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Policing in Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice - Policing CRIMINAL JUSTICE ISSUES Does the exclusionary rule control police misbehavior? The exclusionary rule controls police misbehavior, but in a manner that is more indirect than direct. Technically, it does not actually control what police officers do; rather, it imposes certain penalties after the fact that are intended to deter future misconduct. The exclusionary rule is powerless to prevent police officers from violating constitutional protections or the established rules of criminal procedure designed to guarantee constitutional rights in any specific instance. However, by excluding evidence obtained in violation of constitutional protection, the exclusionary rule prevents improperly obtained evidence from being used at trial. In that way, the exclusionary rule provides an incentive for police to comply with established constitutional principles in general, because failure to do so undermines the underlying purpose of conducting investigations in the first place by preventing illegally obtained evidence from being used to secure convictions at trial. Prior to the establishment of the "good faith" exception in 1984 and further revisions to that doctrine in 1995, the exclusionary rule sometimes punished police actions that involved no wrongdoing by police. Concepts like the good faith exception and the "inevitable discovery" rule narrowed the applicability of the exclusionary rule to actual police misconduct. By distinguishing the kinds of police action that violate the Constitution from honest mistakes and clerical errors, these exceptions achieve a better balance between the conflicting goals of crime control and due process by excluding only evidence seized through purposeful violations and permitting the use of evidence seized improperly, but in a manner not capable of being deterred because it is not purposeful. 2. What can/should local police do in terms of "counter terrorism" efforts? Counterterrorism efforts comprise both strategies intended to identify and prevent terrorist threats against the local community as well as those intended to help identify and prevent terrorist threats against the American homeland. With respect to the local community, police efforts must focus on identifying potentially high-value terrorist targets for the purpose of controlling unauthorized access to sensitive facilities and infrastructure. That is achieved through the erection of physical barriers, the assignment of patrol responsibilities to monitor activity, and through the imposition of appropriate rules and policies to insulate those high-value targets from unrestricted access. At the same time, counterterrorism at the local level should also include identification of soft targets that can be hardened at minimal cost…

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Criminal Justice System Australian Criminal

The result is that over the last two decades of the "War on Crime" we have witnessed an erosion of the principle that juvenile offenders should be treated more leniently than adults (Sallmann & Willis, 2003). The "get tough" movement has tried to include these juvenile offenders within the ambit of the adult criminal justice system. An example of this "get tough" movement is legislation from California [Proposition 21]. The populist response to crime by juveniles has consisted of an attempt to dismantle the separate system of justice that has been created for juvenile offenders. Populist politicians have used the fact that juveniles receive mitigated punishments (compared to adults) to argue that juvenile sentences are too lenient, as though the adult disposition were the norm and the youth court sentence a lenient aberration. The imposition of milder punishments on juvenile offenders has also been cited as a cause of juvenile offending, the same way that leniency throughout the criminal justice system has been described, by politicians and members of the public, as a cause of crime (Roberts & Stalans, 1997). Conclusion The syllogism that links the severity of punishments to crime rates emerges more clearly at the level of juvenile justice, where it is often argued that tougher penalties will put a stop to rising levels of juvenile violence and prevent juveniles from turning into adult offenders. The source of the frustration may be the widespread perception that young people will not behave unless the punishment for wrongdoing is severe. But as Jackson Toby noted as far back as 1957, the main factors distinguishing delinquents from non-delinquents is whether a young person has a "stake in conformity" (Toby, 1957). Giving a young person a reason not to offend is, therefore, likely to be a much more effective strategy than threatening punishment. The claim that "a crime is a crime" and should result in the same punishment for adults and juveniles has also developed popular appeal. Thus the current criminal justice system is about as fair and effective as we can reasonably expect. References Bottoms, A.E. (1995). The philosophy and politics of punishment and sentencing. In C. Clarkson and R. Morgan, eds., The politics of sentencing reform. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hogg, R., and D. Brown (1998). Rethinking law and order. Sydney: Pluto Press. Toby, J. (1957). Social disorganization and stake in conformity: Complementary factors in the predatory behavior of hoodlums. Journal…

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Criminal Justice: On September 18

The reason for the suitability of this theory of punishment in this case is the fact that its central precept is that punishment should be in proportion to the harm. Importance of Code Ethics in the Criminal Justice System: One of the most essential and fundamental aspects in guiding practices and lessening misconduct by personnel in criminal justice is the…

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Australian Criminal Justice System Is Shaped Largely by Society Discuss This Statement

Australian criminal justice system is shaped largely by society. Discuss this statement. Social tendencies in Australia are reflected by the Australian criminal justice system, taking into account that it is the product of years of hard work performed as the authorities and the masses cooperated. One of the principal focuses of this system is related to how all people need to be treated equally, regardless of any kinds of particularities that can be associated with them. The fact that states and territories in the country have different criminal justice systems makes it possible for one to understand that the diversity in the country has had a strong influence on these legislations. Many Australians are unable to understand the importance of having a solid criminal justice system and are generally inclined to put across hesitation regarding them getting actively involved in shaping this collection of laws. "Criminal laws are said to reflect the morals of the community and the generally accepted attitudes about what is appropriate conduct and what is not" (Heilbronn 449). The police are in charge of enforcing the criminal justice system and the people thus need to have a complex understanding of this community and of the concept of authorities as a whole. Even with this, people have the tendency to respond differently in particular circumstances involving the police. Some feel that the police are obligated to make society a safer place and that they absolutely need to capture individuals who perform illegalities, regardless of the situation. However, the same individuals are probable to feel that their intimacy is being breached when they are questioned, fingerprinted, or when the authorities listen to their phones. Individuals thus have to understand that the police have the duty to do everything in its power in order to punish criminals and prevent crime from happening. Many Australians consider that the police's powers are carefully controlled with the purpose of protecting "individuals from harassment and unfair investigatory practices" (Heilbronn 450). While this can be considered normal when regarding matters from the perspective of the simple individual who wants safety but is reluctant to support invasive investigatory practices, police officers typically believe that a great deal of minority groups prevent them from doing their job properly as a result of the fact that they condemn particular activities. The Police force in New South Wales has become accustomed to using 'sniffer' dogs with the purpose…

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Ethics in Criminal Justice Maintaining a High

Ethics in Criminal Justice Maintaining a high degree of ethical behavior within the criminal justice system is essential in promoting trust within the community. Police misconduct such as raping detainees does irreparable harm to that trust. In order to eliminate instances of police misconduct, it is imperative to institute strict procedures to address the issue. Only by addressing the issue…

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Ethical Concerns in Criminal Justice:

