, or deliverance from maya, can only come through the reabsorption of the individual soul into the World Soul. 5. This release from maya is part of a complicated process of reincarnation. The individual soul must go through a long series of earthly reincarnations from one body to another. 6. Intertwined with the doctrine of reincarnation is the immutable law called karma (meaning "deed")." (Gelbar, 2004) This law holds that the: "Consequences of one's deeds determine one's future after death. A person's status at any particular point is not the result of chance but depends on his or her soul's actions in previous existences. Together with the doctrine of maya, karma gives a satisfactory explanation to the question of why suffering exists, a question that has troubled thoughtful people all over the…

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Post-Cold War Era, Far From Making the

¶ … post-cold war era, far from making the "end of history" and the triumph of the western ideal, will be characterized by increased global fragmentation and the "clash of civilizations" based on ethical, cultural and religious distinctions. Cultural identity has replaced any shared ideology that had existed as the dominant global perspective in world affairs. To a great degree…

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Asian Monetary Fund What Is it Why Is it Important

Asian Monetary Fund - What is it? Why is it important? What is Asian Monetary Fund? The reform measures of International Monetary fund amidst severe economic crisis of East Asia, particularly, since the Second World War were considered as too imposing and too stringent. This led many to seriously think of mild reforms to eradicate the possibility of future economic…

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Senkaku / Diaoyu Islands Dispute

After doing detailed research into the islands' ownership issues, Inoue concluded that "…these islands are territory of the People's Republic of China, the only authority over the entire China" (Pan, 78). As regards the San Francisco Peace Treaty, the Chinese have never accepted that treaty as legally binding, Pan continues. In fact China issued a strong objection in the form…

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East Asian Civilizations (1) Unequal

Between 1774 and 1900 major conflicts arose in China which includes the following; The White Lotus Society situated in the North of China, was first appeared in the 13th century and was responsible for the social unrest caused in the country. Basically the teachings of the society were based on Buddhism. The society reemerged in late 18th century and created…

Pages: 7  |  Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 3

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