Many accusations of police brutality have ultimately been found to be false and created for the betterment of the suspect's situation and these are the majority. However, there are still cases of genuine police brutality that occur throughout the United States. According to researchers, police force is reported in 24% of encounters between officers and suspects or witnesses (Krupanski 2012). Perhaps the most famous incidence of police brutality occurred in Los Angeles, California in 1991 when officers were filmed brutally beating Rodney King (Byers 2002). Cases have been reported in every state of the union about police misconduct to varying degrees including beating suspects, torture, and even murder. Lawyers for the defense will often use any and all errors in judgment of police officers to help their clients. Indeed some cases against defendants have been dismissed because of the actions of the police officers involved in the investigation. Besides the obvious difficulty with the current case on which the officers are working, the issue of police brutality also has more far reaching negative consequences. The concept of police brutality undermines the whole concept of criminal justice and creates a negative attitude towards police officers. The role of the police in the United States is supposed to be that of protectorate and seeker of justice. When the police officers behave violently, it alters the perception of the police officer with the community. This is worsened by the perception of people that police officers will do whatever it takes to protect one another in accordance with the fraternity of the job. Statistically, incidences of police violence have been investigated and perpetrators punished but there were many cases wherein a cover up was discovered and those involved also punished. Police brutality is a very important issue in modern criminal justice because it alters the way in which the officers of justice are perceived by the public who they are supposed to protect. Force has been used when necessary to arrest suspects and to gain information. In the modern era, the former is still employed but is always treated critically. Force in the obtaining of information is absolutely verboten in the present historical moment. It is the responsibility of those involved in criminal justice to behave appropriately and to limit force to only the times when it is absolutely necessary and also to keep an eye on other officers. The impetus needs to be…

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Change About the Criminal Justice System if

¶ … change about the criminal justice system if I had the power to do so? For the criminal justice system to be changed, it seems to me that its very basics need to be altered, and I therefore lean towards the philosophy of Restorative justice. Restorative justice in effect states that the offender will grow not be crushed by…

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Criminal Justice System Is Comprised

The judge's feature is generally begun at the defendant's first court visit or at a hearing if and when proof exists (Israel et al. 2003). Five Steps of the Criminal Justice System Entry into the System Investigation and Arrest: In this case discernment is made use of in lots of methods, whether it is to ease pressure of state overcrowding…

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MS Degree in Criminal Justice Help You

¶ … MS degree in Criminal Justice help you achieve your personal, vocational, and/Or education goals? As an officer in the U.S. Navy, I already have served in a demanding career, protecting U.S. interests at home and abroad. Studying criminal justice seems like a natural extension of my first occupation. There is already a great deal of overlap between the Department of Homeland Security functions and the U.S. Navy. This degree would build upon my current framework of reference. It would expand my vocational opportunities and ground my lived experiences in the history and philosophy of the enforcement of justice. Ultimately, I would like to become a criminal justice professional, specializing in homeland security, perhaps working within the Department of Homeland Security itself to improve the security of the nation's borders. Naval security is often a neglected part of homeland security. It is just as essential to ensure that no threats encroach upon the U.S. from the sea; furthermore there is the issue of drugs funneled through the nation's ports used to fund terrorism. The need to understand the role of protecting U.S. waters with a specific focus on terrorism prevention and detection, merging both homeland security and naval philosophies, is yet another reason why I am seeking out this degree. Making the world a safer place requires an understanding of both criminological theory and practical issues that influence the detection and prevention of crime. I have a sound understanding of how to guard against assaults, deter, and counterattack against threats. Graduate study would give me a better understanding of how and why crimes occur, and why people commit crimes and acts of terror. Q2. What is your preparedness for, and understanding of graduate-level study in Criminal Justice? Operating within a military context has grounded me in concepts such as Just War theory, which attempts to balance ethics with the need for security. The need to balance the duty of a military officer to protect the safety of citizens, military codes of honor, and domestic and international law is a constant challenge of the modern military. Within the field of criminal justice as within the military, the law and the rights even of the enemy must be respected, and if they are not the consequences can be grave -- evidence can be thrown out of court, or the military may lose the support of the population it is trying to…

Pages: 4  |  Admission Essay  |  Style: n/a  |  Sources: 0


Criminal Justice Associates Program When I Entered

¶ … Criminal Justice Associates Program When I entered into the criminal justice associates program, I have to admit that my thoughts were not focused on what I would learn. Instead, in many ways I viewed the program as a means to an end, a necessary step that I had to take in order to get my desired job in law enforcement. I felt that it would provide me with the stepping stone that I needed to get a job in an administrative sector of law enforcement, and possibly help me get into a police academy and reduce my course requirements while there; if that is the route I chose to explore. However, once I began my coursework, I was pleasantly surprised to discover that I was learning a substantial amount of helpful information from my coursework. My instructors and professors had a wide variety of real-life experience that provided me with an educational experience beyond what I would have received from a textbook or self-study. These experiences helped shape my perception of what it means to work in criminal justice. One of the primary things I learned about criminal justice is that it is not a black and white field. While there are victims and perpetrators, there is also a tremendous overlap between the groups. For example, a woman may be a prostitute, who is a criminal, but she may be raped by one of her clients, which makes her a victim, or she may be the victim of human trafficking, which also makes her a victim. The idea that a person could simultaneously play two roles in the criminal justice system inspired me to really think about crimes, their detection, their solution, and their prosecution. In many ways, it appears that the easiest crimes to prove may not be the most serious crime involved in a situation. For example, a prostitute who is raped by a john should not be prosecuted for her prostitution if she comes to the police to report her rape; doing so ignores the magnitude of what occurred to her and penalizes her for seeking help from the police. At the same time that I was learning that some aspects of the criminal justice system are not black-and-white, I was also learning that some rules are not meant to be broken or even bent. I learned a significant amount about the protections that the…

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DNA in Criminal Justice System

Cole (1997) states, that FBI began DNA testing for trails in 1988. There have been 12,000 cases reported since then till 1997. However, FBI pointed out that out of these 12,000, almost a quarter of the suspects in these cases was exonerated. Till 1997, DNA examiners have testified in about 600 trials for DNA as evidence to prove the suspect…

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Criminal Justice System Today Most

It is true that prison overcrowding is one of the most urgent criminal justice issues not only in America, but all over the world. More often than not the responsible institutions have cited lack of jail space as the cause for this problem. This has led to the proposal of building more prison facilities to accommodate the soaring numbers. However, I hold a different opinion, I believe that the major cause is the lack of alternatives to incarceration which leads all offenders to prison and this is worsened by introduction of certain policies. For instance there is the mandatory minimum sentence for drug crimes in America; this has highly increased the rate of incarceration (Green, 2011). It implies that when alternatives to incarceration are adopted then the number of offenders headed for the prisons will greatly reduce eventually addressing the issue of prison overcrowding. On the other hand the criminal justice system encourages courts to dispense with the cases that are pending to reduce the volume of cases. This pressure usually leads to either offenders walking free or the wrong people sent to prison in the process of carrying out speedy trials and this is a serious violation (Leipold, 1995). This usually happens because of the complex process involved in taking the defendants through the justice system. It involves organization of attorneys and witnesses for appearance. In some instances one officer may be required to appear in two different locations consecutively and since this is not possible a defendant could walk free. To avoid such loopholes the system usually pays the price of cases backlog. What better way would be there than exploring alternatives to incarceration and bypassing the prison system? This is a clear indication that the most significant problem facing the criminal justice system today is lack of alternatives to incarceration. The moment this is addressed then a host of other related problems will be solved eventually. The only challenge is to convince the relevant authorities that this is what should be addressed and not the related issues since most people still hold the strong view that offenders, especially violent ones or sexual offenders, should be isolated from the society to eliminate threat. REFERENCES Green, B. (2011). "Criminal Justice - What's Ahead? Roadblocks and New Directions." Criminal Justice, Volume 25, Number 4. Leipold, A.D. (1995). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused, 80 Cornell. Rev.…

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History U.S. Criminal Justice Systems/Police

Peel's police wore uniforms and patrolled beats." (Schmalleger Chapter 5 Summary)] 1845 America's first unified, prevention-oriented police force, patterned after the London Metropolitan Police, is established in New York City. Vila and Morris xxxi) It was at this point that the nation began to demonstrate expansions of professionalism as the New York City police force took the first substantial step…

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Criminology and Criminal Justice as Sciences as

Criminology and Criminal Justice as Sciences As sciences, the study of criminology and criminal justice are at an exciting place in time and technology. Today, there is more science than ever to back up the investigation and the prosecution of crime. The use of technology must be accompanied by a strict code of ethics supporting the investigation, collection, storage, and…

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Leadership Skills for Criminal Justice

As for moral agility, this entails having the talent for being able to differentiate between different shades of moral choice. That is, moral agility is based on being able to put to good use "…intelligence, maturity, flexibility, and the ability to make analytical distinctions when distinctions are hardly visible" (Souryal, 207). In other words, criminal justice leaders are expected to act wisely on every occasion. Theirs is a culture of virtue vis-a-vis "liberty and justice" and "honesty and fidelity" -- and they must lead through "decency and social righteousness" (Souryal, 207). Professor Kevin N. Wright of the State University of New York (Binghamton) believes that part of the problem when criminal justice professionals use unethical strategies is simply due to "…the fallibility of human beings" (Wright, 1999). Moreover, the very nature of criminal justice work "may heighten the forces to act inappropriately," Wright explains. Law enforcement officers see the public "at our worst," and eventually the officers form perceptions about people and that provides the officers with "fertile ground…to overstep ethical limits" (Wright, 67). In order for criminal justice leadership to prevent ethical lapses and focus on virtuous behaviors, Wright says the CEO (or commander) has to "talk about ethics…[and] the CEO has to be consistent" and be willing to walk the walk as well as talk the talk. In other words, leaders can't just hold staff accountable then become a heavy drinker, or philanderer, and accept gifts from parties that want to have influence within the department (Wright, 68). Professor Julian V. Roberts of Oxford University writes that without public confidence in the ethical behavior of the criminal justice system, a crisis develops. And Roberts asserts that in the United States, there is currently a crisis of confidence in the criminal justice system. He references a survey taken in 2007 in which "…more than four out of five respondents favoured the idea of 'totally revamping the way that the [criminal justice] system works'" (Roberts, 2007, p. 154). It would be hard to present a more obvious statistic showing a lack of confidence in the ethical integrity of America's criminal justice system. Clearly there is a need for an upgrade in this system, since if the public lacks confidence in the system, they do not feel protected. In conclusion, leadership is far more than being boss or being in charge. Leadership -- in this case, in the criminal justice system…

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Graduate School: Criminal Justice an

Excelsior College has widened my scope of issues in criminal justice, which is essential in determining America's safety and economic wealth. I conducted a research on the program, and according to Little (2008), it was worth noting that about 80% of colleges in America offer consequent study programs in Homeland Security and Emergency Management Concentration. In addressing this academic importance, I have studied and engaged in module discussions with patent issues that concern the Criminal Justice system in America. Variety ideas and issues during the course sprung up that form the basis of my future goals towards addressing Homeland Security and Emergency Management Concentration. I am also professional equipped by my 20 years of experience in public service, U.S. Air Force and Kokomo Police Department. I am academically prepared to transit into Excelsior College M. Sc in Homeland Security and Emergency Management Concentration. My comprehensive understanding of graduate level study is that it is a concentrated course that anticipates quality and intense quantity of work. It provides further and deep insights into a specific study field, unlike undergraduate level study whereby a course is tackled from several fields of study. In addition, graduate school is strictly academic and professional, whereby in the former situation, one is expected to present original research in the respective discipline and in the latter, one is expected to develop vocational skills and knowledge in the concerned profession or vocation. Excelsior has enabled me to pass in all my Associate and Bachelor's by attaining a 3.50 GPA. The previous levels of study have enabled me to devise appropriate strategies and attain intellectual resources necessary in becoming a graduate. I am ready to focus on a rigorous evaluation of Criminal Justice the assistance of my lecturers and professors to be. I am also ready to present original and unique project and research works that will be assigned to me. Distance learning has so far been successful and I believe I will undertake the same process in ensuring that I manage to succeed in attaining my Masters degree. I greatly attributed this to the efficiency of the college's website that is always updated with the necessary information that a student needs, making it convenient to study anywhere. In addition, I do have library sessions, whereby I read the recommended books by my lecturer to facilitate quick understanding and have information diversity. I am expecting to continue applying this…

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Criminal Justice - Evaluations Evaluation Methods in

Criminal Justice - Evaluations EVALUATION METHODS in CRIMINAL JUSTICE Introduction: As in the case of any other professional industry, policing and other criminal justice administration functions must maintain a system of agency evaluation to assess the effectiveness of its programs. Evaluations encompass effectiveness with respect to achieving specific strategic objectives, supervisory controls, program design, methodology, and fiscal efficiency. In professional…

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Women in the Criminal Justice System the

Women in the Criminal Justice System The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration Task Force on Women re-evaluated its 1975 recommendations on issues concerning the treatment of women and girls in the criminal justice system (Gowdy et al. 1998). The Task Force found that female offenders, female crime victims, and female criminal justice professionals have been significantly neglected despite noteworthy gains made.…

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Criminal Justice System Juvenile Delinquency Identify Three

Criminal Justice System Juvenile Delinquency Identify three components of the diversionary program and initiatives within the NCJRS website Woman & Girls in the Criminal Justice System. Gender-Specific Assessment of Offender's Needs, Strengths, and Risk Factors in conjunction with Gender-Specific Programming A Focus on Personal Transformation and Rehabilitation through Continuous Exposure to Positive Role Models (Probation Officers, Case Workers) Systematic Training to Implement Uniform Assessment and Programming Practices Across Multiple Criminal Justice and Social Service Agencies. 2.Compare and contrast state and local programs as they contribute to successful reintegration and transition services. State Programs State institutions, due to the state's exclusive authority for most criminal offenses in the state, usually encounter juvenile offenders only after they have reached the sentencing stage. Although criminal justice institutions theoretically exist to punish criminal offenders for the sake of public safety, incapacitation is often seems premature for most juvenile offenders. Criminal Justice Institutions such as the Department of Juvenile Justice in Maryland have recognized that traditional programming options, which consisted of either short-term or long-term commitment to residential group homes, were more likely to promote than prevent recidivism because the offenders were often being placed in an unhealthy environment. These experiences only reinforced the bad habits of juvenile offenders, trapping them in an environment that they could not see past. The Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice formed a task force to assess the programming needs of adjudicated female juvenile offenders. The task force formed what they called a Female Intervention Team composed of 13 juvenile counselors/case managers and 1 juvenile supervisor in order to help rehabilitate the female juvenile offender while she was serving out her sentence or sanction. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 15). The Female Intervention Team counselors, hailing from a variety of backgrounds, were each assigned an all-female caseload. They managed the cases of female juvenile offenders, supervised probation, and organized monthly group activities. One benefit of this approach is that the girls, many of whom were physically or sexually abused by adults at some point in their lives, learned that men and women have healthy relationships which did not involve sex, violence, or drugs. (Juvenile Justice Journal, 1999, p. 16). Local Programs Local governmental bodies, such as counties and cities, do not have as much authority in matters of criminal law besides law enforcement. Thus, local governments usually deliver juvenile justice programs through social service agencies and other youth-facing institutions. Their…

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Criminal Justice Theory

Criminal Justice Policies Criminal Justice and Policies M2D1: Applying Due Process and Crime Control Habert Packer was the core founder of due process model and crime control model that aimed at reducing the alarming rate of crime in America. Crime control model emphasizes more on human freedom and calls for the suppression of crime. The model puts human interest first…

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How Does the Australian Criminal Justice System Respond to White Collar and Corporate Crime?

¶ … Australian Criminal Justice System respond to white collar and corporate crime? Crimes are breach of the law. Criminal law as in the common law differentiates between crimes that mala per se' that is crimes that are repugnant to humankind for example, murder, robbery and so on which forms the basis of the penal code. There are crimes that…

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Criminal Justice System After Heavy

I would like to see the Home Secretary implement some community service - he would learn there are some really good schemes helping people to change their attitude and help the community." Moreover Juliet Lyon (Director of the Prison Reform Trust) says "It makes no sense to expect overcrowded jails to cut crime when the solutions lay outside, in better parental supervision, constructive alternatives for the young, mental health care, treatment for those addicted to drugs and drink, and a reduction in homelessness, poverty and unemployment." As the British jails have been overloaded so judiciary should carefully give imprisonment punishments and less serious offenders should be given community-based punishments rather than being awarded punishments and purpose of any punishments should carefully. As the John Denham (Chairman Commons home affairs committee) says "The central challenge is to rebuild public faith in community sentencing, with sentences that are clearer, and sentencing that more accurately shows the evidence on what reduces reoffending. There has been far too little emphasis about getting people into a work-type environment in prison, helping them make the transition into work in the outside world." Bibliography BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/e CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/22/sport/football/uk-football-racism/index.html Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments: http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/08/ Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled: http://www.presstv.ir/detail/239932.html The Guardian. (2012, march 27). Student Jailed for Racist Fabrice Muamba Tweets. UK. The Independent. (2006, November 30). Is the criminal justice system fair? The Independent. (2009, September). Procedures in the criminal justice system. Retrieved from The Independent: www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/is-the-criminal-justice-system-fair-426383.html…

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Criminal Justice - Crime Prevention Theories of

Criminal Justice - Crime Prevention THEORIES of CRIME PREVENTION The Nature of Crime Prevention: Crime is a human invention that derives from the concept of societal laws; without codified laws, there is no such thing as crime, because crime is simply the violation of those established laws. Crime prevention comprises several specific function, such as police intervention, criminal investigation, apprehension, prosecution, and corrections. Collectively, the various functions of the entire criminal justice system also serves another important role as a deterrence to future criminal conduct. In principle, crime includes everything from technical violations of misdemeanors and other even less serious levels of penal violation that are actually inconsequential in their effect to the most serious types of crimes that threaten the health, safety, and welfare of other individuals, sometimes in very large numbers. Crime prevention is purposeful effort to reduce criminal conduct by deterrence before the fact, and by investigating and punishing criminal conduct after the fact, where and to the extent it is in the reasonable interest of society to do so. Crime prevention takes on myriad forms, including "first-line" police street patrols, detective investigation services, forensic science, and white collar crime detection and intervention. In police patrol services, crime prevention may include elements of informal policies and procedures in the street and in many facets of law enforcement, it may include baited "sting" operations. While the concept of crime prevention is very broad, virtually every aspect of law enforcement functions requires prioritizing specific categories of criminal conduct because equally strict enforcement of every type of crime is both impractical and also of dubious value, regardless. Achieving Crime Prevention: Quantifying crime……

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Criminal Justice Management Reading Articles the Boys

CRIMINAL JUSTICE Management Reading articles The Boys in Blue After reading Erica Goode's article in the New York Times, "Police Chiefs Focus on Disparities in Gun Violence, With an Eye Towards Solutions," there appears to be a couple of different ways in which police management can successfully influence changes in gun laws that are necessary to reduce crime that is committed through the usage of fire arms. One of the most effective ways would be to exert as much pressure as possible on the politicians, and their supporting lobbyists, that are widely responsible for the passing of legislature that could assist to change current laws. Although police are municipal, state and federally funded, these fraternal organizations have lobbyists as well that could do a better job of working in conjunction with the needs of police officers to help reduce crime. Additionally, in attempting to actuate a political influence that could help sway both politicians and voters alike, police management can reassert the significant financial costs associated with gunplay and crimes committed with firearms, such as by telling people that a single week would exact a cost of upwards of 38 million for tax payers. It appears that some cities have more violence than others for a couple of facts. One would is the particular legislation regarding firearms utilized in these different municipalities. For instance, it is highly significant that in a city in San Diego, in which there are stringent laws and punishments associated with firearm crimes, that there was less violence than that in other cities. However, legislation is not the only factor that plays a role in the disparity in the violence between the cities mentioned in the article. The proclivities of each municipality also influence the amount of crimes committed there. Straw running guns is immensely popular in Texas, which partly explains why Austin had nearly 40 gun related crimes in the week referenced in the article. There are a couple of different reasons that help to account for the reasons why the rather lengthy research based on the Community Oriented Policing Services program has not stuck or been as effective as it potentially could be. John Laub's opinion that the research is not disseminated widely enough alludes to some of these reasons. However, regardless of the amount of dissemination of the research that was involved in this program, there were certain issues with the implementation of…

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Criminal Justice Take Home Exam

Certain theories may be more appropriate to discussing and curtailing certain crimes -- for instance, the developmental theory of subcultures seems uniquely appropriate to the drug culture, where by uprooting the organizational structures that financially reward drugs, drug networks can be circumvented. Developmental theories of drug control also stress that while the control of sellers and users through the criminal justice system is necessary, rehabilitating and social procedures must be implemented so addicts receive treatment and the social, contributing causes to drug abuse such as poverty and hopelessness are eliminated or curtailed. Question 5: Barriers to effective policing have long occurred because of abuses of police authority and corruption within the department that is not adequately supervised by internal affair reviews. But beyond a crisis of perceptions of public honesty, it is also important that police are seen as contributing to a safer community, rather than simply enforcing the law in a cold or worse, arbitrary manner. The best way to create an atmosphere of community policing is to intensify recruitment efforts from the community, and to ensure the police have a social as well as a technical understanding of the community they are overseeing. The responsibility they owe is not simply to their fellow officers, or even to individual victims, but to society as well, and to a community. Question 6: The police may conduct searches without warrants if made in good faith, if they fear a life may be in danger, if the accoutrements of a crime are in plain view, and other circumstances that merit that probable cause that a crime has been committed are evident. While some believe this circumvents the fourth amendment to the constitution, it is noteworthy that the burden of proof to conduct such searches is substantially smaller than to convict an individual in a criminal court of law. In the case of profiling a suspect, for instance, simply because an individual is stopped because he or she resembles a suspect or legitimately raises a policeman or woman's level of professional (not personal) suspicion, does not mean that individual will be convicted. The law has long trusted the professional eyes and standards of the police in the moment of policing -- if it did not, then no search would be……

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Criminal Justice System

Criminal Justice System Define the criminal justice system in your own words The criminal justice system is the vehicle that society uses to enforce the standards of conduct that are necessary to protect individuals and the community. The criminal justice system consists of three main parts: law enforcement, courts, and the jails and prisons. Choose a crime trend and identify this trend in Louisiana. Create a chart to illustrate the crime trend statistics you chose. Race relations and poverty have always been a topic of concern in New Orleans, but has become ever so more talked about since hurricane Katrina. It has been reported that New Orleans has one of the highest concentrations of poverty and poor African-American residents in the U.S. In the areas just outside of New Orleans, the poverty rate in the damaged areas of the Gulf Coast (20.72%) is clearly above the national average of 12.4%. The geographic concentration of people experiencing poverty, mostly African-Americans, has contributed to a historic cycle of destruction and suffering. Katrina forced misery upon people from every segment of the social spectrum, but the poor and unemployed, African-Americans, and those who rent their homes were especially affected. "Due to this concentration of damage, the hurricane amplified preexisting disparities based on class and race. Residents in damaged areas were 45.8% African-American, compared to 26.4% in the undamaged areas of the region, 29.9% were under the poverty line, compared to 15.3% in surrounding undamaged areas and 7.6% of the residents in damaged areas were unemployed, as compared to 6% in nearby undamaged areas" (Vorhees, Vick and Perkins, 2007). The police: Identify the roles and responsibilities of the police after a crime has been committed. What they must do and why? A police officer's basic tasks include keeping public order and protecting lives and property. A police officer must be watchful for any number of threats, human or otherwise. Once a crime has been committed, detectives take over and engage in searching that ranges from routine questioning to DNA analysis. Sheriffs and state troopers uphold order in bigger areas. Most officers work a patrol in a specific area. As they rise in the ranks, their duties become more specialized. All police officers, because of their exclusive role in society, are responsible for maintaining the trust of the public they serve. Police work is mostly a series of routines: patrols, investigations, and paperwork (Police Officer/Manager,…

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Criminal Justice System Discuss the

This helps the police in establishing probable cause and connecting other evidence that was collected during the process of the investigation. It is at this point that this information can be used to show how a crime is being committed (which could lead to a judge authorizing a search warrant). (Samaha, 2011) The dangers involved with using these kinds of tips are that the police could be receiving false information. This is problematic, because they could potentially detain or raid a residence of someone that has committed no crime. If this were to happen it opens law enforcement up to the possibility of a civil lawsuit and a ruling against the search. Another potential danger is that many of the criminals could use this as a way to change the focus of the investigation to someone else. This is troubling, in that this kind of tactic will protect criminals from prosecution by having informants provide the police with information on their rivals and enemies. In the future, this could lead to uneven enforcement of the law by focusing on select groups while ignoring others. (Samaha, 2011) The biggest dangers of not using tips are that law enforcement will have more difficulties in proving that a crime is being committed. This makes it easier for criminals to avoid prosecution and continue with their activities in the future. When the police are able to understand the organization better is the point that they can effectively arrest and prosecute a suspect. As a result, the type of crime and the difficultly in solving the case should matter. The reason why, is from the critical information that someone may have about a suspect. This means that any kind of tips could tie everything together. References Samaha, J.……

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Criminal Justice Management

Criminal Justice Management Intelligence Led Policing Intelligence Led Policing is a growing trend in both national and local security strategies and measures. This approach to law enforcement is much more strategic approach to law enforcement which features strategies aimed at early location and understanding of potential risk factors and how to manage those problems before they become too big to control. It is essentially based on finding out intelligence and implementing more proactive strategies that are geared towards the intelligence gathered beforehand. The Sparrow case study provides an interesting glimpse in modern implementations of intelligence led policing being used within a contemporary context. The article discussed the occurrence of a failed car bomb in the infamous Times Square in New York. The article highlights the New York Police Department's intelligence capabilities and how those capacities are being successfully used to deter future terrorist acts before they are actually set into place. Immediately, the media went into a furry in blaming the Obama administration for not being able to protect American citizens. This shows a clear misunderstanding of intelligence led policing in the eyes of the media. Assignment 2: Kansas City There was a preventative patrol experiment conducted in Kansas City. This experiment lasted between 1972 and 1973, later being evaluated by the Police Foundations. Essentially, the experiment tested on whether it was true that heightened numbers of police on patrol would help deter people from actually committing crimes. In this, the more police visible on the streets would essentially mean less criminal activities out of the fear of those visible police. Yet, the case clearly had major issues that made me personally believe the assumption of greater police presence was not necessarily as great of a deterrent as many would……

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Policy Changes in the Criminal Justice System

Policy Changes in the Criminal Justice System in America Discuss the changes that can be made to improve three parts of the criminal justice system (Crime Prevention, Sentencing, and the prison experience) QUOTE ALL 10 RESOURCES The criminal justice system in America which comprises of three stages i.e. crime prevention, sentencing and the prison experience has failed terribly in bringing about the necessary changes to the criminals. This is seen in the high rate of violent crimes which are higher in America than other European countries and thus suggest that the system does not work as desired. The sentencing policies that have been used have not helped either. These have just led to exponential growth of the population of inmates and it has created a vast disparity in inmates that is based on class and race. Additionally, the rate of relapse to prison is extremely high suggesting that there are no reforms taking place on the inmates. Therefore, there is need for policies to be instituted which change the criminal justice system in America. One of the policy changes that need to take place regards the way in which the prisons are run. Mass imprisonment rakes in huge profits for companies as a result of prisons being treated as business entities by those running the prisons. Corporations which are contracted to run or own the prisons usually earn millions in profits year after year. Therefore, they find a way to keep their profits flowing in as a result of mass imprisonment. This system tends to reproduce the same conditions that lead people into prison Davis 16-17(; Schlosser) . Therefore, the government needs to find a way to run the prisons as state entities that do not make any profits. This would bring about some seriousness to the prisons and reduce the reproduction of conditions similar to those that lead people into prison. The second issue that arises is how the media and film industries portray prisons to those outside prisons. Prisons have been portrayed in a different image than the reality which confuses the general public into believing that they know all about what happens in the prisons. This has led to the evildoers not being scared of prison since they believe that it is a place that they are familiar with. The government should come up with policies to prevent prisons from being portrayed a lot in the films…

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Criminal Procedure

Criminal Procedure: The criminal justice system is a process that involves various steps that start with a criminal investigation and end with the release of a convicted criminal from correctional institution. Since it involves a variety of steps, the center of the criminal justice process and criminal procedure is rules and decision making. Rules in criminal procedure involves the use…

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Criminal Justice Law Enforcement Some

Most communities have a skewed view of the law enforcement professionals, which makes it difficult for professionals to operate (Barker, 2011). Secondly, the professionals face a challenge with attending to the vast population with their limited numbers. This slows the efficiency of crime prevention through patrols and other means. Additionally, there is the challenge of the societal creations that bring about the criminal acts. Reaching the agents of the crime manufacturing in the society is difficult; thus, the professional finds it hard to attend to matters concerning the crime prevention process. In combating these challenges, the professionals can take various models of operation. These strategies to curb the issues challenging the professionals include, empowering the community, which simplifies the relation between the professional and society. The professionals can develop community-based policing in which the professionals rely on the citizens for information and intelligence of unlawful acts (Barker, 2011). The professionals can also decentralize the authority to improve the response to the neighborhood-based crime. Using the crime theories, the law enforcement agency can develop specific professionals for the role of prevention and control of crime and such acts: rather than officers generalize their training. The professionals can also establish and seek a broad belief from the public in their function. With these operations, the society will be safe. The safety of the people is imperative for progress in all sectors, economically, socially or politically. Therefore, the law enforcement professionals have an obligation to safeguard the rights of the people in the country by maintaining law and order. References Prenzler, T. (2009). Police corruption: Preventing misconduct and maintaining integrity. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, Ill: Chares C. Thomas. Law enforcement. (2002, Credit Management,, 22-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/228275987?accountid=35812 Rosen, M.D. (2004). Exporting the constitution. Emory Law Journal, 53(1), 171-232. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/215713782?accountid=35812 Tierney, J. (2009). Criminology: Theory and context. New York: Longman. Barker, T. (2006). Police ethics: Crisis in law……

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Incorporating Restorative and Community Justice Into American Sentencing and Corrections

Restorative Justice Evidence Evaluation Bibligoraphy In criminal justice, new interventions targeting crime control and reduction are constantly being developed and implemented. The recent intervention that is notable is Restorative Justice. This paper will thus critique this particular emerging intervention and focus on answering questions like: What is Restorative Justice? What is Community Justice? Should Restorative and Community Justice Be incorporated…

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Criminal Justice - Research Methods

News blurbs include topics of high interest, such as, a report that the overall crime rate in New York has dropped while the incidence of hate crimes has increased. Hate Crimes in New York State Annual Report http://criminaljustice.state.ny.us/criment/ojsa/hate-crime-in-nys-2010-annual-report.pdf Connecticut The State of Connecticut Statistical Analysis Center (CT-SAC) is located at the OPM, which is under the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Grants are awarded on an annual basis. The Research, Analysis & Evaluation Unit applied for grant funds to support the research and administration of the Statistical Analysis Center (SAC) for the State of Connecticut. The relocation of the CT-SAC was an effort to build in-house resources for knowledge sharing, to streamline operations, and to provide agency cross-training in order to improve coordination and support for the CJPAC Research Workgroup. Between 1970 and 2010, there were 554 incidents of terrorism in Germany. The incidents hit a definitive peak between the years 1990 and 1997. Most of the incidents targeted business, with military and police targets accruing the second and third highest numbers of incidents of terrorism, respectively. The two main types of weapons were incendiary and melee. Fatalities were rare, the intent may have been to destroy property and disrupt. The list of perpetrators is very long and very specific. It was not possible to start with the incidences and find the perpetrator. Rather, the perpetrator had to be selected and then related incidents would be shown. In August 29, 1995, the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK) was responsible for attacks on businesses, private citizens, and private property in Ulm in the state of Baden-Wurttemberg, injuring four people and killing two people. http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?start_yearonly=1990&end_yearonly=1997&start_year=&start_month=&start_day=&end_year=&end_month=&end_day=&asmSelect0=&country=75&perpetrator=100024&perpetrator=20271&perpetrator=20272&perpetrator=2556&perpetrator=449&dtp2=all&success=yes&casualties_type=b&casualties_max= Source: Framework for Program Evaluation, CDC http://www.cdc.gov/eval/framework.htm For a community mobilization effort against youth violence, I would begin by talking to community leaders. Who these people are is highly dependent upon the dominant cultural or ethnic groups in a community, but it is safe to say that a community mobilization effort would be "dead in the water" if it did not engage these community influencers. Initial meetings with community leaders / influencers will help to direct the first formal, organized, and visible activities in the community. Once the community leaders have agreed on the primary tenets of the program, they will act as champions of the program, telling key stakeholders about the program plans. In this way, by the time the initial meeting occurs, a group of community influencers…

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Poor Grammar Criminal Justice System

Thus, law enforcement agents may apply unrestricted justice on minorities as the occurrence of minority groups increase rulers' insight of threat and fear of crime. Furthermore, the relationships between legal agents such as police officers and minorities are harsh since police nature support the well-being of the rulers (Chambliss and Seidman, 1971:53).Thus, the decisions of police in order to arrest minorities can be independent of genuine conduct and more reliant upon their subordinate group status such as favoritism based on group individuality (Chambliss and Seidman, 1971:53). Identification of Different Perspectives of Individual Rights & Public-Order Advocates The individual rights advocates are those who search to protect individual freedoms within the process of criminal justice. For example, legalize marijuana, ACLU, Anti-death penalty groups, NAACP. While on the other hand public-order advocates are those who consider under particular circumstances involving the safety of public, the society interests and take priority over individual rights. For example, tougher penalties, roadblock searches, three strikes etc. Community Policing Impact on Crime According to the DOJ definition: Community policing is a policing philosophy designed to reduce crime and disorder in communities by fostering trust, respect, and collaboration between police officers and citizens (Jones; 2002)." The impact of these polices on crime can be seen where the policing leaders, experts along with government agencies and community leaders were almost unanimous and hardly have focused teams, or targeted toward eliminating particular activities. These are considered to be the most effectual means in order to combat violence and homicides in the community (Jones, 2002). These policies however, include severe or high-impact targeting of gang areas and hot spots etc. (Jones; 2002). Works Cited Overview of the Criminal Justice System (1998). The National Centre for Victims of Crime. http://www.ncvc.org/ Criminal Justice. Crime and Violence: Are crime and criminal justice important political issues? Social issues? Why. www. courses.ceu.edu Chambliss, W. (1976). Functional and Conflict Theories of Crime: The Heritage of Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx. In Whose Law? What Order?: A Conflict Approach to Criminology. W. Chambliss & Mankoff (Eds.), New York: John Wiley and Sons. Tittle, C. (1994). The Theoretical Bases for Inequality in Formal Social Control. In Inequality, Crime, and Social Control. Bridges and Myers (Eds.), Boulder: West view Press. Tolnay, S., & Beck E.M. (1992). Toward a Threat Model of Southern Black Lynchings. In Social Threat and Social Control. C. Liska (Ed.), Albany: State University of New York Press.…

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Criminal Justice Powell, Michael. "Bragging

Yet more should be done to ensure an error-free DNA processing procedure at all stages of the criminal justice process. Dwyer, Jim. "Rewriting the City's Record on Prisons." The New York Times. 2 Jan, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/03/nyregion/rewriting-the-citys-record-on-prisons.html In this article, Dwyer comments on Harry Belafonte's criticism of the New York City prison system. According to the author, the city has effectively reduced its prison population and is contributing to the overall state reduction in incarceration rates. This news is promising. While the rest of the nation should follow suit, at least New York is taking steps to reduce one of the country's biggest shames: prison overcrowding and the needless imprisonment of nonviolent drug offenders. Alternative sentencing for other crimes, and more aggressive prevention programs are also absolutely critical to reducing prison overpopulation. Fuller, Thomas. "Wave of High -- Profile Crimes Has Put Malaysians on the Defensive." 18 October, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/20/world/asia/soaring-crime-rate-takes-a-growing-malaysia-by-surprise.html Although we are not discussing international crime, I wanted to write about this article in a more general sense to show how rates of crime shift in response to changing demographics. This article could apply equally as well to an American city that is rapidly growing and changing. The article focuses on the sudden increasing in crimes in Malaysia, with an emphasis on the capital Kuala Lumpur. The city has always been known to be safe but recently has had a rise in crime, especially thefts and burglaries. Class conflict and strain theory are used to explain the issue, but there are clearly other issues at stake given the simultaneous rise in crimes that are violent too, such as rape and homicide. Kelly, Heather. "Hyperlocal apps help residents fight crime." CNN Tech. 14 May, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2014/05/14/tech/social-media/neighborhood-watch-apps-nextdoor/ In this article, the author discusses the use of technology to empower residents of a community in Arizona. This article shows that community residents can use a simple app on their smartphone, which they are already using, to monitor their neighborhood. It is an app that can easily transfer to other cities. The reason why I selected this article for discussion is that I believe in community policing as a viable model. Applications like this help residents feel responsible for the safety of their community, more responsive to threats, and more willing to take action. This will lead to increased citizen watch patterns, and cooperation with police. As long…

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Criminal Justice Field

Criminal Justice Field Define what an experiment is and how it is useful in the field of criminal justice research. Since the beginning of the discipline, quantitative methods have supplied the primary research methods for studying the division and causes of crime. Quantitative methods provide many ways to attain data that is useful to many facets of society. The use…

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Changes Within Criminal Justice Organization

Changes Within Criminal Justice Organization Changes within a criminal justice organization: Increased police profiling of Arab-Americans after September 11, 2001 Changes within a criminal justice organization: Increased police profiling of Arab-Americans after September 11, 2001 Accusations of racial profiling have dogged law enforcement in America since the birth of the nation. However, after the attacks upon the World Trade Center of September 11, 2001, profiling Arab-Americans by local law enforcement has become of increased concern, according to a Vera Institute of Justice study. The study "explored the changed relationship between Arab-Americans and law enforcement in the years since the 2001 terrorist attacks" (Elliott 2006, p.1). Since the attacks, Arab-Americans have viewed the police in a more adversarial fashion and are more inclined to see the police as a threat rather than a protective force in their communities. This has been due to increased perceptions that they are 'racially profiled' because of their appearance, ethnic, and religious heritage. Even though some Arabs are Christians, many report being 'profiled' as Muslims by local law enforcement officers. The need for community policing is underlined by the study's findings. Regardless of whether profiling does occur in specific instances, Arab-Americans clearly perceive that it does take place on a wide scale. It is hoped that through increased recruitment efforts, Arab-Americans will begin to see their community reflected in the faces of law enforcement officials and they will be more apt to cooperate with authorities when necessary, regarding crimes pertaining not only to terrorist-related activities, but in regards to community safety. Yet the chasm of understanding between law enforcement and Arab-American community members remains quite wide. Interviews with the Vera study participants revealed that even more so than hate crimes by citizens, Arab-Americans feared police surveillance. "While hate crimes against Arab-Americans spiked after Sept. 11, they have decreased in the years since, according to both law enforcement and Arab-American respondents" (Elliott, 2006, p.1).The study "focused upon the effects of a number of post-9/11 policies, including USA Patriot Act, voluntary interviews of thousands of Arab-Americans by federal agents, and an initiative known as Special Registration, in which more than 80,000 immigrant men were fingerprinted, photographed and questioned by authorities" (Elliott, 2006, p.1). These actions have communicated the message to Arab-Americans that they are perceived as the perpetrators of crime, rather than as potential victims or even as fellow citizens. As well as statistically-based questionnaires, the study made…

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Criminal Justice System as Entertainment Critique

Criminal Justice as Portrayed in Television Entertainment American Justice Episode #87 "Donnie Brasco" is the story of former FBI Special Agent Joe Pistone who successfully infiltrated the Bonanno crime family of the New York Mafia for six years, beginning in 1976. As a result of that long-term undercover operation, more than 200 Mafiosi were arrested, more than half of whom were eventually convicted of their crimes. To accomplish his infiltration, Special Agent Pistone exploited the friendship he established with a Bonanno family captain, Dominick "Sonny Black" Napolitano. After the operation was terminated by the FBI and the successful infiltration made public, Napolitano was killed by his former associates for having vouched for Pistone and allowing him access to the organization. The episode portrays the many criminal operations, including murders, committed by the crime family and by Napolitano, who boasted of having killed 26 people in previous years. American Justice Episode #71 "The Amy Fisher Story" concerned the case dubbed "The Long Island Lolita" by the press. In 1992, Amy Fisher was a 17-year-old high school student who had been having an affair with a much older married man named Joseph Buttafuco, the owner of a local car repair business where Fisher's father had previously had work done on his car. In May of 1992, Fisher showed up at the Buttafuco home and shot Buttafuco's wife Mary Jo Buttafuco in the head with a handgun; she survived but is disfigured today. Fisher was charged with attempted murder but was eventually allowed to plea bargain the charges down to first degree assault. Fisher served seven years in prison and was released in 1999. Joseph Buttafuco was convicted of statutory rape and only served six months for the crime upon his conviction. There was some evidence that Buttafuco may have actually orchestrated the attempt on his wife's life but that was never established at trial. Discussion The segment of the criminal justice system portrayed in Episode 87 is law enforcement and undercover investigations of organized crime. The Mafia "capo" is depicted both as a ruthless criminal who had murdered more than two dozen people but also as a loyal friend to Special Agent Pistone. Pistone described the sense of betrayal he felt at exploiting Napolitano's friendship on a personal level despite the fact that Napolitano was a ruthless criminal and a murder. The FBI is portrayed as a dedicated law enforcement organization whose…

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Criminal Justice and American Culture.

However, not all the statistics point to a disparity in every area of criminal justice toward minorities. As indicated, blacks tend to spend less time on parole than whites do, and whites do outdistance blacks in some areas of crime, like sexual and other kinds of violent assaults and batteries. In addition, there may be a problem with the way the United States collects and categorizes its criminal statistics. Author Lauritsen continues, "In the U.S., data on an arrestee's race do not allow for distinctions based on country of origin or recency of arrival" (Lauritsen, 2004). Thus, many "white" immigrants from nations such as Russia or the Middle East, or "black" immigrants from the Caribbean or India are included in the data with long time residents with established criminal activity. The terms and definitions of race and nationality also changed in the Justice Department within the last 25 years, when most of the statistics were accumulated, and so, the numbers may be skewed as the definitions were refined and additional definitions were added (for Asians and Pacific Islanders, for example). Author Lauritsen also notes that the United States is one of the only countries that tracks criminal data on the basis of race, which leads to more "white" and "black" comparisons than in any other country in the world (Lauritsen, 2004). It is interesting to note that blacks are concerned about crime more than whites are both in their own neighborhoods and in general. Two authors note, "Again, the numbers showed just how critical of an issue crime is to blacks, with some 57% of African-Americans rating crime as an 'extremely serious problem' in the United States as compared to 40% of whites" (Bobo & Thompson, 2006). They also worry more about crimes in their own communities than whites do, according to the same authors' statistics. In conclusion, the statistics indicate that in most cases, blacks are treated differently in the American criminal justice system, from how much time they spend in jail, to how they are arrested and prosecuted. There are many reasons for this, from social conditions where many minorities live and work, to their opportunities for education, advancement, and income. There also seems to be a bias in law enforcement, which may target minorities more than white criminals. In addition, there are far fewer black lawyers and judges in the system, which may also affect legal outcomes.…

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Criminal Justice - Corrections Issues Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice - Corrections Issues CRIMINAL JUSTICE ISSUES: CORRECTIONS What is the more important goal of the justice system, to control crime or to ensure justice? No single purpose defines the appropriate role of the criminal justice system in modern American society. In that respect, both crime control and justice are fundamental goals of the criminal justice system. In fact, in the larger sense, crime control is merely one isolated component of the goal of ensuring justice rather than a competing interest. However, to the extent crime control and ensuring justice are viewed as distinguishable objectives, the contemporary focus of American criminal justice is more focuses on crime prevention, despite the fact that controlling crime may also be one of the primary means of ensuring justice in many circumstances. In part, contemporary societal expectations and social mores and values have emphasized the eradication of criminal activity of all types. In addition to addressing the social consequences of specific criminal conduct motivated by malice or personal gain, modern American criminal justice recognizes the role of so-called "petty crime" and "victimless crimes" in the deterioration of society. Similarly, modern trends in American criminal justice and policing recognize the degree of harm caused by so-called "benign" conduct at the lowest end of the spectrum of criminal law. Finally, the modern trend in American criminal justice is to incorporate community values and concerns into the administration of criminal justice. Generally, community-lead (or community-inspired) criminal justice initiatives also emphasize crime control through detection, prosecution, and reduction more than ensuring justice, in principle. 2. Can we change the criminal justice system? The American criminal justice system is a constantly-changing……

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